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Nature ; 571(7764): 211-218, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207603


Exhausted CD8+ T (Tex) cells in chronic infections and cancer have limited effector function, high co-expression of inhibitory receptors and extensive transcriptional changes compared with effector (Teff) or memory (Tmem) CD8+ T cells. Tex cells are important clinical targets of checkpoint blockade and other immunotherapies. Epigenetically, Tex cells are a distinct immune subset, with a unique chromatin landscape compared with Teff and Tmem cells. However, the mechanisms that govern the transcriptional and epigenetic development of Tex cells remain unknown. Here we identify the HMG-box transcription factor TOX as a central regulator of Tex cells in mice. TOX is largely dispensable for the formation of Teff and Tmem cells, but it is critical for exhaustion: in the absence of TOX, Tex cells do not form. TOX is induced by calcineurin and NFAT2, and operates in a feed-forward loop in which it becomes calcineurin-independent and sustained in Tex cells. Robust expression of TOX therefore results in commitment to Tex cells by translating persistent stimulation into a distinct Tex cell transcriptional and epigenetic developmental program.

Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Epistasia Genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Genótipo , Memória Imunológica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral
Nat Med ; 25(3): 454-461, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804515


Immunologic responses to anti-PD-1 therapy in melanoma patients occur rapidly with pharmacodynamic T cell responses detectable in blood by 3 weeks. It is unclear, however, whether these early blood-based observations translate to the tumor microenvironment. We conducted a study of neoadjuvant/adjuvant anti-PD-1 therapy in stage III/IV melanoma. We hypothesized that immune reinvigoration in the tumor would be detectable at 3 weeks and that this response would correlate with disease-free survival. We identified a rapid and potent anti-tumor response, with 8 of 27 patients experiencing a complete or major pathological response after a single dose of anti-PD-1, all of whom remain disease free. These rapid pathologic and clinical responses were associated with accumulation of exhausted CD8 T cells in the tumor at 3 weeks, with reinvigoration in the blood observed as early as 1 week. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated a pretreatment immune signature (neoadjuvant response signature) that was associated with clinical benefit. In contrast, patients with disease recurrence displayed mechanisms of resistance including immune suppression, mutational escape, and/or tumor evolution. Neoadjuvant anti-PD-1 treatment is effective in high-risk resectable stage III/IV melanoma. Pathological response and immunological analyses after a single neoadjuvant dose can be used to predict clinical outcome and to dissect underlying mechanisms in checkpoint blockade.

Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Transcriptoma , Evasão Tumoral
Oncoimmunology ; 7(10): e1468956, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288340


We report long-term clinical outcomes and immune responses observed from a phase 1 trial of agonist CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and blocking CTLA-4 mAb in patients with metastatic melanoma. Twenty-four patients previously untreated with checkpoint blockade were enrolled. The agonistic CD40 mAb CP-870,893 and the CTLA-4 blocking mAb tremelimumab were dosed concomitantly every 3 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively, across four dose combinations. Two patients developed dose-limiting grade 3 immune-mediated colitis that led to the definition of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Other immune-mediated toxicity included uveitis (n = 1), hypophysitis (n = 1), hypothyroidism (n = 2), and grade 3 cytokine release syndrome (CRS) (n = 1). The estimated MTD was 0.2 mg/kg of CP-870,893 and 10 mg/kg of tremelimumab. In 22 evaluable patients, the objective response rate (ORR) was 27.3%: two patients (9.1%) had complete responses (CR) and four (18.2%) patients had partial responses (PR). With a median follow-up of 45 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.2 months (95% CI, 1.3-5.1 months) and median overall survival (OS) was 23.6 months (95% CI, 11.7-35.5 months). Nine patients are long-term survivors (> 3 years), 8 of whom subsequently received other therapy including PD-1 mAb, surgery, or radiation therapy. Elevated baseline soluble CD25 was associated with shorter OS. Immunologically, treatment was associated with evidence of T cell activation and increased tumor T cell infiltration that was accomplished without therapeutic PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. These results suggest opportunities for immune activation and cancer immunotherapy beyond PD-1.

Br J Cancer ; 119(10): 1200-1207, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318516


BACKGROUND: We conducted a phase I trial evaluating pembrolizumab+hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) for patients with metastatic cancers. METHODS: There were two strata (12 patients each): (i) NSCLC/melanoma progressing on prior anti-PD-1 therapy, (ii) other cancer types; anti-PD-1-naive. Patients received 6 cycles of pembrolizumab, starting 1 week before HFRT. Patients had ≥2 lesions; only one was irradiated (8 Gy × 3 for first half; 17 Gy × 1 for second half in each stratum) and the other(s) followed for response. RESULTS: Of the 24 patients, 20 (83%) had treatment-related adverse events (AEs) (all grade 1 or 2). There were eight grade 3 AEs, none treatment related. There were no dose-limiting toxicities or grade 4/5 AEs. Stratum 1: two patients (of 12) with progression on prior PD-1 blockade experienced prolonged responses (9.2 and 28.1 months). Stratum 2: one patient experienced a complete response and two had prolonged stable disease (7.4 and 7.0 months). Immune profiling demonstrated that anti-PD-1 therapy and radiation induced a consistent increase in the proliferation marker Ki67 in PD-1-expressing CD8 T cells. CONCLUSIONS: HFRT was well tolerated with pembrolizumab, and in some patients with metastatic NSCLC or melanoma, it reinvigorated a systemic response despite previous progression on anti-PD-1 therapy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02303990 ( ).

Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/radioterapia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Metástase Neoplásica/radioterapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
Nature ; 545(7652): 60-65, 2017 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28397821


Despite the success of monotherapies based on blockade of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) in human melanoma, most patients do not experience durable clinical benefit. Pre-existing T-cell infiltration and/or the presence of PD-L1 in tumours may be used as indicators of clinical response; however, blood-based profiling to understand the mechanisms of PD-1 blockade has not been widely explored. Here we use immune profiling of peripheral blood from patients with stage IV melanoma before and after treatment with the PD-1-targeting antibody pembrolizumab and identify pharmacodynamic changes in circulating exhausted-phenotype CD8 T cells (Tex cells). Most of the patients demonstrated an immunological response to pembrolizumab. Clinical failure in many patients was not solely due to an inability to induce immune reinvigoration, but rather resulted from an imbalance between T-cell reinvigoration and tumour burden. The magnitude of reinvigoration of circulating Tex cells determined in relation to pretreatment tumour burden correlated with clinical response. By focused profiling of a mechanistically relevant circulating T-cell subpopulation calibrated to pretreatment disease burden, we identify a clinically accessible potential on-treatment predictor of response to PD-1 blockade.

Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Carga Tumoral/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/imunologia , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Masculino , Melanoma/irrigação sanguínea , Melanoma/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fenótipo , Resultado do Tratamento