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1.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168104

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Physical exercise is increasingly being promoted by healthcare for chronic pain conditions with beneficial outcomes such as: pain and fatigue reduction, and increased quality of life. Nevertheless, knowledge about biochemical consequences of physical exercise in chronic pain is still relatively poor.The endocannabinoid system has been suggested to play a role for acute exercise-induced reward and pain inhibition. The aim of this study is to investigate the chronic outcomes of resistance exercise on levels of endocannabinoids and related lipids in fibromyalgia (FM). METHODS: This study examine the outcomes of a 15-week person-centered resistance exercise program on plasma levels of the lipid mediators; anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and stearoylethanolamide (SEA) sampled from 37 women with FM and 33 healthy controls. The associations between clinical scorings of pain, depression, anxiety, fatigue, and muscle strength with levels of these lipid mediators before and after the exercise program are also analysed. RESULTS: After the 15 weeks exercise program anandamide levels were significantly increased and SEA levels significantly decreased in FM. Pain intensity and depression scorings decreased and muscle strength increased, and in a multivariate context muscle strength was positively associated with 2-AG levels after the resistance exercise program in FM. CONCLUSIONS: The increased anandamide and decreased SEA in women with fibromyalgia after the 15 weeks program might point to a chronic effect of resistance exercise. Pain and depression scorings decreased in the fibromyalgia group after the program but no associations between pain, depression and lipid level changes were assured.

2.
J Rehabil Med ; 52(2): jrm00023, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the outcomes 1 year after multimodal rehabilitation programmes in primary care for patients with chronic pain, both as a whole and for men and women separately. A second aim was to identify predictive factors for not being on sickness absence at follow-up after 1 year. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal cohort study of 234 patients, 34 men and 200 women, age range 18-65 years, who participated in multimodal rehabilitation programmes in primary care in 2 Swedish county councils. Pain, physical and emotional functioning, coping, health-related quality of life, work-related factors, sickness absence (sick leave, sickness compensation/disability pension) were evaluated prior to and 1 year after multimodal rehabilitation programmes. RESULTS: Patients showed significant improvements at 1-year follow-up for all measures (all p ≤ 0.004) except satisfaction with vocation (p = 0.060). The proportion of patients on sick leave decreased significantly at follow-up (p = 0.027), while there was no significant difference regarding the proportion of patients on sickness compensation/disability pension (p = 0.087). Higher self-rated work ability was associated with not being on sickness absence at 1-year follow-up (odds ratio (OR) 1.19, confidence interval (CI) 1.21-1.06, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that multimodal rehabilitation programmes in primary care could be beneficial for patients with chronic pain, since the outcomes at 1-year follow-up for pain, physical and emotional functioning, coping, and health-related quality of life were positive. However, the effect sizes were small and thus further development of multimodal rehabilitation programmes is warranted in order to improve the outcomes.

3.
J Rehabil Med ; 52(2): jrm00019, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate prognostic factors for physical and emotional functioning following interdisciplinary multimodal pain rehabilitation, by targeting patients' baseline characteristics and health measures. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 2,876 patients from 38 specialist clinics across Sweden, who were completing interdisciplinary multimodal pain rehabilitation programmes, was followed through the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation, from initial assessment to 12-month follow-up. Using logistic regression, baseline data were regressed to predict improvement in Physical functioning and Emotional functioning, fused by principal component analyses using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: Employment status emerged as having the largest effect sizes in both Physical functioning and Emotional functioning; Working: odds ratio (OR) 2.05 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.64-2.56) and OR 1.59 (95% CI 1.27-1.98), respectively. Strong beliefs in restored health, better initial emotional health, lower levels of pain and pain interference, and younger age all predicted Physical functioning. European origin, higher levels of general activity, and sense of life control all predicted Emotional functioning. Worse initial physical and emotional health predicted the corresponding dependent outcomes. CONCLUSION: Employment was consistently found to be an important prognostic factor, suggesting the significance of avoiding delay in interdisciplinary multimodal pain rehabilitation. A positive treatment expectancy was of importance. In general, multidimensional measures indicated that better initial status was more favourable; however, inconsistency implies a complex prognostic picture.

