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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lamb-Shaffer syndrome (LAMSHF) is a neurodevelopmental disorder described in just over two dozen patients with heterozygous genetic alterations involving SOX5, a gene encoding a transcription factor regulating cell fate and differentiation in neurogenesis and other discrete developmental processes. The genetic alterations described so far are mainly microdeletions. The present study was aimed at increasing our understanding of LAMSHF, its clinical and genetic spectrum, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. METHODS: Clinical and genetic data were collected through GeneMatcher and clinical or genetic networks for 41 novel patients harboring various types of SOX5 alterations. Functional consequences of selected substitutions were investigated. RESULTS: Microdeletions and truncating variants occurred throughout SOX5. In contrast, most missense variants clustered in the pivotal SOX-specific high-mobility-group domain. The latter variants prevented SOX5 from binding DNA and promoting transactivation in vitro, whereas missense variants located outside the high-mobility-group domain did not. Clinical manifestations and severity varied among patients. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were found, except that missense variants outside the high-mobility-group domain were generally better tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends the clinical and genetic spectrum associated with LAMSHF and consolidates evidence that SOX5 haploinsufficiency leads to variable degrees of intellectual disability, language delay, and other clinical features.

2.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 38, 2019 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) is complex and cumbersome yet important for the clinical management of the disease. Exome sequencing may provide a genetic diagnosis in a significant number of patients in a single genetic test. METHODS: In May 2013, we implemented exome sequencing in routine diagnostics for patients suffering from PIDs. This study reports the clinical utility and diagnostic yield for a heterogeneous group of 254 consecutively referred PID patients from 249 families. For the majority of patients, the clinical diagnosis was based on clinical criteria including rare and/or unusual severe bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, sometimes accompanied by autoimmune manifestations. Functional immune defects were interpreted in the context of aberrant immune cell populations, aberrant antibody levels, or combinations of these factors. RESULTS: For 62 patients (24%), exome sequencing identified pathogenic variants in well-established PID genes. An exome-wide analysis diagnosed 10 additional patients (4%), providing diagnoses for 72 patients (28%) from 68 families altogether. The genetic diagnosis directly indicated novel treatment options for 25 patients that received a diagnosis (34%). CONCLUSION: Exome sequencing as a first-tier test for PIDs granted a diagnosis for 28% of patients. Importantly, molecularly defined diagnoses indicated altered therapeutic options in 34% of cases. In addition, exome sequencing harbors advantages over gene panels as a truly generic test for all genetic diseases, including in silico extension of existing gene lists and re-analysis of existing data.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2837, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253775

RESUMO

The diagnostic yield of exome and genome sequencing remains low (8-70%), due to incomplete knowledge on the genes that cause disease. To improve this, we use RNA-seq data from 31,499 samples to predict which genes cause specific disease phenotypes, and develop GeneNetwork Assisted Diagnostic Optimization (GADO). We show that this unbiased method, which does not rely upon specific knowledge on individual genes, is effective in both identifying previously unknown disease gene associations, and flagging genes that have previously been incorrectly implicated in disease. GADO can be run on www.genenetwork.nl by supplying HPO-terms and a list of genes that contain candidate variants. Finally, applying GADO to a cohort of 61 patients for whom exome-sequencing analysis had not resulted in a genetic diagnosis, yields likely causative genes for ten cases.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Análise de Componente Principal , Software , Interface Usuário-Computador
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167805

RESUMO

Heterozygous deleterious variants in PHIP have been associated with behavioral problems, intellectual disability/developmental delay, obesity/overweight, and dysmorphic features (BIDOD syndrome). We report an additional 10 individuals with pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP)-predicted deleterious variants (four frameshift, three missense, two nonsense, and one splice site; six of which are confirmed de novo). The mutation spectrum is diverse, and there is no clustering of mutations across the protein. The clinical phenotype of these individuals is consistent with previous reports and includes behavioral problems, intellectual disability, developmental delay, hypotonia, and dysmorphic features. The additional individuals we report have a lower frequency of obesity than previous reports and a higher frequency of gastrointestinal problems, social deficits, and behavioral challenges. Characterizing additional individuals with diverse mutations longitudinally will provide better natural history data to assist with medical management and educational and behavioral support.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 530-541, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827496

