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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e047296, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of chronic, lifestyle-related diseases is increasing among adults and children from low-income and middle-income countries. Despite the effectiveness of community-based interventions to address this situation, the benefits thereof may disappear in the long term, due to a lack of maintenance, especially among disadvantaged and high-risk populations. The KaziBantu randomised controlled trial conducted in 2019 consisted of two school-based health interventions, KaziKidz and KaziHealth. This study will evaluate the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of these interventions in promoting positive lifestyle changes among children and educators in disadvantaged schools in Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study has an observational, longitudinal, mixed-methods design. It will follow up educators and children from the KaziBantu study. All 160 educators enrolled in KaziHealth will be invited to participate, while the study will focus on 361 KaziKidz children (aged 10-16 years) identified as having an increased risk for non-communicable diseases. Data collection will take place 1.5 and 2 years postintervention and includes quantitative and qualitative methods, such as anthropometric measurements, clinical assessments, questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions. Analyses will encompass: prevalence of health parameters; descriptive frequencies of self-reported health behaviours and quality of life; the longitudinal association of these; extent of implementation; personal experiences with the programmes and an impact analysis based on the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance framework. DISCUSSION: In settings where resources are scarce, sustainable and effective prevention programmes are needed. The purpose of this protocol is to outline the design of a study to evaluate KaziKidz and KaziHealth under real-world conditions in terms of effectiveness, being long-lasting and becoming institutionalised. We hypothesise that a mixed-methods approach will increase understanding of the interventions' capacity to lead to sustainable favourable health outcomes amid challenging environments, thereby generating evidence for policy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN15648510.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 671782, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490179

RESUMO

Background: Physical inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are independent cardiovascular risk factors among children, but have rarely been investigated concurrently in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) and CRF of primary schoolchildren living in Côte d'Ivoire (CI), South Africa (ZA), and Tanzania (TZ), to test sex- and age-related differences, and to examine whether PA and CRF are associated with each other. Methods: Baseline data from an ongoing cluster-randomized controlled trial were used, including 499 children from CI (Taabo, 49% girls, M = 8.0 ± 1.6 years), 1,074 children from ZA (Gqeberha, 49% girls, M = 8.3 ± 1.4 years), and 593 children from TZ (Ifakara, 51% girls, M = 9.4 ± 1.7 years). PA was assessed by accelerometry and CRF by a 20 m shuttle-run test. The data were analyzed using multi-/univariate analyses of variance and mixed linear models. Results: Most children met recommendations put forward by the World Health Organization for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and achieved high CRF scores. In CI, 89.6% of the children met MVPA recommendations (boys: 91.7%, girls: 87.4%), whereas this rate was 76.9% in ZA (boys: 91.0%, girls: 62.4%), and 93.8% in TZ (boys: 95.5%, girls: 92.0%). Children from TZ had the highest CRF and MVPA levels, followed by children from CI and ZA. Boys had higher MVPA levels than girls, whereas girls engaged in more sedentary behavior. Sex differences were strongest in ZA. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were higher among older schoolchildren compared to their younger peers. Higher MVPA, but not sedentary behavior, was associated with better CRF. Conclusions: In all three settings, higher levels of MVPA were associated with higher CRF scores. Nevertheless, children living in the most urbanized setting (such as observed in ZA) were physically less active and had lower CRF than peers living in more rural areas (such as observed in CI and TZ). Particularly for girls, urbanization might increase the risk for insufficient MVPA, which may have negative effects on their CRF, thus negatively influencing health and well-being at later age.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Criança , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
3.
Virulence ; 12(1): 2037-2049, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339338

RESUMO

The prevalence of low virulence classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains makes viral eradication difficult in endemic countries. However, the determinants for natural CSFV attenuation and persistence in the field remain unidentified. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of the RNase activity of CSFV Erns in pathogenesis, immune response, persistent infection, and viral transmission in pigs. To this end, a functional cDNA clone pPdR-H30K-36U with an Erns lacking RNase activity was constructed based on the low virulence CSFV field isolate Pinar de Rio (PdR). Eighteen 5-day-old piglets were infected with vPdR-H30K-36U. Nine piglets were introduced as contacts. The vPdR-H30K-36U virus was attenuated in piglets compared to the parental vPdR-36U. Only RNA traces were detected in sera and body secretions and no virus was isolated from tonsils, showing that RNase inactivation may reduce CSFV persistence and transmissibility. The vPdR-H30K-36U mutant strongly activated the interferon-α (IFN-α) production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, while in vivo, the IFN-α response was variable, from moderate to undetectable depending on the animal. This suggests a role of the CSFV Erns RNase activity in the regulation of innate immune responses. Infection with vPdR-H30K-36U resulted in higher antibody levels against the E2 and Erns glycoproteins and in enhanced neutralizing antibody responses when compared with vPdR-36U. These results pave the way toward a better understanding of viral attenuation mechanisms of CSFV in pigs. In addition, they provide novel insights relevant for the development of DIVA vaccines in combination with diagnostic assays for efficient CSF control.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444895