4.
Pain ; 161(1): 83-95, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568237

RESUMO

Recent research has highlighted a need for the psychometric evaluation of instruments targeting core domains of the pain experience in chronic pain populations. In this study, the measurement properties of Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36),EuroQol 5-dimensions (EQ-5D) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were analyzed within the item response-theory framework based on data from 35,908 patients. To assess the structural validity of these instruments, the empirical representations of several conceptually substantiated latent structures were compared in a cross-validation procedure. The most structurally sound representations were selected from each questionnaire and their internal consistency reliability computed as a summary of their precision. Finally, questionnaire scores were correlated with each other to evaluate their convergent and discriminant validity. Our results supported that SF-36 is an acceptable measure of 2 independent constructs of physical and mental health. By contrast, although the approach to summarize the health-related quality of life construct of EQ-5D as a unidimensional score was valid, its low reliability rendered practical model implementation of doubtful utility. Finally, rather than being separated into 2 subscales of anxiety and depression, HADS was a valid and reliable measure of overall emotional distress. In support of convergent and discriminant validity, correlations between questionnaires showed that theoretically similar traits were highly associated, whereas unrelated traits were not. Our models can be applied to score SF-36 and HADS in chronic pain patients, but we recommend against using the EQ-5D model due to its low reliability. These results are useful for researchers and clinicians involved in chronic pain populations because questionnaires' properties determine their discriminating ability in patient status assessment.

5.
J Pain Res ; 12: 2875-2889, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686904

RESUMO

Objective: Neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia are two common and poorly understood chronic pain conditions that lack satisfactory treatments, cause substantial suffering and societal costs. Today, there are no biological markers on which to base chronic pain diagnoses, treatment choices or to understand the pathophysiology of pain for the individual patient. This study aimed to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein profiles potentially associated with fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain. Methods: CSF samples were collected from 25 patients with neuropathic pain (two independent sets, n=14 patients for discovery, and n=11 for verification), 40 patients with fibromyalgia and 134 controls without neurological disease from two different populations. CSF protein profiling of 55 proteins was performed using antibody suspension bead array technology. Results: We found increased levels of apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1) in CSF of neuropathic pain patients compared to controls and there was a trend for increased levels also in fibromyalgia patients. In addition, levels of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase family member 2 (ENPP2, also referred to as autotaxin) were increased in the CSF of fibromyalgia patients compared to all other groups including patients with neuropathic pain. Conclusion: The increased levels of APOC1 and ENPP2 found in neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia patients may shed light on the underlying mechanisms of these conditions. Further investigation is required to elucidate their role in maintaining pain and other main symptoms of these disorders.

6.
Scand J Pain ; 20(1): 125-138, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584875

RESUMO

It has been suggested that alterations in inflammation molecules maintain chronic pain although little is known about how these factors influence homeostatic and inflammatory events in common chronic pain conditions. Nonpharmacological interventions might be associated with alterations in inflammation markers in blood. This study of patients with chronic pain investigates whether an interdisciplinary multimodal rehabilitation program (IMMRP) was associated with significant alterations in the plasma pattern of 68 cytokines/chemokines 1 year after rehabilitation and whether such changes were associated with clinical changes. Blood samples and self-reports of pain, psychological distress, and physical activity of 25 complex chronic pain patients were collected pre-IMMRP and at 12-month follow-up. Analyses of inflammatory proteins (cytokines/chemokines/growth factors) were performed directly in plasma using the multiplex immunoassay technology Meso Scale Discovery. This explorative pilot study found that 12 substances, mainly pro-inflammatory, decreased after IMMRP. In two other relatively small IMMRP studies, four of these proinflammatory markers were also associated with decreases. The pattern of cytokines/chemokines pre-IMMRP was associated with changes in psychological distress but not with pain or physical activity. The present study cannot impute cause and effect. These results together with the results of the two previous IMMRP studies suggest that there is a need for larger and more strictly controlled studies of IMMRP with respect to inflammatory markers in blood. Such studies need to consider responders/non-responders, additional therapies, involved pain mechanisms and diagnoses. This and the two other studies open up for developing biologically measurable outcomes from plasma. Such biomarkers will be an important tool for further development of IMMRP and possibly other treatments for patients w ith chronic pain.