RESUMO

Acetylation of the lysine residues in histones and other DNA-binding proteins plays a major role in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. This process is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs/KATs) found in multiprotein complexes that are recruited to chromatin by the scaffolding subunit transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP). TRRAP is evolutionarily conserved and is among the top five genes intolerant to missense variation. Through an international collaboration, 17 distinct de novo or apparently de novo variants were identified in TRRAP in 24 individuals. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with two distinct clinical spectra. The first is a complex, multi-systemic syndrome associated with various malformations of the brain, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary system and characterized by a wide range of intellectual functioning; a number of affected individuals have intellectual disability (ID) and markedly impaired basic life functions. Individuals with this phenotype had missense variants clustering around the c.3127G>A p.(Ala1043Thr) variant identified in five individuals. The second spectrum manifested with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or ID and epilepsy. Facial dysmorphism was seen in both groups and included upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthus, telecanthus, a wide nasal bridge and ridge, a broad and smooth philtrum, and a thin upper lip. RNA sequencing analysis of skin fibroblasts derived from affected individuals skin fibroblasts showed significant changes in the expression of several genes implicated in neuronal function and ion transport. Thus, we describe here the clinical spectrum associated with TRRAP pathogenic missense variants, and we suggest a genotype-phenotype correlation useful for clinical evaluation of the pathogenicity of the variants.

6.
Brain ; 142(3): 542-559, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668673

RESUMO

Biallelic pathogenic variants in PLPBP (formerly called PROSC) have recently been shown to cause a novel form of vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy, the pathophysiological basis of which is poorly understood. When left untreated, the disease can progress to status epilepticus and death in infancy. Here we present 12 previously undescribed patients and six novel pathogenic variants in PLPBP. Suspected clinical diagnoses prior to identification of PLPBP variants included mitochondrial encephalopathy (two patients), folinic acid-responsive epilepsy (one patient) and a movement disorder compatible with AADC deficiency (one patient). The encoded protein, PLPHP is believed to be crucial for B6 homeostasis. We modelled the pathogenicity of the variants and developed a clinical severity scoring system. The most severe phenotypes were associated with variants leading to loss of function of PLPBP or significantly affecting protein stability/PLP-binding. To explore the pathophysiology of this disease further, we developed the first zebrafish model of PLPHP deficiency using CRISPR/Cas9. Our model recapitulates the disease, with plpbp-/- larvae showing behavioural, biochemical, and electrophysiological signs of seizure activity by 10 days post-fertilization and early death by 16 days post-fertilization. Treatment with pyridoxine significantly improved the epileptic phenotype and extended lifespan in plpbp-/- animals. Larvae had disruptions in amino acid metabolism as well as GABA and catecholamine biosynthesis, indicating impairment of PLP-dependent enzymatic activities. Using mass spectrometry, we observed significant B6 vitamer level changes in plpbp-/- zebrafish, patient fibroblasts and PLPHP-deficient HEK293 cells. Additional studies in human cells and yeast provide the first empirical evidence that PLPHP is localized in mitochondria and may play a role in mitochondrial metabolism. These models provide new insights into disease mechanisms and can serve as a platform for drug discovery.

8.
Genet Med ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349098

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in ARID1B are one of the most frequent causes of intellectual disability (ID) as determined by large-scale exome sequencing studies. Most studies published thus far describe clinically diagnosed Coffin-Siris patients (ARID1B-CSS) and it is unclear whether these data are representative for patients identified through sequencing of unbiased ID cohorts (ARID1B-ID). We therefore sought to determine genotypic and phenotypic differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS. In parallel, we investigated the effect of different methods of phenotype reporting. METHODS: Clinicians entered clinical data in an extensive web-based survey. RESULTS: 79 ARID1B-CSS and 64 ARID1B-ID patients were included. CSS-associated dysmorphic features, such as thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, thick alae nasi, long and/or broad philtrum, small nails and small or absent fifth distal phalanx and hypertrichosis, were observed significantly more often (p < 0.001) in ARID1B-CSS patients. No other significant differences were identified. CONCLUSION: There are only minor differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS patients. ARID1B-related disorders seem to consist of a spectrum, and patients should be managed similarly. We demonstrated that data collection methods without an explicit option to report the absence of a feature (such as most Human Phenotype Ontology-based methods) tended to underestimate gene-related features.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(10): 1478-1489, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904178

RESUMO

Proximal 6q (6q11-q15) deletions are extremely rare and little is known about their phenotypic consequences. Since parents and caregivers now use social media to seek information on rare disorders, the Chromosome 6 Project has successfully collaborated with a Facebook group to collect data on individuals worldwide. Here we describe a cohort of 20 newly identified individuals and 25 literature cases with a proximal 6q deletion. Microarray results and phenotype data were reported directly by parents via a multilingual online questionnaire. This led to phenotype descriptions for five subregions of proximal 6q deletions; comparing the subgroups revealed that 6q11q14.1 deletions presented less severe clinical characteristics than 6q14.2q15 deletions. Gastroesophageal reflux, tracheo/laryngo/bronchomalacia, congenital heart defects, cerebral defects, seizures, and vision and respiratory problems were predominant in those with 6q14.2q15 deletions. Problems related to connective tissue (hypermobility, hernias and foot deformities) were predominantly seen in deletions including the COL12A1 gene (6q13). Congenital heart defects could be linked to deletions of MAP3K7 (6q15) or TBX18 (6q14.3). We further discuss the role of ten genes known or assumed to be related to developmental delay and/or autism (BAI3, RIMS1, KCNQ5, HTR1B, PHIP, SYNCRIP, HTR1E, ZNF292, AKIRIN2 and EPHA7). The most influential gene on the neurodevelopmental phenotype seems to be SYNCRIP (6q14.3), while deletions that include more than two of these genes led to more severe developmental delay. We demonstrate that approaching individuals via social media and collecting data directly from parents is a successful strategy, resulting in better information to counsel families.

11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(7): 1594-1603, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351919

RESUMO

Purpose: In many children with cancer and characteristics suggestive of a genetic predisposition syndrome, the genetic cause is still unknown. We studied the yield of pathogenic mutations by applying whole-exome sequencing on a selected cohort of children with cancer.Experimental Design: To identify mutations in known and novel cancer-predisposing genes, we performed trio-based whole-exome sequencing on germline DNA of 40 selected children and their parents. These children were diagnosed with cancer and had at least one of the following features: (1) intellectual disability and/or congenital anomalies, (2) multiple malignancies, (3) family history of cancer, or (4) an adult type of cancer. We first analyzed the sequence data for germline mutations in 146 known cancer-predisposing genes. If no causative mutation was found, the analysis was extended to the whole exome.Results: Four patients carried causative mutations in a known cancer-predisposing gene: TP53 and DICER1 (n = 3). In another 4 patients, exome sequencing revealed mutations causing syndromes that might have contributed to the malignancy (EP300-based Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, ARID1A-based Coffin-Siris syndrome, ACTB-based Baraitser-Winter syndrome, and EZH2-based Weaver syndrome). In addition, we identified two genes, KDM3B and TYK2, which are possibly involved in genetic cancer predisposition.Conclusions: In our selected cohort of patients, pathogenic germline mutations causative or likely causative of the cancer phenotype were found in 8 patients, and two possible novel cancer-predisposing genes were identified. Therewith, our study shows the added value of sequencing beyond a cancer gene panel in selected patients, to recognize childhood cancer predisposition. Clin Cancer Res; 24(7); 1594-603. ©2018 AACR.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 664-685, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100083

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) is a group of conditions characterized by the co-occurrence of epilepsy and intellectual disability (ID), typically with developmental plateauing or regression associated with frequent epileptiform activity. The cause of DEE remains unknown in the majority of cases. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in 197 individuals with unexplained DEE and pharmaco-resistant seizures and in their unaffected parents. We focused our attention on de novo mutations (DNMs) and identified candidate genes containing such variants. We sought to identify additional subjects with DNMs in these genes by performing targeted sequencing in another series of individuals with DEE and by mining various sequencing datasets. We also performed meta-analyses to document enrichment of DNMs in candidate genes by leveraging our WGS dataset with those of several DEE and ID series. By combining these strategies, we were able to provide a causal link between DEE and the following genes: NTRK2, GABRB2, CLTC, DHDDS, NUS1, RAB11A, GABBR2, and SNAP25. Overall, we established a molecular diagnosis in 63/197 (32%) individuals in our WGS series. The main cause of DEE in these individuals was de novo point mutations (53/63 solved cases), followed by inherited mutations (6/63 solved cases) and de novo CNVs (4/63 solved cases). De novo missense variants explained a larger proportion of individuals in our series than in other series that were primarily ascertained because of ID. Moreover, these DNMs were more frequently recurrent than those identified in ID series. These observations indicate that the genetic landscape of DEE might be different from that of ID without epilepsy.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Mutação/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Recidiva , Convulsões/genética
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 716-724, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100085

RESUMO

DHX30 is a member of the family of DExH-box helicases, which use ATP hydrolysis to unwind RNA secondary structures. Here we identified six different de novo missense mutations in DHX30 in twelve unrelated individuals affected by global developmental delay (GDD), intellectual disability (ID), severe speech impairment and gait abnormalities. While four mutations are recurrent, two are unique with one affecting the codon of one recurrent mutation. All amino acid changes are located within highly conserved helicase motifs and were found to either impair ATPase activity or RNA recognition in different in vitro assays. Moreover, protein variants exhibit an increased propensity to trigger stress granule (SG) formation resulting in global translation inhibition. Thus, our findings highlight the prominent role of translation control in development and function of the central nervous system and also provide molecular insight into how DHX30 dysfunction might cause a neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , RNA Helicases/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adolescente , Aminoácidos/genética , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , RNA/genética
14.
Hum Genet ; 136(7): 821-834, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28393272

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in genes encoding subunits of the spliceosome are the cause of several human diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases. The RNA splicing process is facilitated by the spliceosome, a large RNA-protein complex consisting of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), and many other proteins, such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). The HNRNPU gene (OMIM *602869) encodes the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, which plays a crucial role in mammalian development. HNRNPU is expressed in the fetal brain and adult heart, kidney, liver, brain, and cerebellum. Microdeletions in the 1q44 region encompassing HNRNPU have been described in patients with intellectual disability (ID) and other clinical features, such as seizures, corpus callosum abnormalities (CCA), and microcephaly. Recently, pathogenic HNRNPU variants were identified in large ID and epileptic encephalopathy cohorts. In this study, we provide detailed clinical information of five novels and review two of the previously published individuals with (likely) pathogenic de novo variants in the HNRNPU gene including three non-sense and two missense variants, one small intragenic deletion, and one duplication. The phenotype in individuals with variants in HNRNPU is characterized by early onset seizures (6/7), severe ID (6/6), severe speech impairment (6/6), hypotonia (6/7), and central nervous system (CNS) (5/6), cardiac (4/6), and renal abnormalities (3/4). In this study, we broaden the clinical and mutational HNRNPU-associated spectrum, and demonstrate that heterozygous HNRNPU variants cause epilepsy, severe ID with striking speech impairment and variable CNS, cardiac, and renal anomalies.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo U/genética , Heterozigoto , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Idade de Início , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/genética , Sistema Nervoso Central/anormalidades , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Rim/anormalidades , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/diagnóstico , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Fenótipo , Processamento de RNA , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Pequenas/genética , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/genética
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(10): 2681-93, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27311832

RESUMO

Mutations in CREBBP cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. By using exome sequencing, and by using Sanger in one patient, CREBBP mutations were detected in 11 patients who did not, or only in a very limited manner, resemble Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. The combined facial signs typical for Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome were absent, none had broad thumbs, and three had only somewhat broad halluces. All had apparent developmental delay (being the reason for molecular analysis); five had short stature and seven had microcephaly. The facial characteristics were variable; main characteristics were short palpebral fissures, telecanthi, depressed nasal ridge, short nose, anteverted nares, short columella, and long philtrum. Six patients had autistic behavior, and two had self-injurious behavior. Other symptoms were recurrent upper airway infections (n = 5), feeding problems (n = 7) and impaired hearing (n = 7). Major malformations occurred infrequently. All patients had a de novo missense mutation in the last part of exon 30 or beginning of exon 31 of CREBBP, between base pairs 5,128 and 5,614 (codons 1,710 and 1,872). No missense or truncating mutations in this region have been described to be associated with the classical Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome phenotype. No functional studies have (yet) been performed, but we hypothesize that the mutations disturb protein-protein interactions by altering zinc finger function. We conclude that patients with missense mutations in this specific CREBBP region show a phenotype that differs substantially from that in patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, and may prove to constitute one (or more) separate entities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação a CREB/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exoma , Éxons , Facies , Feminino , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(5): 652-9, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26306646