RESUMO

(1) Background: Early childhood malnutrition may result in increased fat mass (FM) among school-aged children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We explored whether South African children with shorter stature have greater overall and abdominal FM compared to normal stature children. (2) Methods: Baseline assessments of body composition and weight were determined among school-aged children enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multiple linear regression models tested associations of children's height and degree of stunting with FM, fat free mass (FFM), truncal fat mass (TrFM), and truncal fat free mass (TrFFM) overall and by sex. (3) Results: A total of 1287 children (619 girls, 668 boys) were assessed at baseline. Reduced child height was associated with higher FM and lower FFM and TrFFM, but these associations were reversed with increases in height. Girls classified as mildly or moderately/severely stunted had higher FM and TrFM but lower FFM and TrFFM, while no association was found for boys. (4) Conclusions: Our study suggests that efforts to reduce the non-communicable disease burden in LMICs should target growth-impaired children who may have greater overall FM and greater abdominal FM.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Composição Corporal , Estatura , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo , Criança , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia
5.
Autism Res ; 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351051

RESUMO

The development of effective (non-pharmacological) treatment approaches for executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires evidence that factors influencing this domain can be modified by behavioral interventions. The present cross-sectional study investigated the relative associations of ASD, muscle strength and body mass index with executive function and information processing among the Healthy Brain Network cohort. Patients with ASD (N = 174) and healthy peers (N = 202) aged 5 to 18 years completed cognitive tasks of the NIH toolbox (Pattern Comparison, Flanker, List Sorting, Card Sorting) to assess core components of executive function and information processing. Additionally, anthropometrics and muscle strength were collected from selected items (push-ups, curl-ups, trunk lift, and grip strength) of the Fitnessgram battery. Based on structural equation modeling, ASD was related to impaired muscle strength and executive function, when confounders (age, sex, pubertal status, and socioeconomic status) were accounted for. Muscle strength further showed independent contributions to information processing and executive function. This association was moderated by ASD, so that higher muscle strength was related to higher executive function in ASD patients only. The present findings provide a first indication that the promotion of muscle strength may have the potential to generally enhance information processing and to reduce ASD-related executive dysfunction in children and adolescents. LAY SUMMARY: In comparison to healthy peers, children with ASD showed impairments in executive function and muscle strength. Moreover, higher muscle strength was independently associated with better executive function, but only in ASD patients. This is a first indication that the promotion of muscle strength, for example, by regular exercise, could contribute to a reduction of ASD-related executive dysfunction.

6.
J Sports Sci ; : 1-14, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334121

RESUMO

Childhood hypertension drives hypertension in later life; hence, assessing blood pressure in children is an important measure to determine current and future cardiovascular health. There is, however, a paucity of childhood blood pressure data, particularly for sub-Saharan Africa. This study explores blood pressure and associations with age, sex, socioeconomic status, physical activity, fitness, and cardiovascular risk markers. In the 'Disease, Activity and Schoolchildren's Health' (DASH) study, a cross-sectional analysis was conducted in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Assessments included blood pressure, accelerometer-measured physical activity, physical fitness, and cardiovascular risk markers. The study consisted of 785 children (383 boys, 402 girls, M = 12.4±0.9 years). Overall, 18% of the children were classified as hypertensive, while 20% were either overweight/obese, and almost four out of ten children did not meet global daily physical activity recommendations. Hypertensive children were more likely to be overweight/obese, χ2 (2,785) = 14.42, p < 0.01, but only if they did not meet physical activity recommendations, χ2 (2,295) = 11.93, p < 0.01. Considering the moderating effect which sufficient activity has on the relationship between hypertension and body weight, more emphasis should be placed on early primary health intervention and education strategies.

7.
Br J Educ Psychol ; : e12445, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that adolescents' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with less off-task behaviour in the classroom. However, the contribution of cognitive functions to this relation still remains unclear. Executive function and aspects of social cognition, which appear to be correlated with MVPA, have been found to determine academic behaviours. AIM: This study examines the direct association between MVPA and off-task behaviour as well as mediations by different cognitive domains. SAMPLE: Forty-six-male and 67-female adolescents aged 13.0 ± 1.3 years were recruited from local schools. METHODS: Participants recalled their MVPA. Using video cameras, their classroom behaviours were recorded and a 6-min period was rated for off-task behaviour. Additionally, participants completed a modified Flanker task, which assessed both inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility, a Sternberg paradigm, which assessed working memory, and an Emotion Recognition task. RESULTS: Path-analyses revealed that higher MVPA was associated with less off-task behaviour. Inhibitory control accounted for a partial mediation of this association. The mediating role of inhibitory control was most pronounced for the relation between MVPA and off-task behaviours related to noise. CONCLUSION: These findings provide a first indication that curricular and extracurricular physical activities targeting specific improvements in inhibitory control may promise transfer effects to classroom behaviours.

8.
Sleep ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255075

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Insomnia increases the risk of negative disease trajectory, relapse, and suicide in patients with depression. We aimed at investigating the effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise, performed after 2 pm, on the subsequent night's sleep in patients with depression. METHODS: The study was designed as a two-arm parallel-group, randomized, outcome assessor-blinded, controlled, superiority trial. Patients between 18 and 65 years of age with a primary diagnosis of unipolar depression were included. The intervention was a single 30-minute bout of moderate aerobic exercise. The control group sat and read for 30 minutes. The primary outcome was sleep efficiency measured by polysomnography. Secondary outcomes were other polysomnographic variables, subjective sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, mood states, and adverse events. RESULTS: 92 patients were randomized to the exercise (N = 46) or control group (N = 46). There were no clinically relevant differences at baseline. Intent-to-treat analysis ANCOVA of follow-up sleep efficiency, adjusted for baseline levels and minimization factors, did not detect a significant effect of the allocation (ß = -0.93, p = 0.59). There was no evidence for significant differences between both groups in any other objective or subjective sleep outcomes, daytime sleepiness, or adverse events. The intervention had an immediate positive effect on mood states, including depressiveness (ß= -0.40, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first trial to study the effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on sleep in patients with depression to the best of our knowledge. Aerobic exercise had no effect on sleep efficiency but had a strong beneficial effect on mood and did not increase adverse outcomes. These results add to the growing body of evidence that, contrary to sleep hygiene recommendations, exercise after 2 pm is not detrimental for sleep.

9.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(8): 1648-1655, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261995

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although exercise is suggested to benefit inhibitory control in children and adolescents, the current evidence is limited to exercise-induced improvements for its interference control subtype. In contrast, the potential of exercise to facilitate response inhibition still remains unclear. However, the neurocognitive profile of martial arts athletes suggests that this sports category promises benefits for cognitive control processes related to response inhibition. The present randomized controlled trial therefore examined the effects of judo on behavioral and neurocognitive indices of response inhibition (N2, P3a, P3b) in preadolescent children. METHODS: Participants (N = 44) were randomly allocated to a martial arts group, who completed 120-min judo per week over 3 months, and a wait-list control group. At baseline and follow-up, participants completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 and a physical work capacity test on a bicycle ergometer at 170 bpm (PWC170). In addition, a computerized Go/NoGo task with simultaneous electroencephalographic recordings was administered. RESULTS: In the martial arts group, a greater decrease in NoGo error rate and a higher increase in NoGo N2 amplitude were found in comparison to the control group. These behavioral and neurocognitive changes were correlated. In contrast to N2, the P3a/b amplitude, Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2, and physical work capacity test at 170 bpm did not change differently between groups over the intervention period. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicate that judo promises benefits for response inhibition that are independent of alterations in motor skills and cardiorespiratory fitness. A change toward more effective conflict monitoring seems to underlie this improvement in cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Cognição , Inibição Psicológica , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Destreza Motora , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Suíça
10.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-12, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known whether physical activity (PA)-promoting environments are equally accessible to children with divergent socioeconomic status (SES) in low-/middle-income countries. The authors, therefore, examined whether South African children from poorer versus wealthier families living in marginalized communities differed in moderate to vigorous PA and cardiorespiratory fitness. We also tested associations between family car ownership and PA/cardiorespiratory fitness. METHODS: Parents/guardians of 908 children (49% girls, mean age = 8.3 [1.4] y) completed a survey on household SES. PA was assessed via 7-day accelerometry, parental and child self-reports, and cardiorespiratory fitness with the 20-m shuttle run test. RESULTS: Based on accelerometry, most children met current moderate to vigorous PA recommendations (≥60 min/d). About 73% of the children did not engage in structured physical education lessons. Whereas children of the lowest SES quintile accumulated higher levels of device-based moderate to vigorous PA, peers from the highest SES quintile engaged in more sedentary behaviors, but self-reported higher engagement in sports, dance, and moving games after school. Families' car ownership was associated with higher parent/self-reported leisure-time PA. CONCLUSIONS: A deeper understanding is needed about why wealthier children are more sedentary, but simultaneously engage in more leisure-time PA. The fact that access to structural physical education is denied to most children is critical and needs to be addressed.

