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Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS ; 39(1): 28-33, 2018 Jan-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187023


Background: The association of cardiovascular risk with first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Indians has been a matter of concern with the background of a high risk in South Asians. Aims: This study aimed to compare metabolic syndrome and its components, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk among patients on first-line ART (Group 1) with age-matched, ART-naïve human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients (Group 2) and normal controls (Group 3). Methods: Patients attending a tertiary care center in Mysore were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed consent and controls were chosen from relatives of patients. Results: The total number of patients enrolled in the study was 217 (males 111; females 106), and the mean age of these patients was 34.1 ± 7.4 years. The number of patients in Group 1 (HIV+, ART experienced) was 76; in Group 2 (HIV+, ART naïve) was 71, and in Group 3 (HIV-) was 70. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between the three groups. On comparing the components of metabolic syndrome, serum triglycerides (mg/dl) were significantly higher in the ART group (Group 1: 149.5 [interquartile range (IQR): 84-187], Group 2: 108 [IQR: 74-152], and Group 3: 141.5 [IQR: 89-192]; P = 0.014) and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was higher in HIV-uninfected individuals (Group 1: 37.5 ± 11.83, Group 2: 31.5 ± 12.23, and Group 3: 40.1 ± 12.09; P = 0.0002). There was no association between metabolic syndrome, duration of HIV, and type of first-line ART. Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in the ART group. Homeostatic model assessment and Framingham scores did not reveal any significant difference across the three groups. Conclusion: HIV-infected individuals on ART had higher levels of triglycerides, LDL, and total cholesterol, but no increased cardiovascular risk compared to other groups.

J Obstet Gynaecol India ; 68(4): 253-257, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30065538


A systematic search of the literature available on the use of Levonorgestrel intra-uterine system (LNG-IUS) in women with abnormal uterine bleeding was done. This included PubMed searches up to February 2017 as well as references available with the authors. LNG-IUS usage in other situations was not included in the study. Each relevant published article was evaluated as to whether it served the purpose of this review. Available data show that LNG-IUS is certainly the one-stop answer to AUB, providing a safe and cost-effective treatment and being a substitute for hysterectomy in most women with AUB.

Infect Immun ; 86(3)2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29229732


The Gram-negative bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a causative agent of localized aggressive periodontitis. Critical to its infection process is the first and essential step of attachment, which is related to the coordinated functions of surface components comprised of proteins and extracellular polysaccharides. One such protein is the outer membrane trimeric autotransporter protein ApiA, a versatile virulence factor with numerous functions, including cell binding, invasion, serum resistance, autoaggregation, and induction of cytokine release. Here we report on the use of Escherichia coli strains expressing protein variants to define the separate functions ascribed to the N terminus and those related to the C terminus. Importantly, a hybrid protein that comprised the N terminus of trimeric ApiA and the ß-barrel domain of monomeric autotransporter Aae was constructed, which allowed the expression of a monomer surface-exposed domain of ApiA. Functional and phenotypic analyses demonstrated that the C terminus of ApiA forms an independent domain that is crucial for general stability and trimer formation, which appears to be associated with autoaggregation, biofilm formation, and surface expression. Importantly, the results show that the monomeric form of the N-terminal passenger domain of ApiA, while surface exposed, is sufficient for binding to buccal epithelial cells; however, it is not sufficient to allow aggregation and biofilm formation, strengthening the importance of the role of trimerization in these phenotypes.

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/microbiologia , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo V/química , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo V/metabolismo , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/química , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Humanos , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo V/genética
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 4(3): 244-253, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26857999