RESUMO

The Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS; OMIM #610443), also known as the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, is a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterised by (neonatal) hypotonia, developmental delay, moderate intellectual disability, and characteristic facial dysmorphism. Expressive language development is particularly impaired compared with receptive language or motor skills. Other frequently reported features include social and friendly behaviour, epilepsy, musculoskeletal anomalies, congenital heart defects, urogenital malformations, and ectodermal anomalies. The syndrome is caused by a truncating variant in the KAT8 regulatory NSL complex unit 1 (KANSL1) gene or by a 17q21.31 microdeletion encompassing KANSL1. Herein we describe a novel cohort of 45 individuals with KdVS of whom 33 have a 17q21.31 microdeletion and 12 a single-nucleotide variant (SNV) in KANSL1 (19 males, 26 females; age range 7 months to 50 years). We provide guidance about the potential pitfalls in the laboratory testing and emphasise the challenges of KANSL1 variant calling and DNA copy number analysis in the complex 17q21.31 region. Moreover, we present detailed phenotypic information, including neuropsychological features, that contribute to the broad phenotypic spectrum of the syndrome. Comparison of the phenotype of both the microdeletion and SNV patients does not show differences of clinical importance, stressing that haploinsufficiency of KANSL1 is sufficient to cause the full KdVS phenotype.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
J Med Genet ; 51(6): 413-8, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24744436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in GLI2 have been associated with holoprosencephaly (HPE), a neuroanatomic anomaly resulting from incomplete cleavage of the developing forebrain, and an HPE-like phenotype involving pituitary anomalies and polydactyly. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the genotypic and phenotypic findings in individuals with GLI2 variants and clarify clinical findings in individuals with loss-of-function mutations. METHODS: Through the National Institutes of Health and collaborating centres, ∼400 individuals with HPE spectrum disorders, endocrine disorders or craniofacial anomalies were screened for GLI2 mutations. Results were combined with all published cases. We compared the clinical and molecular features of individuals with truncating mutations to individuals with variants of unknown significance (defined as not resulting in protein truncation, reported in normal controls and/or deemed unlikely to be pathogenic by functional prediction software). RESULTS: 112 individuals with variants in GLI2 were identified, with 43 having truncating mutations. Individuals with truncating mutations were more likely to have both pituitary anomalies and polydactyly versus those with variants of unknown significance (p<0.0001 by Fisher's exact test); only 1 of 43 had frank HPE. These individuals were more likely to have recognised penetrance (polydactyly or pituitary anomalies or both) than those without truncating mutations (p=0.0036 by Fisher's exact test). A common facial phenotype was seen in individuals (with midface hypoplasia, cleft lip/palate and hypotelorism) with truncating mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with truncating mutations in GLI2 typically present with pituitary anomalies, polydactyly and subtle facial features rather than HPE. This will be helpful in screening populations for GLI2 mutations and for counselling affected patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: 98-HG-0249/04-HG-0093.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Face/patologia , Dedos/patologia , Holoprosencefalia , Humanos , Lactente , Fenótipo , Dedos do Pé/patologia , Proteína Gli2 com Dedos de Zinco
18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 22(11): 2177-85, 2013 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23418306