11.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 127: 514-519, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991545

RESUMO

Exercise is an integral part of children's lives, and research in educational settings has found that regular engagement promises improvements in executive function (i.e. top-down control of goal-directed behavior). Based on recent advances in understanding the moderators and the neurocognitive mechanisms of these effects, we highlight a potential application of exercise in the treatment of executive dysfunction. Even though different neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by a heterogeneity in core symptoms, children affected by these disorders often face common executive function deficits. So far, exercise has not been recognized as an alternative or additional treatment for this specific cognitive impairment. The limited experimental evidence in children with neurodevelopmental disorders provides a first indication that regular exercise engagement benefits executive function. However, we identified key research questions that need to be answered before a prescription of exercise to children with executive dysfunction can be encouraged in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Criança , Função Executiva , Exercício Físico , Humanos
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 852, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular fitness has been associated with both executive function and academic achievement in multiple cohort studies including children and adolescents. However, research is scarce among children from low- and middle-income countries. Hence, this paper focuses on South African primary schoolchildren living in marginalized areas and examines if academic achievement and inhibitory control can be explained by children's age, socioeconomic status, soil-transmitted helminth infections, food insecurity, stunting, grip strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness. METHODS: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 1277 children (48% girls, mean age: 8.3 years). Data were assessed via questionnaires, stool samples, anthropometric measurements, 20 m shuttle run test, grip strength test, Flanker task, and school grades. Data were analysed with mixed linear regression models with random intercepts for school classes, separately for boys and girls. RESULTS: Higher socioeconomic status was most closely associated with academic achievement among boys (p < 0.05), whereas higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and not being stunted explained most variance in academic achievement in girls (p < 0.05). Higher age turned out to be associated with better performance in the Flanker task (p < 0.01). Additionally, in boys, higher grip strength was associated with better information processing and inhibitory control of attention (p < 0.01), whereas in girls, higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels were positively associated with these cognitive abilities (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Academic performance has been shown to be compromised in schoolchildren living in marginalised areas, compared to schoolchildren in less disadvantaged parts of South Africa. The present study suggests that cardiorespiratory fitness and grip strength are two potentially modifiable factors that are associated with children's academic achievement and cognitive performance, and that should be targeted in future school-based interventions.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Helmintos , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Aptidão Física , Solo , África do Sul/epidemiologia
13.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 49: 100956, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894678

RESUMO

The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying executive function deficits in very preterm born children still remain unclear. Moreover, evidence on factors that can be modified by behavior and exert an influence on these deficits is lacking. The present case-control study examined the association between very preterm birth and neurophysiological indices of response inhibition (i.e. the N200-P300 complex) as well as the potential mediation of this association by aspects of physical fitness. 54 children born very preterm completed a submaximal cycling ergometer test and a motor skill test battery. Event-related potentials elicited by a Go/NoGo task were recorded using electroencephalography. Cases were then matched to full-term children (age: 11 ± 0.7 y). A higher error rate on NoGo trials was found in children born very preterm compared to those born full-term. Path-analyses further revealed that very preterm birth was associated with decreased NoGo P300 amplitude. Motor skills, but not aerobic fitness, fully mediated this association. In early adolescence, very preterm birth is associated with less effective recruitment of attentional resources for stimulus evaluation processes. The improvement of motor skills rather than cardiorespiratory fitness appears promising for reducing this specific impairment in cognitive control.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923436