7.
J Rehabil Med ; 51(10): 779-787, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of fibromyalgia includes central and peripheral factors. Neurotrophins, such as nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, are involved in peripheral and central nervous system development of pain and hyperalgesia. Few studies have examined circulating nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in fibromyalgia or have investigated whether exercise interventions affect the levels of these peptides. OBJECTIVES: To compare plasma levels of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in fibromy-algia and in healthy controls, to investigate correlations between levels of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and cytokines and clinical variables, and to investigate the effect of exercise on these levels. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 75 women with fibromyalgia participated in blood tests at baseline and after the 15-week intervention, and 25 healthy controls participated at baseline. Patients were randomized to a 15-week progressive resistance exercise intervention or a relaxation intervention. RESULTS: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor level was significantly higher (p < 0.001) and nerve growth factor level was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in fibromyalgia than in healthy controls. Neither resistance exercise nor relaxation interventions affected the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor or nerve growth factor. No significant correlations were found between brain-derived neurotrophic factor or nerve growth factor plasma levels in fibromyalgia and cytokine levels or clinical variables. CONCLUSION: Changes in circulating nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels may affect nociception/pain in fibromyalgia. Clinical improvements were achieved following the exercise intervention, but the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor were not normalized.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Fibromialgia , Fator de Crescimento Neural/sangue , Treinamento de Resistência , Feminino , Fibromialgia/sangue , Fibromialgia/terapia , Humanos
8.
Pain ; 160(8): 1708-1718, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335641

RESUMO

The comorbidity between chronic pain and emotional problems has proven difficult to address with current treatment options. This study addresses the efficacy of a transdiagnostic emotion-focused exposure treatment ("hybrid") for chronic pain patients with comorbid emotional problems. Adults (n = 115) with chronic musculoskeletal pain and functional and emotional problems were included in a 2-centre, parallel randomized controlled, open-label trial comparing this treatment to an active control condition receiving a guided Internet-delivered pain management treatment based on CBT principles (iCBT). The hybrid treatment (n = 58, 10-16 sessions) integrates exposure in vivo for chronic pain based on the fear-avoidance model with an emotion-regulation approach informed by procedures in Dialectical Behavior Therapy. The iCBT (n = 57; 8 treatment modules) addresses topics such as pain education, coping strategies, relaxation, problem solving, stress, and sleep management using standard CBT techniques. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed before and after treatment as well as at a 9-month primary end point. Across conditions, 78% participants completed post-treatment and 81% follow-up assessment. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that the hybrid had a significantly better post-treatment outcome on pain catastrophizing (d = 0.39) and pain interference (d = 0.63) and significantly better follow-up outcomes on depression (d = 0.43) and pain interference (d = 0.51). There were no differences on anxiety and pain intensity. Observed proportions of clinically significant improvement favoured the hybrid on all but one comparison, but no statistically significant differences were observed. We conclude that the hybrid emotion-focused treatment may be considered an acceptable, credible, and efficacious treatment option for chronic pain patients with comorbid emotional problems.

9.
Eur J Pain ; 23(10): 1839-1849, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Throughout the world many people have both obesity and chronic pain, comorbidities that decrease Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). It is uncertain whether patients with comorbid obesity can maintain improved HRQoL after Interdisciplinary Multimodal Pain Rehabilitation (IMMPR). METHODS: Data from 2016, 2017, and 2018 were obtained from a national pain database for Swedish specialized pain clinics and collected at three time points: Pre-IMMPR; Post- IMMPR; and 12-month follow-up (FU-IMMPR). Participants (N = 872) reported body weight, height, pain aspects, and HRQoL (RAND 36-Item Health Survey). Severe obesity (Body Mass Index, BMI ≥35 kg/m2 ) was defined according to WHO classifications. We used linear mixed regression models to examine BMI group differences in HRQoL over time. RESULTS: More than 25% of patients (224/872) were obese and nearly 30% (63/224) of these were severely obese. All BMI groups improved significantly in both physical and mental composites of HRQoL after IMMPR (Pre- vs. Post-IMMPR, p < .001). The improvements were maintained at a 12-month follow-up (Post- vs. FU-IMMPR, p > .05). The severe obesity group had the lowest physical health score and least improvement (pre- vs. FU-IMMPR, Cohen's d = o.422, small effect size). Severe obesity had negative impact on physical health (ß = -4.39, p < .05) after controlling for sociodemographic factors and pain aspects. CONCLUSION: Improvements in HRQoL after IMMPR were achieved and maintained across all weights, including patients with comorbid obesity. Only severe obesity was negatively associated with physical health aspects of HRQoL. SIGNIFICANCE: Patients with chronic pain and comorbid obesity achieve sustained Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) improvements from Interdisciplinary Multimodal Pain Rehabilitation (IMMPR). This finding suggests that rehabilitation professionals should consider using IMMPR for patients with comorbid obesity even though their improvement may not reach the same level as for non-obese patients.

10.
J Clin Med ; 8(6)2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238588

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated the real-life outcomes of interdisciplinary multimodal pain rehabilitation programs (IMMRP) for chronic pain. This study has four aims: investigate effect sizes (ES); analyse correlation patterns of outcome changes; define a multivariate outcome measure; and investigate whether the clinical self-reported presentation pre-IMMRP predicts the multivariate outcome. To this end, this study analysed chronic pain patients in specialist care included in the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation for 22 outcomes (pain, psychological distress, participation, and health) on three occasions: pre-IMMRP, post-IMMRP, and 12-month follow-up. Moderate stable ES were demonstrated for pain intensity, interference in daily life, vitality, and health; most other outcomes showed small ES. Using a Multivariate Improvement Score (MIS), we identified three clusters. Cluster 1 had marked positive MIS and was associated with the overall worst situation pre-IMMRP. However, the pre-IMMRP situation could only predict 8% of the variation in MIS. Specialist care IMPRPs showed moderate ES for pain, interference, vitality, and health. Outcomes were best for patients with the worst clinical presentation pre-IMMRP. It was not possible to predict who would clinically benefit most from IMMRP.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248097

RESUMO

We investigated the time-based associations between workload (physical and mechanical), psychosocial work stressors (demands, control, and support), and the number of anatomical regions with pain (ARP). This population-based study with a two-year follow-up included 11,386 responders (5125 men, 6261 women; mean age: 48.8 years; SD: 18.5) living in south-eastern Sweden. Predictive associations were assessed through generalised linear models, and changes over time were examined using a generalised estimating equation. The results of both models were reported as parameter estimates (B) with 95% confidence interval (CIs). Mean changes in the number of ARP, workload, and psychosocial work stressors were stable over time. High mechanical workload and job demands were likely associated with the number of ARP at the two-year follow-up. In the reverse prospective model, we found that the number of ARP was also associated with high physical and mechanical workload and low job control and support. In the two time-based models of changes, we found a reciprocal association between number of ARP and mechanical workload. Our results add epidemiological evidence to the associations between work conditions and the extent of pain on the body. Components of work conditions, including job demands and mechanical strain, must be considered when organisations and health policy makers plan and employ ergonomic evaluations to minimise workplace hazards in the general population.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Dor/epidemiologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia
12.
Eur J Pain ; 23(9): 1631-1639, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) is a self-rating instrument developed as a time- and cost-saving alternative to quantitative sensory testing (QST). The aims of the study were to assess (a) the associations between PSQ scores and QST in women with persistent pelvic pain and in pain-free controls and (b) to what extent demographic variables and psychological distress influenced PSQ scores. METHODS: Fifty-five healthy women and 37 women with persistent pelvic pain participated. All filled in the PSQ and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and had QST (heat, cold and pressure pain thresholds) performed on six locations on the body. Information on age, body mass index, smoking habits and pain duration were collected. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least square regressions were used. RESULTS: The patients scored significantly higher on PSQ than the controls. Significant multivariate correlations between pain thresholds and PSQ scores were found only in the patient group. In the patient group, the heat and cold pain thresholds correlated more strongly with PSQ scores than the pressure pain threshold. CONCLUSIONS: The PSQ score was significantly higher in pelvic pain patients, and correlations between QSTs and the PSQ were only found for patients. SIGNIFICANCE: The PSQ reflects pain sensitivity in women with PPP and can be used as a non-invasive and painless way to assess this condition in clinical practice.

