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J Am Chem Soc ; 142(5): 2562-2571, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922408


Organic photovoltaic (OPV) efficiencies continue to rise, raising their prospects for solar energy conversion. However, researchers have long considered how to suppress the loss of free carriers by recombination-poor diffusion and significant Coulombic attraction can cause electrons and holes to encounter each other at interfaces close to where they were photogenerated. Using femtosecond transient spectroscopies, we report the nanosecond grow-in of a large transient Stark effect, caused by nanoscale electric fields of ∼487 kV/cm between photogenerated free carriers in the device active layer. We find that particular morphologies of the active layer lead to an energetic cascade for charge carriers, suppressing pathways to recombination, which is ∼2000 times less than predicted by Langevin theory. This in turn leads to the buildup of electric charge in donor and acceptor domains-away from the interface-resistant to bimolecular recombination. Interestingly, this signal is only experimentally obvious in thick films due to the different scaling of electroabsorption and photoinduced absorption signals in transient absorption spectroscopy. Rather than inhibiting device performance, we show that devices up to 600 nm thick maintain efficiencies of >8% because domains can afford much higher carrier densities. These observations suggest that with particular nanoscale morphologies the bulk heterojunction can go beyond its established role in charge photogeneration and can act as a capacitor, where adjacent free charges are held away from the interface and can be protected from bimolecular recombination.

J Mater Chem A Mater ; 4(40): 15511-15521, 2016 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28210491


Solution-processable small molecule photovoltaics based on the novel molecular donor, benzodithiophene terthiophene rhodanine (BTR), recently have shown maximum power conversion efficiencies above 8 % for active layer thicknesses up to 400 nm, using post process solvent vapor annealing (SVA) with tetrahydrofuran (THF). Here we report an in-situ study on the morphology evolution during SVA using the moderate solvent THF and the good solvent chloroform (CF). The combination of real-time grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) allows us to draw a complete picture of the evolution of crystallinity and phase purity during post process annealing. We find that the relative crystallinity compared to the as-cast films is only modestly affected by SVA and solvent choice. However, both the phase purity and the characteristic domain sizes within the film vary significantly and are controlled by the solvent quality as well as exposure time. Using THF, films with high phase purity and desirable characteristic length scales of about 30 nm can be achieved, while the use of CF rapidly leads to excessive film coarsening and less preferable domain sizes on the order of 60 nm, too large for optimized charge separation.

Beilstein J Org Chem ; 12: 2298-2314, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28144297


The synthesis of key 4-alkyl-substituted 5-(trimethylsilyl)thiophene-2-boronic acid pinacol esters 3 allowed a simplified alkylthiophene catenation process to access bis-, ter-, quater-, and quinquethiophene π-bridges for the synthesis of acceptor-π-bridge-donor- π-bridge-acceptor (A-π-D-π-A) electron donor molecules. Based on the known benzodithiophene-terthiophene-rhodanine (BTR) material, the BXR series of materials, BMR (X = M, monothiophene), BBR (X = B, bithiophene), known BTR (X = T, terthiophene), BQR (X = Q, quaterthiophene), and BPR (X = P(penta), quinquethiophene) were synthesised to examine the influence of chromophore extension on the device performance and stability for OPV applications. The BTxR (x = 4, butyl, and x = 8, octyl) series of materials were synthesised by varying the oligothiophene π-bridge alkyl substituent to examine structure-property relationships in OPV device performance. The devices assembled using electron donors with an extended chromophore (BQR and BPR) are shown to be more thermally stable than the BTR containing devices, with un-optimized efficiencies up to 9.0% PCE. BQR has been incorporated as a secondary donor in ternary blend devices with PTB7-Th resulting in high-performance OPV devices with up to 10.7% PCE.

Chem Rec ; 15(6): 1006-20, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26172212


This account describes the work of our group in the area of organic photovoltaics in the past six years. The emphasis is on our experiences in the development of the organic materials, their characterization, scale-up and application in devices. We share our insight into the relationship between synthetic methods, molecular properties, bulk material properties and device performance.

J Vis Exp ; (94)2014 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25489745


Convergent Polishing is a novel polishing system and method for finishing flat and spherical glass optics in which a workpiece, independent of its initial shape (i.e., surface figure), will converge to final surface figure with excellent surface quality under a fixed, unchanging set of polishing parameters in a single polishing iteration. In contrast, conventional full aperture polishing methods require multiple, often long, iterative cycles involving polishing, metrology and process changes to achieve the desired surface figure. The Convergent Polishing process is based on the concept of workpiece-lap height mismatch resulting in pressure differential that decreases with removal and results in the workpiece converging to the shape of the lap. The successful implementation of the Convergent Polishing process is a result of the combination of a number of technologies to remove all sources of non-uniform spatial material removal (except for workpiece-lap mismatch) for surface figure convergence and to reduce the number of rogue particles in the system for low scratch densities and low roughness. The Convergent Polishing process has been demonstrated for the fabrication of both flats and spheres of various shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios on various glass materials. The practical impact is that high quality optical components can be fabricated more rapidly, more repeatedly, with less metrology, and with less labor, resulting in lower unit costs. In this study, the Convergent Polishing protocol is specifically described for fabricating 26.5 cm square fused silica flats from a fine ground surface to a polished ~λ/2 surface figure after polishing 4 hr per surface on a 81 cm diameter polisher.

Óptica e Fotônica/métodos , Vidro/química , Óptica e Fotônica/instrumentação , Reologia/instrumentação , Reologia/métodos
Fiji Med J ; 28: 18-34, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462852


OBJECTIVE: Behavioral risk assessment is critical to developing intervention strategies to promote adolescent health, but also presents logistical, ethical, and scientific challenges. This paper reports on feasibility of a school-based study of health-risk behaviors in ethnic Fijian adolescent girls. METHODS: We assessed feasibility of school-based participation and implementation of assessment in the local vernacular language by examining observational data and by calculating response rates and as well as language selection and item completion rates. RESULTS: All invited study area schools participated (n=12). Response rates were >70% for study participation among eligible study participants in the overall sample as well as the peri-urban and rural sub-samples. The majority of respondents (71.9%) selected the local Fijian vernacular language version rather than the English version (28.1%). Although 43.6% of respondents completed a questionnaire in a language not spoken as the primary language at home, only ten respondents (1.9%) were assessed as having difficulty with the language of the self-report questionnaire. Item completion rates for the primary outcomes were >90% for both study phases and in both language versions. Study participant response rate for further assessment of concerning symptoms was also very high and teachers were successfully recruited for participation in training and accepting referrals to support these students at each participating school. CONCLUSION: School-based behavioral risk data collection in the vernacular language was feasible. Evaluation and referral of individual study participants with concerning symptoms to educators for further assistance and support also appeared feasible. We suggest that close collaboration among Fiji-based and specialty consultants to address scientific, linguistic, logistical, and ethical challenges were contributing factors to study feasibility.