RESUMO

Childhood stunting can have negative long-term consequences on cognitive development, academic achievement, and economic productivity later in life. We determined the prevalence of stunting and examined whether stunting and associated risk factors (low dietary diversity, insufficient hemoglobin, food insecurity, and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections) are associated with academic achievement and cognitive function among South African children living in marginalized communities. A cross-sectional sample of 1277 children (aged 5-12 years) was analyzed. Stunting was defined according to 2007 WHO growth references. Cognitive functioning was measured with the computerized Flanker task and academic performance via school grades. Blood and stool samples were collected to obtain hemoglobin level and STH infection. Dietary diversity was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were examined via mixed linear regression (with school class as a random intercept). Nine percent of the children were stunted (95% CI: 7.6-10.8%). Low dietary diversity (ß = 0.13, p = 0.004), food insecurity (ß = -0.12, p = 0.034), and stunting (ß = -0.13, p = 0.031) were associated with poorer end of the year results among girls. No such associations were found among boys. No significant associations were found for socioeconomic status and hemoglobin levels. The prevalence of stunting and STH infections were low in the present sample. Risk factors seem differently associated with girls' and boys' academic achievement. Promoting nutrition may help to promote academic achievement among girls living in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas
15.
Brain Sci ; 11(4)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805073

RESUMO

(1) Background: While the antidepressant effects of aerobic exercise (AE) are well documented, fewer studies have examined impact of AE as an add-on treatment. Moreover, various effects on neurobiological variables have been suggested. This study examines effects of AE on Cortisol Awakening Reaction (CAR), serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (sBDNF), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and sleep. (2) Methods: Inpatients with moderate-to-severe depression (N = 43) were randomly assigned to the AE or stretching condition (active control) taking place 3x/week for 6 weeks. CAR, sBDNF and TNF-alpha were assessed at baseline, after 2 weeks and post-intervention. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS17), subjective sleep quality measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and polysomnography (PSG) were obtained at baseline and post-intervention. (3) Results: Stress axis activity decreased in both groups from baseline to post-intervention. sBDNF showed a significant increase over time, whereas the number of awakenings significantly decreased. No significant time by group interactions were detected for any of the study variables. Correlational analyses showed that higher improvements in maximum oxygen capacity (VO2max) from baseline to post-intervention were associated with reduced scores on the HDRS17, PSQI and REM-latency post-intervention. (4) Conclusions: While some neurobiological variables improved during inpatient treatment (CAR, sBDNF), no evidence was found for differential effects between AE and an active control condition (stretching). However, patients in which cardiorespiratory fitness increased showed higher improvements in depression severity and depression-related sleep-parameters.

16.
J Sports Sci ; 39(16): 1903-1909, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787463

RESUMO

Dual process theories suggest that the decision to be physically active is influenced by reflective and automatic processes. However, associations of automatic (affective) evaluations of exercise with physical activity and underlying basic motor competencies have not yet been investigated in children and young adolescents. Ninety-one participants (52 male; age: 10-14 years) were recruited from academic high schools in Germany and Switzerland. Automatic evaluations of exercise were measured with the Single-Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT) and a D-score was calculated. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) per day were determined via wrist-worn actigraphy over the course of seven days. Basic motor competencies were measured using the MOBAK-5 test battery. Pearson correlations showed non-significant associations of automatic evaluations of exercise with MVPA, but significant associations with VPA. Basic motor competencies were associated with automatic evaluations of exercise, and the MOBAK subscale of object movement was associated with both MVPA and VPA. Our results underscore the relevance of affective processes for physical activity behaviour. This could potentially be relevant for interventions targeting physical activity promotion. Longitudinal investigations and intervention studies are necessary to verify causal relationships and potential underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Actigrafia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Suíça
17.
Sleep Med Rev ; 59: 101452, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667885