RESUMO

Mutations affecting the integrity and function of cilia have been identified in various genes over the last decade accounting for a group of diseases called ciliopathies. Ciliopathies display a broad spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild manifestations to lethal combinations of multiple severe symptoms and most of them share cystic kidneys as a common feature. Our starting point was a consanguineous pedigree with three affected fetuses showing an early embryonic phenotype with enlarged cystic kidneys, liver and pancreas and developmental heart disease. By genome-wide linkage analysis, we mapped the disease locus to chromosome 17q11 and identified a homozygous nonsense mutation in NEK8/NPHP9 that encodes a kinase involved in ciliary dynamics and cell cycle progression. Missense mutations in NEK8/NPHP9 have been identified in juvenile cystic kidney jck mice and in patients suffering from nephronophthisis (NPH), an autosomal-recessive cystic kidney disease. This work confirmed a complete loss of NEK8 expression in the affected fetuses due to nonsense-mediated decay. In cultured fibroblasts derived from these fetuses, the expression of prominent polycystic kidney disease genes (PKD1 and PKD2) was decreased, whereas the oncogene c-MYC was upregulated, providing potential explanations for the observed renal phenotype. We furthermore linked NEK8 with NPHP3, another NPH protein known to cause a very similar phenotype in case of null mutations. Both proteins interact and activate the Hippo effector TAZ. Taken together, our study demonstrates that NEK8 is essential for organ development and that the complete loss of NEK8 perturbs multiple signalling pathways resulting in a severe early embryonic phenotype.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/metabolismo , Síndrome de Dandy-Walker/genética , Síndrome de Dandy-Walker/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mutação , Cisto Pancreático/genética , Cisto Pancreático/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Consanguinidade , Síndrome de Dandy-Walker/patologia , Feminino , Feto/anormalidades , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Quinases Relacionadas a NIMA , Cisto Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ligação Proteica , Canais de Cátion TRPP/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPP/metabolismo
19.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 20(2): 161-5, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21934709

RESUMO

The correct interpretation of copy number gains in patients with developmental delay and multiple congenital anomalies is hampered by the large number of copy number variations (CNVs) encountered in healthy individuals. The variable phenotype associated with copy number gains makes interpretation even more difficult. Literature shows that inheritence, size and presence in healthy individuals are commonly used to decide whether a certain copy number gain is pathogenic, but no general consensus has been established. We aimed to develop guidelines for interpreting gains detected by array analysis using array CGH data of 300 patients analysed with the 105K Agilent oligo array in a diagnostic setting. We evaluated the guidelines in a second, independent, cohort of 300 patients. In the first 300 patients 797 gains of four or more adjacent oligonucleotides were observed. Of these, 45.4% were de novo and 54.6% were familial. In total, 94.8% of all de novo gains and 87.1% of all familial gains were concluded to be benign CNVs. Clinically relevant gains ranged from 288 to 7912 kb in size, and were significantly larger than benign gains and gains of unknown clinical relevance (P < 0.001). Our study showed that a threshold of 200 kb is acceptable in a clinical setting, whereas heritability does not exclude a pathogenic nature of a gain. Evaluation of the guidelines in the second cohort of 300 patients revealed that the interpretation guidelines were clear, easy to follow and efficient.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
20.
Eur J Med Genet ; 53(5): 344-6, 2010 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20553986

RESUMO

Polymicrogyria (PMG) is a brain malformation due to abnormal cortical organisation. It is a heterogeneous disorder associated with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (also known as velocardiofacial (VCF) syndrome) amongst others. Since this association was first recognised in 1996, over 30 patients with PMG and 22q11.2 deletion have been described. In 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, PMG is mainly located in the perisylvian areas; it frequently has an asymmetrical presentation with a striking predisposition for the right hemisphere. Neurological features of perisylvian PMG include developmental delay/mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, spasticity and oromotor dysfunction. Thus in children diagnosed with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, a finding of PMG has important prognostic value. We present a seven-month old boy with microcephaly, short stature and developmental delay. A cerebral MRI showed slightly enlarged ventricles and symmetrical perisylvian polymicrogyria. A 22q11.2 deletion was revealed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Remarkably the boy had no other manifestations of VCF syndrome. Paediatricians, child neurologists and clinical geneticists should be aware that the presence of PMG (especially in the perisylvian areas) needs investigating for 22q11.2 deletion, even if other more common VCF syndrome features are absent.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22 , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Córtex Cerebral/anormalidades , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética
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