BACKGROUND: Adherence to drugs and healthy lifestyles is low after acute coronary syndrome. We assessed whether trained community health workers could improve adherence to drugs, lifestyle changes, and clinical risk markers in patients with acute coronary syndrome in India. METHODS: In this study done at 14 hospitals in India we randomly assigned (1:1) patients with acute coronary syndrome 1 or 2 days before discharge from hospital to a community health worker-based intervention group or a standard care group. Patients were randomly assigned with a telephone randomisation service. In the intervention group, during four in-hospital and two home visits, community health workers used unstructured discussions, visual methods, and patient diaries to educate patients on healthy lifestyle and drugs, and measures to enhance adherence. The primary outcome was adherence to proven secondary prevention drugs (antiplatelet drugs, ß blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins) estimated using a Composite Medication Adherence Scale at 1 year. The secondary outcomes were difference in lifestyle factors (diet, exercise, and tobacco and alcohol use), and clinical risk markers (blood pressure, bodyweight, BMI, heart rate, and lipids). All analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Clinical Trial Registry of India, number REF/2013/03/004737, and, number NCT01207700. RESULTS: Between Aug 23, 2011, and June 25, 2012, 806 participants were randomly assigned (405 to a community health worker-based intervention group and 401 to a standard care group). At 1 year, 40 patients had died and 15 had discontinued or been lost to follow-up, so 750 (93%) were included in the analyses (375 in each group). Secondary prevention drugs prescribed at discharge were 98% (786/803) for any antiplatelet drug, 79% (638/803) for dual antiplatelet drugs, 69% (555/803) for ß blockers, 69% (552/803) for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, and 95% (762/803) for statins. At one year, overall adherence (≥80%) to prescribed evidence-based drugs was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (97% vs 92%, odds ratio [OR] 2·62, 95% CI 1·32-5·19; p=0·006). For individual drugs, we recorded significant differences for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (97% [233/240] in the intervention group vs 93% [223/240] in the control group; p=0·036) and statins (97% [346/356] vs 93% [321/345]; p=0·011). The intervention group had significantly greater adherence to smoking cessation (85% [110/129] vs 52% [71/138], OR 5·46, 95% CI 3·03-9·86; p<0·0001), regular physical activity (89% [333/375] vs 60% [226/375], OR 5·23, 95% CI 3·57-7·66; p<0·0001), and healthy diet (score 5·0 vs 3·0, OR 2·47, 95% CI 1·88-3·25; p<0·0001). More patients in the intervention group had stopped alcohol use at 1 year (87% [64/74] vs 46% [46/67], OR 2·92, 95% CI 1·26-6·79; p =0·010). At 1 year, the mean systolic blood pressure (124·4 mm Hg [SD 13·5] vs 128·0 mm Hg [15·9]; p=0·002), weight (65·0 kg [11·0] vs 66·5 kg [11·5]; p<0·0001), cholesterol (157·0 [40·2] vs 166·9 [48·4]; p=0·184), LDL (81·0 [20·6] vs 87·3 [29·9]; p=0·191), HDL (42·0 [11·4] vs 38·2 [6·5]; p=0·042), and BMI (24·4 kg/m(2) [SD 3·7] vs 25·0 kg/m(2) [3·8]; p<0·0001) were lower in the intervention group than in the control group. However, we noted no significant difference in diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. INTERPRETATION: A community health worker-based personalised intervention strategy in patients with acute coronary syndrome improved adherence to evidence-based drugs and healthy lifestyles, and resulted in an improvement in clinical risk markers. Integration of trained community health workers can improve secondary prevention in coronary artery disease. FUNDING: US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, and the UnitedHealth group, USA.

Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/psicologia , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Adesão à Medicação , Prevenção Secundária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
Am Heart J ; 168(5): 690-7, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25440797


BACKGROUND: There is a need to evaluate and implement cost-effective strategies to improve adherence to treatments in coronary heart disease. There are no studies from low- to middle income countries (LMICs) evaluating trained community health worker (CHW)-based interventions for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. METHODS: We designed a hospital-based, open randomized trial of CHW-based interventions versus standard care. Patients after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were randomized to an intervention group (a CHW-based intervention package, comprising education tools to enhance self-care and adherence, and regular follow-up by the CHW) or to standard care for 12 months during which study outcomes were recorded. The CHWs were trained over a period of 6 months. The primary outcome measure was medication adherence. The secondary outcomes were differences in adherence to lifestyle modification, physiological parameters (blood pressure [BP], body weight, body mass index [BMI], heart rate, lipids), and major adverse cardiovascular events. RESULTS: We recruited 806 patients stabilized after an ACS from 14 hospitals in 13 Indian cities. The mean age was 56.4 (± 11.32) years, and 17.2% were females. A high prevalence of risk factors such as hypertension (43.4%), diabetes (31.9%), tobacco consumption (35.4%), and inadequate physical activity (70.5%) was documented. A little over half had ST-elevation myocardial infarction (53.7%), and 46.3% had non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction or unstable angina. CONCLUSION: The CHW interventions and training for SPREAD have been developed and adapted for local use. The results and experience of this study will be important to counter the burden of cardiovascular diseases in low- to middle income countries.

Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Adesão à Medicação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Autocuidado , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Índia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento