Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 34
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4957, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673082

RESUMO

In many species, the offspring of related parents suffer reduced reproductive success, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. In humans, the importance of this effect has remained unclear, partly because reproduction between close relatives is both rare and frequently associated with confounding social factors. Here, using genomic inbreeding coefficients (FROH) for >1.4 million individuals, we show that FROH is significantly associated (p < 0.0005) with apparently deleterious changes in 32 out of 100 traits analysed. These changes are associated with runs of homozygosity (ROH), but not with common variant homozygosity, suggesting that genetic variants associated with inbreeding depression are predominantly rare. The effect on fertility is striking: FROH equivalent to the offspring of first cousins is associated with a 55% decrease [95% CI 44-66%] in the odds of having children. Finally, the effects of FROH are confirmed within full-sibling pairs, where the variation in FROH is independent of all environmental confounding.

2.
Blood ; 134(19): 1645-1657, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420334

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality. To advance our understanding of the biology contributing to VTE, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of VTE and a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) based on imputed gene expression from whole blood and liver. We meta-analyzed GWAS data from 18 studies for 30 234 VTE cases and 172 122 controls and assessed the association between 12 923 718 genetic variants and VTE. We generated variant prediction scores of gene expression from whole blood and liver tissue and assessed them for association with VTE. Mendelian randomization analyses were conducted for traits genetically associated with novel VTE loci. We identified 34 independent genetic signals for VTE risk from GWAS meta-analysis, of which 14 are newly reported associations. This included 11 newly associated genetic loci (C1orf198, PLEK, OSMR-AS1, NUGGC/SCARA5, GRK5, MPHOSPH9, ARID4A, PLCG2, SMG6, EIF5A, and STX10) of which 6 replicated, and 3 new independent signals in 3 known genes. Further, TWAS identified 5 additional genetic loci with imputed gene expression levels differing between cases and controls in whole blood (SH2B3, SPSB1, RP11-747H7.3, RP4-737E23.2) and in liver (ERAP1). At some GWAS loci, we found suggestive evidence that the VTE association signal for novel and previously known regions colocalized with expression quantitative trait locus signals. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested that blood traits may contribute to the underlying risk of VTE. To conclude, we identified 16 novel susceptibility loci for VTE; for some loci, the association signals are likely mediated through gene expression of nearby genes.

3.
RNA ; 25(6): 657-668, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819774

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing is an increasingly popular and efficient approach to characterize the full set of microRNAs (miRNAs) present in human biosamples. MiRNAs' detection and quantification still remain a challenge as they can undergo different posttranscriptional modifications and might harbor genetic variations (polymiRs) that may impact on the alignment step. We present a novel algorithm, OPTIMIR, that incorporates biological knowledge on miRNA editing and genome-wide genotype data available in the processed samples to improve alignment accuracy. OPTIMIR was applied to 391 human plasma samples that had been typed with genome-wide genotyping arrays. OPTIMIR was able to detect genotyping errors, suggested the existence of novel miRNAs and highlighted the allelic imbalance expression of polymiRs in heterozygous carriers. OPTIMIR is written in python, and freely available on the GENMED website (http://www.genmed.fr/index.php/fr/) and on Github (github.com/FlorianThibord/OptimiR).


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Genoma Humano , MicroRNAs/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência/métodos , Trombose Venosa/genética , Sequência de Bases , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/classificação , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Software , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/patologia
4.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(4): 449-457, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659681

