Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 14 de 14
Filtrar
1.
Front Psychol ; 12: 657652, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122241

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way we conduct daily life, as well as sports training and sports competitions. Given the stress produced by COVID-19, and the "bubble" safety measures for the World Sambo Championship, held in Novi Sad, from the 6th to the 8th of November, 2020, athletes might have experienced more stress than athletes normally would in non-pandemic conditions. Therefore, the current study aimed to create a psychological profile of sambo athletes participating in the Sambo World Championship and living in this condition. Methods: One-hundred-fifteen participants took part in the study, completing the Profile of Mood Scale (POMS), the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. A mediation model with Fear of COVID-19 predicting both stress level directly and stress level through mood disturbance was hypothesized. Gender differences were evaluated through t-test. Results: The results showed that the sample presented higher levels of stress but no problems in sleeping. In particular, data analysis confirmed an indirect effect of Fear of COVID on Perceived stress through mood disturbance (ß = 0.14, Z = 2.80, and p = 0.005), but did not have a significant impact on the direct effect (ß = -0.04, Z = -0.48, and p = 0.63). Gender differences emerged in the perceived stress level (t = -2.86, df = 114, and p = 0.005) and daytime dysfunction (t = -2.52, df = 114, and p = 0.01) where females scored higher than males for both aspects. Conclusion: The athletes participating to the World Sambo Championship experienced stress levels determined by the mood disturbance produced by the fear of the COVID-19 pandemic. Female athletes were more stressed and showed higher daytime dysfunction. The findings of the current study are useful to understand the psychological profile of the athletes competing in the "bubble" conditions during COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil ; 13(1): 39, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid weight loss (RWL) is commonly practiced in combat sports. Both magnitude and methods used to induce RWL are largely similar among combat sports, but currently, there is no data on RWL methodology used by sambo athletes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine RWL procedures sambo athletes apply to lose weight rapidly. METHODS: The sample consisted of 199 participants, of which 132 males and 67 females who participated in the World Sambo Championship 2020 held in Novi Sad, Serbia. Each participant received RWL questionnaire that was available in multiple languages, and every participant was instructed how to fill it out. RESULTS: Almost 87% of sambo participants declared to have intentionally cut their weight prior to the competition, whereby 5.27 kg (SD: ±7.57) was lost. Gradual dieting, sauna use and skipping meals were the most dominant methods used to reduce weight prior to competition while more extreme methods of RWL such as the use of laxatives, diuretics, diet pills and vomiting were also implemented but by much smaller fragment of the participants involved. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from our study largely match with previously conducted RWL studies in terms of prevalence, magnitude and methods used by combat sport athletes, especially in judo and wrestling. Knowing the hazardous consequences of RWL, alternative methods of sustainable weight loss should be considered.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807549

RESUMO

The aim of the current study is to examine gender, age. and cross-country differences in fear of COVID-19 and sense of loneliness during the lockdown, by comparing people from those countries with a high rate of infections and deaths (e.g., Spain and Italy) and from countries with a mild spread of infection (e.g., Croatia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina). A total of 3876 participants (63% female) completed an online survey on "Everyday life practices in COVID-19 time" in April 2020, including measures of fear of COVID-19 and loneliness. Males and females of all age groups in countries suffering from the powerful impact of the COVID-19 pandemic reported greater fear of COVID-19 and sense of loneliness. In less endangered countries, females and the elderly reported more symptoms than males and the young; in Spanish and Italian samples, the pattern of differences is considerably more complex. Future research should thoroughly examine different age and gender groups. The analysis of emotional well-being in groups at risk of mental health issues may help to lessen the long term social and economic costs due to the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Solidão , Idoso , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Croácia , Surtos de Doenças , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sérvia , Eslováquia , Eslovênia , Espanha/epidemiologia
4.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(11): 2941-2952, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880736