RESUMO

Insomnia predicts the onset, course, and reoccurrence of unipolar depression. However, systematic reviews of treatment options for insomnia in unipolar depression are lacking. After screening 7725 records, 17 trials comprising 1645 patients randomized to 13 treatments were included for quantitative synthesis. Network meta-analysis showed that compared to a passive control condition, all exercise interventions except moderate aerobic exercise alone resulted in significantly better sleep outcomes. Compared with treatment as usual, mind-body exercise plus treatment as usual (SMD: -0.46; 95% CI: -0.80, -0.12) and vigorous strength exercise (SMD: -0.61; 95% CI: -1.12, -0.10) were significantly more effective. Pairwise meta-analyses showed that mind-body exercise (SMD: -0.54; 95% CI: -0.85, -0.23) had beneficial effects compared to passive control. The network meta-analysis is statistically very robust with low heterogeneity, incoherence, and indirectness. However, confidence in the findings was moderate to very low, primarily due to within-study bias. This is the first network meta-analysis to assess exercise's efficacy to improve sleep quality in patients with depression. The findings confirm the benefits of exercise as an add-on treatment for depression. This consolidation of the current state of evidence can help clinicians make evidence-based decisions.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669905

RESUMO

The coexistence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors has been reported in school-aged children from the age of nine years, but most evidence stems from high-income countries. This cross-sectional study aimed at describing the cardiovascular health risk, physical activity (PA) behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) levels of South African primary schoolchildren, and at examining the associations between PA/CRF and a composite measure of cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional data from 832 primary schoolchildren (grade 1-4) were analyzed. Total cholesterol/HDL ratio, triglycerides, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, body fat, and glycated hemoglobin were assessed as cardiovascular risk markers. Data were analyzed via mixed linear regressions and analyses of covariance. Overall, 24.2% of the participants did not meet current PA standards. Higher CRF/PA were associated with lower body fat and lower clustered cardiovascular risk (p < 0.05). When categorizing children into CRF/PA quartiles, a lower clustered cardiovascular risk gradient was found in children with higher CRF (p < 0.05) or PA (p < 0.05). Our data shows that higher CRF/PA is associated with lower clustered cardiovascular risk already from a young age. Given that clustered cardiovascular risk present during childhood can track into adulthood, we advocate for PA participation and a healthy weight from a young age onwards.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Aptidão Física , Fatores de Risco , Populações Vulneráveis
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579022

RESUMO

This study examined whether physical activity is associated with better mental health and well-being among very preterm (≤32 weeks) and term born (≥37 weeks) adolescents alike or whether the associations are stronger in either of the groups. Physical activity was measured with accelerometry in children born very preterm and at term in two cohorts, the Basel Study of Preterm Children (BSPC; 40 adolescents born ≤32 weeks of gestation and 59 term born controls aged 12.3 years) and the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS; 45 adolescents born ≤32 weeks of gestation and 3137 term born controls aged 14.2 years on average). In both cohorts, emotional and behavioral problems were mother-reported using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Subjective well-being was self-reported using the Kidscreen-52 Questionnaire in the BSPC and single items in the MCS. Hierarchical regressions with 'preterm status × physical activity'-interaction effects were subjected to individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis. IPD meta-analysis showed that higher levels of physical activity were associated with lower levels of peer problems, and higher levels of psychological well-being, better self-perception/body image, and school related well-being. Overall, the effect-sizes were small and the associations did not differ significantly between very preterm and term born adolescents. Future research may examine the mechanisms behind effects of physical activity on mental health and wellbeing in adolescence as well as which type of physical activity might be most beneficial for term and preterm born children.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Saúde Mental , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
20.
J Sport Health Sci ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that sports participation promotes the development of inhibitory control, but the influences of the sports category and inhibition type still remain unclear. The categorization of sports based on the open-skill (externally paced) and closed-skill (self-paced) continuum allows for the integration of the environment as a factor contributing to sports-related benefits for inhibitory control. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from different studies were combined (n = 184) to examine the association between open- and closed-skill sports and cognitive control processes related to interference control and response inhibition. Participants (aged 9-14 years) filled in 7-day physical activity recall protocols and completed a Stroop Color-Word or a Go/NoGo task. The N200, N450, and P300 components of event-related potentials elicited by these tasks were recorded using electroencephalography. RESULTS: Partial correlations supported the belief that time spent in open-skill sports is related to higher performance on inhibition trials. Additionally, path analyses revealed an association between this sports type and a greater negativity in the N200 and N450 amplitudes in both the full sample and group-level analyses. In contrast, no relation was found between sports type and P300 amplitude. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that only the engagement in open-skill sports is associated with more effective conflict monitoring and higher performance on tasks demanding inhibitory control.

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