13.
Scand J Pain ; 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150362

RESUMO

Background and aims Although literature concerning chronic pain patients indicates that cognitive behavioural variables, specifically acceptance and fear of movement/(re)injury, are related to life impact, the relative roles of these factors in relation to pain characteristics (e.g. intensity and spreading) and emotional distress are unclear. Moreover, how these variables affect rehabilitation outcomes in different subgroups is insufficiently understood. This study has two aims: (1) to investigate how pain, cognitive behavioural, and emotional distress variables intercorrelate and whether these variables can regress aspects of life impact and (2) to analyse whether these variables can be used to identify clinically meaningful subgroups at baseline and which subgroups benefit most from multimodal rehabilitation programs (MMRP) immediately after and at 12-month follow-up. Methods Pain aspects, background variables, psychological distress, cognitive behavioural variables, and two life impact variables were obtained from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation (SQRP) for chronic pain patients. These data were analysed mainly using advanced multivariate methods. Results The study includes 22,406 chronic pain patients. Many variables, including acceptance variables, showed important contributions to the variation in clinical presentations and in life impacts. Based on the statistically important variables considering the clinical presentation, three clusters/subgroups of patients were identified at baseline; from the worst clinical situation to the relatively good situation. These clusters showed significant differences in outcomes after participating in MMRP; the subgroup with the worst situation at baseline showed the most significant improvements. Conclusions Pain intensity/severity, emotional distress, acceptance, and life impacts were important for the clinical presentation and were used to identify three clusters with marked differences at baseline (i.e. before MMRP). Life impacts showed complex relationships with acceptance, pain intensity/severity, and emotional distress. The most significant improvements after MMRP were seen in the subgroup with the lowest level of functioning before treatment, indicating that patients with complex problems should be offered MMRP. Implications This study emphasizes the need to adopt a biopsychosocial perspective when assessing patients with chronic pain. Patients with chronic pain referred to specialist clinics are not homogenous in their clinical presentation. Instead we identified three distinct subgroups of patients. The outcomes of MMRP appears to be related to the clinical presentation. Thus, patients with the most severe clinical presentation show the most prominent improvements. However, even though this group of patients improve they still after MMRP show a complex situation and there is thus a need for optimizing the content of MMRP for these patients. The subgroup of patients with a relatively good situation with respect to pain, psychological distress, coping and life impact only showed minor improvements after MMRP. Hence, there is a need to develop other complex interventions for them.

14.
Ann Gen Psychiatry ; 18: 8, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164910

RESUMO

Background: Positive psychology indicators like well-being and life satisfaction may play a pivotal role in pain-related outcomes. In this study, we aimed to examine the prospective associations of positive well-being and life satisfaction with pain severity. Methods and Subjects: This longitudinal study, with a follow-up of 2 years, included 9361 participants (4266 males, 5095 females; mean age: 52.5 years; SD: 17.5) without and with chronic pain (CP) at baseline. All analyses were stratified by the two sub-cohorts-participants without CP (sub-cohort 1) and participants with CP (sub-cohort 2) at baseline. The predictive associations, assessed using ordinal regression in a Generalized Linear Model, were adjusted for baseline potential confounders and reported as odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: After adjustments, in sub-cohort 1 positive well-being at baseline was associated with lower severe pain at follow-up compared to participants with severe distress (OR: 0.64; 95% CI 0.49-0.84; p < 0.001). In sub-cohort 2, both positive well-being and life satisfaction at baseline were associated with lower severe pain at follow-up compared to participants with severe distress and not satisfied with life (OR: 0.80; 95% CI 0.65-0.98; p = 0.031 and OR: 0.82; 95% CI 0.69-0.96; p = 0.014, respectively). Conclusions: Positive well-being is predictive of lower pain severity both among participants without and with CP at baseline, whereas life satisfaction was found predictive of lower pain severity only for subjects with CP. Future research should emphasize implementing treatments associated with promoting and maintaining positive well-being and life satisfaction in patients who suffer from chronic pain and in risk populations.

15.
J Clin Med ; 8(6)2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216757

RESUMO

Using a meta-analysis, meta-regression, and a meta-epidemiological approach, we conducted a systematic review to examine the influence of interdisciplinary multimodal pain therapy (IMPT) dosage on pain, disability, return to work, quality of life, depression, and anxiety in published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP). We considered all RCTs of IMPT from a Cochrane review and searched PubMed for additional RCTs through 30 September 2018. A subgroup random-effects meta-analysis by length, contact, and intensity of treatment was performed followed by a meta-regression analysis. Using random and fixed-effect models and a summary relative odds ratio (ROR), we compared the effect sizes (ES) from short-length, non-daily contact, and low-intensity RCTs with long-length, daily contact, and high-intensity RCTs. Heterogeneity was quantified with the I2 metric. A total of 47 RCTs were selected. Subgroup meta-analysis showed that there were larger ES for pain and disability in RCTs with long-length, non-daily contact, and low intensity of treatment. Larger ES were also observed for quality of life in RCTs with short-length, non-daily contact, and low intensity treatment. However, these findings were not confirmed by the meta-regression analysis. Likewise, the summary RORs were not significant, indicating that the length, contact, and intensity of treatment did not have an overall effect on the investigated outcomes. For the outcomes investigated here, IMPT dosage is not generally associated with better ES, and an optimal dosage was not determined.