RESUMO

Aging and menopause are associated with morphological and functional changes which may lead to loss of muscle mass and therefore quality of life. Resistance training (RT) is an effective training mode to increase muscle mass. We reviewed the existing literature to identify studies implementing RT protocols and evaluating muscle hypertrophy exclusively in healthy, postmenopausal and elderly women. Participants' age range was comprised between 50 and 80 years. The primary outcome observed was muscle hypertrophy. Fat mass was also evaluated, if available. PubMed and Web of Science were the screened database, and original articles written in English and published from 2000 up to 2020 were included. 26 articles were considered eligible and included. Quality assessment revealed a "moderate quality" of the included studies, however the majority of studies was able to reach level 4 of evidence and on overall grade of recommendation C. In total, data from 745 female participants subjected to different forms of resistance training were considered. Heterogeneity across studies was present regarding study design, intervention length (mean 16 weeks), training frequency (3 d/w), no. of exercises (n = 7.4) and participants' age (65.8 ± 4.9 years). Small-to-moderate significant increases (k = 43; SMD = 0.44; 95% CI 0.28; 0.60; p < 0.0001) of lean body mass were observed in post-menopausal and elderly women, regardless of age, intervention period, weekly training frequency and no. of exercises. No effects were noted for fat mass (k = 17; SMD = 0.27; 95% CI - 0.02; 0.55; p = 0.07). Studies need to concentrate on providing information regarding training parameters to more effectively counteract the effects of aging and menopause on skeletal muscle mass.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Pós-Menopausa , Qualidade de Vida
5.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 221: 108553, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of alcohol, drugs, inhalants, and smoking tobacco may lead to mood disorders such as depression. However, knowledge on the independent contributions of the use of these substances to the risk of depression is lacking. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 24,564 men included in the Swedish national military conscription register who were conscripted in 1969-1970 and followed until 2017. Cox proportional hazard ratios were used to estimate the risk of depression according to alcohol, drug, inhalant, and cigarette consumption, and adjusted for body mass index, verbal comprehension test scores, handgrip strength, and the other main exposures investigated. RESULTS: During an average follow-up period of 44 years, 4500 men were diagnosed with or treated for depression at a mean age of 54 years. A dose-dependent association was found in men who smoked cigarettes, with the highest risk for smoking >20 cigarettes per day, at time of conscription (aHR 1.86, 95 % CI 1.61-2.16, p < 0.001). Independent associations with an increased risk of depression were found for the use of drugs at least once (aHR 1.21, 95 % CI 1.10-1.32, p < 0.001) and >50 times (aHR 1.48, 95 % CI 1.23-1.77, p < 0.001) and the use of inhalants (aHR 1.16, 95 % CI 1.05-1.29). Excessive alcohol intake was not associated with the risk of depression. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that people who reported to have used cigarettes, alcohol, or drugs at 18 years of age have a moderately increased risk of depression later in life.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Psicotrópicos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Sports Med ; 42(6): 481-493, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440445

RESUMO

The aim of this study will be to review the current body of literature to understand the effects of stretching on the responses of the cardiovascular system. A literature search was performed using the following databases: Scopus, NLM Pubmed and ScienceDirect. Studies regarding the effects of stretching on responses of the cardiovascular system were investigated. Outcomes regarded heart rate(HR), blood pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV of which baPWV for brachial-ankle and cfPWV for carotid-femoral waveforms), heart rate variability and endothelial vascular function. Subsequently, the effects of each outcome were quantitatively synthetized using meta-analytic synthesis with random-effect models. A total of 16 studies were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis. Groups were also stratified according to cross-sectional or longitudinal stretching interventions. Quality assessment through the NHLBI tools observed a "fair-to-good" quality of the studies. The meta-analytic synthesis showed a significant effect of d=0.38 concerning HR, d=2.04 regarding baPWV and d=0.46 for cfPWV. Stretching significantly reduces arterial stiffness and HR. The qualitative description of the studies was also supported by the meta-analytic synthesis. No adverse effects were reported, after stretching, in patients affected by cardiovascular disease on blood pressure. There is a lack of studies regarding vascular adaptations to stretching.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/fisiologia , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular , Artérias Carótidas/fisiologia , Velocidade da Onda de Pulso Carótido-Femoral/métodos , Análise de Dados , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Artéria Femoral/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia
8.
Front Psychol ; 11: 601000, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192949