16.
J Pain Res ; 12: 1743-1755, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213886

RESUMO

Purpose: The remodeling of functional neuronal connectivity in chronic widespread pain (CWP) patients remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate functional connectivity in CWP patients in brain networks related to chronic pain for changes related to pain sensitivity, psychological strain, and experienced pain. Patients and methods: Functional connectivity strength of the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network (SN) was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Between-group differences were investigated with an independent component analysis for altered connectivity within the whole DMN and SN. Then, changes in connectivity between nodes of the DMN and SN were investigated with the use of a seed-target analysis in relation to the covariates clinical pain intensity, pressure pain sensitivity, psychological strain, and as an effect of experienced experimental cuff-pressure pain. Results: CWP patients showed decreased connectivity in the inferior posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in the DMN and increased connectivity in the left anterior insula/superior temporal gyrus in the SN when compared to controls. Moreover, higher pain sensitivity in CWP when compared to controls was related to increased connectivity within the SN (between left and right insula) and between SN and DMN (between right insula and left lateral parietal cortex). Conclusion: This study shows that connectivity within the DMN was decreased and connectivity within the SN was increased for CWP. Furthermore, we present a novel finding of interaction of pain sensitivity with SN and DMN-SN functional connectivity in CWP.

17.
Diagn Progn Res ; 3: 5, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093575

RESUMO

Background: Many studies have been performed to identify important prognostic factors for outcomes after rehabilitation of patients with chronic pain, and there is a need to synthesize them through systematic review. In this process, it is important to assess the study quality and risk of bias. The "Quality In Prognosis Studies" (QUIPS) tool has been developed for this purpose and consists of several prompting items categorized into six domains, and each domain is judged on a three-grade scale (low, moderate or high risk of bias). The aim of the present study was to determine the interrater agreement of the risk of bias assessment in prognostic studies of patients with chronic pain using QUIPS and to elaborate on the use of this instrument. Methods: We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis of prognostic factors for long-term outcomes after multidisciplinary rehabilitation in patients with chronic pain. Two researchers rated the risk of bias in 43 published papers in two rounds (15 and 28 papers, respectively). The interrater agreement and Cohen's quadratic weighted kappa coefficient (κ) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated in all domains and separately for the first and second rounds. Results: The raters agreed in 61% of the domains (157 out of 258), with similar interrater agreement in the first (59%, 53/90) and second rounds (62%, 104/168). The overall weighted kappa coefficient (kappa for all domains and all papers) was weak: κ = 0.475 (95%CI = 0.358-0.601). A "minimal agreement" between the raters was found in the first round, κ = 0.323 (95%CI = 0.129-0.517), but increased to "weak agreement" in the second round, κ = 0.536 (95%CI = 0.390-0.682). Conclusion: Despite a relatively low interrater agreement, QUIPS proved to be a useful tool in assessing the risk of bias when performing a meta-analysis of prognostic studies in pain rehabilitation, since it demands of raters to discuss and investigate important aspects of study quality. Some items were particularly hard to differentiate in-between, and a learning phase was required to increase the interrater agreement. This paper highlights several aspects of the tool that should be kept in mind when rating the risk of bias in prognostic studies, and provides some suggestions on common pitfalls to avoid during this process. Trial registration: PROSPERO CRD42016025339; registered 05 February 2016.