RESUMO

Purpose: Besides the evident positive effect on body development, physical activity has proven to boost executive functions, especially if the exercises are enriched with cognitive stimuli. Previous studies have shown that introducing challenging exercises in the physical activity routine can also enhance motivation. Therefore, enriching a physical education program with cognitively challenging exercises may also foster children's motivation during physical education classes, where the motivation is high at the beginning of the school year and low at the end of it. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to test if a sport program enriched by cognitive stimuli may improve kids' motivation or take them out from a state of amotivation along the school year. Methods: A sample of 342 school children (203 boys, 139 girls) took part in the study. Participants were asked to complete a battery of motivation and perceived social support questionnaires before and after they completed the ESA Program, a sport program enriched with cognitive stimuli. Moreover, parents of these children attended four seminars about the importance of supporting children for the practice of regular physical activity (PA). A control group consisting of children that attended the ordinary physical education school class was also included. Results: A repeated measures MANOVA model showed that the ESA Program was able to improve children's general motivation, in particular the intrinsic motivation. The program was not effective in social support, but, independently from the group, the family social support in sports activities decreased for females. Conclusion: Apart from cognitive improvement, the ESA Program can have beneficial effects on children's sports motivation in physical education, but not on perceived social support.

9.
J Aging Phys Act ; 29(1): 162-177, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788414

RESUMO

Dual-task (DT) consists of the performance of two tasks simultaneously. An index of DT difficulty has been linked to decreased postural control. Because a wide range of DT is employed, this study aimed to evaluate its effects in static balance in older adults. PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were screened, and the secondary tasks were grouped as manual, reaction time, discrimination and decision making, mental tracking, verbal fluency, working memory, or "other" tasks. A total of 66 studies have been included. The meta-analysis was conducted on 28 effects and showed a significant mean effect size of d = 0.24 (p = .02, SE = 0.10; confidence interval [0.04, 0.44]), indicating a worsening in stability during DT. In conclusion, postural control was worsened by the Stroop test and the arithmetic tasks improved it. The results do not underpin any conclusive statement on the impact of DT, and a standard operating procedure was created.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Cognição/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural , Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Caminhada/psicologia
10.
Eur J Public Health ; 30(6): 1181-1186, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The extreme social circumstances caused by declared COVID-19 pandemic deeply intervene people's everyday life and should not be neglected but seen through the view of social reality pinpointing the 'ordinary' people. In this article, authors explored basic segments of everyday and their subjective perception to what extent sleeping habits, physical inactivity, physical activity, nutritional habits and smoking have changed. METHODS: The online survey was conducted in nine European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo*, Italy, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain) in 4108 participants, aged 15-82 years. The survey took place 30-40 days after World Health Organization declared COVID-19 pandemic state, from 15 April to 3 May 2020. RESULTS: The results have shown 30 min longer sleeping time, 50% longer physical inactivity time, 65% longer screen time, 43% shorter walking time, 24% shorter sport time and 37% longer physical work time. Additionally, body mass gains (0.3 kg) could be explained in 20.6% with meals sizes, unhealthy food consumption, screen time and sport time. Further, respondents reported more regular meals (44%) and healthier meals with less alcohol consumption and less smoking, which have been positive outcomes of home confinement. CONCLUSION: The findings draw attention to negative changes in everyday praxis (inactivity, body mass gain) after such a short period. Because of possible risk to population's health (especially of countries such as Italy and Spain with serious threat and more stringent measures), findings enable development of recommendations for maintaining healthy lifestyle habits with minimal negative health consequences in similar pandemic circumstances.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Tempo de Tela , Sono , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Front Psychol ; 11: 657, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32411039

RESUMO

Purpose: The effects of physical exercise on executive functions (EFs) are well-documented. EFs are involved in daily activities, and their development determines the quality of people's future life, both in terms of mental health and quality of life. The purpose of the current paper is to evaluate the effects of a physical education program, elaborated within the Enriched Sports Activity Program (ESA Program), an Erasmus + Project, on EFs, namely, visuospatial working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and task switching. Method: Data were collected on November 2017 (t1) and May 2018 (t2). At t1, a sample of 357 children from four European countries (Italy, Germany, Lithuania, and Turkey) performed a cognitive test battery made up of Digit Span Forward/Backward, Stroop Task, and Trail Making Test (TMT), whose order was randomized. From November until May, classrooms from the experimental group followed the ESA Program, while classrooms from the control continued with the ordinary physical education class. At t2, children from both experimental and control groups performed again the cognitive battery. Result: The repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant effect of the ESA Program on the TMT B and on Digit Span Backward, but no significant effects were found on Digit Span Forward and Stroop Task. Conclusion: The introduction of a sport program enriched with cognitive stimuli has beneficial effects for children working memory and cognitive flexibility.

12.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 188, 2019 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In postural stability evaluation, the dual-task concept is often adopted in order to create a more challenging situation. The dual-task consists of performing simultaneously two tasks, a primary static or dynamic motor task and an additional secondary cognitive task. Usually, a multitask condition leads to a reduction in the postural control performance, especially in older adults. Considering the wide spectrum of secondary task conditions existing in scientific literature, the present manuscript aims to write a peer-reviewed protocol that will be used in a systematic review and meta-analysis performed to identify the effects of different secondary tasks conditions in a population of older adults during static postural stability. METHODS: The study will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and for this manuscript, the PRISMA Protocol. PICOS criteria (population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, study design) will be also followed. The population examined will be healthy older adults over 60 years of age and all quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods study design will be included. Original articles will be also included if written in English, while no restriction criteria will be applied to the country of origin. Instead, reviews, meta-analysis, abstracts, citations, scientific conferences, opinion pieces, books, books reviews, statements, letters, editorials, non-peer reviewed journals articles, and commentaries will be excluded. The research of literature will be performed using PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus with words related to the topic. From each included study, information previously agreed will be extracted and inserted into a spreadsheet and a narrative synthesis containing summary tables and graphs will describe the articles taken in examination. Furthermore, a meta-analysis will be performed to establish which DT condition has a greater effect following the Hedges and Olkin approach, extension of Glass' method and Cohen's d will be calculated. DISCUSSION: The present manuscript wants to provide the protocol that will be used in the systematic review and meta-analysis with the intent to inform the researchers and professionals about the dual-task condition effects. Such will lead future investigations in using the most appropriate dual-task condition. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018116597.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 4(4)2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467383

RESUMO

We are glad to introduce the seventeenth Journal Club. This edition is focused on several relevant studies published in the last years in the field of Overtraining and Exercise Addiction, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We hope to stimulate your curiosity in this field and to share with you the passion for the sport seen also from the scientific point of view. The Editorial Board members wish you an inspiring lecture.

14.
Eur J Psychol ; 14(1): 176-187, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899805

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to explore, through a mediation model, the relationship among self-esteem, coping strategies, and the risk of Internet addiction in a sample of 300 Italian university students. We submitted the data to a descriptive, mediational comparison between variables (t-test), and correlational statistical analyses. The results confirmed the effect of self-esteem on the risk of Internet addiction. However, we found that the introduction of coping strategies as a mediator gives rise to partial mediation. A low level of self-esteem is a predictor of avoidance-oriented coping that, in turn, affects the risk of Internet addiction.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...