18.
Pain ; 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985624

RESUMO

The comorbidity between chronic pain and emotional problems has proven difficult to address with current treatment options. This study addresses the efficacy of a transdiagnostic emotion-focused exposure treatment ("hybrid") for chronic pain patients with comorbid emotional problems. Adults (n = 115) with chronic musculoskeletal pain and functional and emotional problems were included in a 2-centre, parallel randomized controlled, open-label trial comparing this treatment to an active control condition receiving a guided Internet-delivered pain management treatment based on CBT principles (iCBT). The hybrid treatment (n = 58, 10-16 sessions) integrates exposure in vivo for chronic pain based on the fear-avoidance model with an emotion-regulation approach informed by procedures in Dialectical Behavior Therapy. The iCBT (n = 57; 8 treatment modules) addresses topics such as pain education, coping strategies, relaxation, problem solving, stress, and sleep management using standard CBT techniques. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed before and after treatment as well as at a 9-month primary end point. Across conditions, 78% participants completed post-treatment and 81% follow-up assessment. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that the hybrid had a significantly better post-treatment outcome on pain catastrophizing (d = 0.39) and pain interference (d = 0.63) and significantly better follow-up outcomes on depression (d = 0.43) and pain interference (d = 0.51). There were no differences on anxiety and pain intensity. Observed proportions of clinically significant improvement favoured the hybrid on all but one comparison, but no statistically significant differences were observed. We conclude that the hybrid emotion-focused treatment may be considered an acceptable, credible, and efficacious treatment option for chronic pain patients with comorbid emotional problems.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

19.
J Pain Res ; 12: 891-908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881099

RESUMO

Background: Chronic pain patients frequently suffer from psychological symptoms. There is no consensus concerning the prevalence of severe anxiety and depressive symptoms and the strength of the associations between pain intensity and psychological distress. Although an important aspect of the clinical picture is understanding how the pain condition impacts life, little is known about the relative importance of pain and psychological symptoms for individual's life impact. The aims of this study were to identify subgroups of pain patients; to analyze if pain, psychological distress, and life impact variables influence subgrouping; and to investigate how patients in the subgroups benefit from treatments. Methods: Background variables, pain aspects (intensity/severity and spreading), psychological distress (depressive and anxiety symptoms), and two life impact variables (pain interference and perceived life control) were obtained from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation for chronic pain patients and analyzed mainly using advanced multivariate methods. Results: Based on >35,000 patients, 35%-40% had severe anxiety or depressive symptoms. Severe psychological distress was associated with being born outside Europe (21%-24% vs 6%-8% in the category without psychological distress) and low education level (20.7%-20.8% vs 26%-27% in the category without psychological distress). Dose relationships existed between the two psychological distress variables and pain aspects, but the explained variances were generally low. Pain intensity/severity and the two psychological distress variables were significantly associated (R 2=0.40-0.48; P>0.001) with the two life impact variables (pain interference and life control). Two subgroups of patients were identified at baseline (subgroup 1: n=15,901-16,119; subgroup 2: n=20,690-20,981) and the subgroup with the worst situation regarding all variables participated less in an MMRP (51% vs 58%, P<0.001) but showed the largest improvements in outcomes. Conclusion: The results emphasize the need to assess both pain and psychological distress and not take for granted that pain involves high psychological stress in the individual case. Not all patients benefit from MMRP. A better matching between common clinical pictures and the content of MMRPs may help improve results. We only partly found support for treatment resistance in patients with psychological distress burden.

20.
J Rehabil Med ; 51(3): 183-192, 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the intensity, spread and sensitivity of chronic pain can be predicted using demographic features, socioeconomic conditions and comorbidities. DESIGN: A longitudinal study design was employed. Data was collected at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. SETTING: General population in south-eastern Sweden. SUBJECTS: A representative stratified random sample of 34,000 individuals, between 18 and 85 years of age, selected from a sampling frame of 404,661 individuals based on the Swedish Total Population Register. METHODS: Eligible individuals were sent postal surveys in 2013 and 2015. The 2 surveys included the same questions about basic demographic data, comorbidities, and chronic pain intensity, spread and sensitivity. RESULTS: Several socio-demographic features and comorbidities at baseline were significant predictors of characteristics of pain (intensity, spread and sensitivity) at the 2-year follow-up. When characteristics of pain at baseline were included in the regression analyses they were relatively strong significant predictors of characteristics of pain after 2 years. After this adjustment there were fewer socio-demogra-phic and comorbidity predictors; the effect estimates for those significant predictors had decreased. CONCLUSION: Clinical assessment should focus on several characteristics of pain and include a broad medical screening to capture the overall burden of pain in adults from a longitudinal perspective.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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