RESUMO

Although recent Genome-Wide Association Studies have identified novel associations for common variants, there has been no comprehensive exome-wide search for low-frequency variants that affect the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We conducted a meta-analysis of 11 studies comprising 8,332 cases and 16,087 controls of European ancestry and 382 cases and 1,476 controls of African American ancestry genotyped with the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. We used the seqMeta package in R to conduct single variant and gene-based rare variant tests. In the single variant analysis, we limited our analysis to the 64,794 variants with at least 40 minor alleles across studies (minor allele frequency [MAF] ~0.08%). We confirmed associations with previously identified VTE loci, including ABO, F5, F11, and FGA. After adjusting for multiple testing, we observed no novel significant findings in single variant or gene-based analysis. Given our sample size, we had greater than 80% power to detect minimum odds ratios greater than 1.5 and 1.8 for a single variant with MAF of 0.01 and 0.005, respectively. Larger studies and sequence data may be needed to identify novel low-frequency and rare variants associated with VTE risk.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Afro-Americanos/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tamanho da Amostra , Tromboembolia Venosa/etnologia
5.
Circulation ; 139(5): 620-635, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factor VIII (FVIII) and its carrier protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) are associated with risk of arterial and venous thrombosis and with hemorrhagic disorders. We aimed to identify and functionally test novel genetic associations regulating plasma FVIII and VWF. METHODS: We meta-analyzed genome-wide association results from 46 354 individuals of European, African, East Asian, and Hispanic ancestry. All studies performed linear regression analysis using an additive genetic model and associated ≈35 million imputed variants with natural log-transformed phenotype levels. In vitro gene silencing in cultured endothelial cells was performed for candidate genes to provide additional evidence on association and function. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses were applied to test the causal role of FVIII and VWF plasma levels on the risk of arterial and venous thrombotic events. RESULTS: We identified 13 novel genome-wide significant ( P≤2.5×10-8) associations, 7 with FVIII levels ( FCHO2/TMEM171/TNPO1, HLA, SOX17/RP1, LINC00583/NFIB, RAB5C-KAT2A, RPL3/TAB1/SYNGR1, and ARSA) and 11 with VWF levels ( PDHB/PXK/KCTD6, SLC39A8, FCHO2/TMEM171/TNPO1, HLA, GIMAP7/GIMAP4, OR13C5/NIPSNAP, DAB2IP, C2CD4B, RAB5C-KAT2A, TAB1/SYNGR1, and ARSA), beyond 10 previously reported associations with these phenotypes. Functional validation provided further evidence of association for all loci on VWF except ARSA and DAB2IP. Mendelian randomization suggested causal effects of plasma FVIII activity levels on venous thrombosis and coronary artery disease risk and plasma VWF levels on ischemic stroke risk. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis identified 13 novel genetic loci regulating FVIII and VWF plasma levels, 10 of which we validated functionally. We provide some evidence for a causal role of these proteins in thrombotic events.

6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(3): 227-238, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare genetic variants cause pulmonary arterial hypertension, but the contribution of common genetic variation to disease risk and natural history is poorly characterised. We tested for genome-wide association for pulmonary arterial hypertension in large international cohorts and assessed the contribution of associated regions to outcomes. METHODS: We did two separate genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a meta-analysis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. These GWAS used data from four international case-control studies across 11 744 individuals with European ancestry (including 2085 patients). One GWAS used genotypes from 5895 whole-genome sequences and the other GWAS used genotyping array data from an additional 5849 individuals. Cross-validation of loci reaching genome-wide significance was sought by meta-analysis. Conditional analysis corrected for the most significant variants at each locus was used to resolve signals for multiple associations. We functionally annotated associated variants and tested associations with duration of survival. All-cause mortality was the primary endpoint in survival analyses. FINDINGS: A locus near SOX17 (rs10103692, odds ratio 1·80 [95% CI 1·55-2·08], p=5·13 × 10-15) and a second locus in HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 (collectively referred to as HLA-DPA1/DPB1 here; rs2856830, 1·56 [1·42-1·71], p=7·65 × 10-20) within the class II MHC region were associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. The SOX17 locus had two independent signals associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (rs13266183, 1·36 [1·25-1·48], p=1·69 × 10-12; and rs10103692). Functional and epigenomic data indicate that the risk variants near SOX17 alter gene regulation via an enhancer active in endothelial cells. Pulmonary arterial hypertension risk variants determined haplotype-specific enhancer activity, and CRISPR-mediated inhibition of the enhancer reduced SOX17 expression. The HLA-DPA1/DPB1 rs2856830 genotype was strongly associated with survival. Median survival from diagnosis in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension with the C/C homozygous genotype was double (13·50 years [95% CI 12·07 to >13·50]) that of those with the T/T genotype (6·97 years [6·02-8·05]), despite similar baseline disease severity. INTERPRETATION: This is the first study to report that common genetic variation at loci in an enhancer near SOX17 and in HLA-DPA1/DPB1 is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Impairment of SOX17 function might be more common in pulmonary arterial hypertension than suggested by rare mutations in SOX17. Further studies are needed to confirm the association between HLA typing or rs2856830 genotyping and survival, and to determine whether HLA typing or rs2856830 genotyping improves risk stratification in clinical practice or trials. FUNDING: UK NIHR, BHF, UK MRC, Dinosaur Trust, NIH/NHLBI, ERS, EMBO, Wellcome Trust, EU, AHA, ACClinPharm, Netherlands CVRI, Dutch Heart Foundation, Dutch Federation of UMC, Netherlands OHRD and RNAS, German DFG, German BMBF, APH Paris, INSERM, Université Paris-Sud, and French ANR.

7.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(457)2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185651

RESUMO

The thymus is the primary lymphoid organ where naïve T cells are generated; however, with the exception of age, the parameters that govern its function in healthy humans remain unknown. We characterized the variability of thymic function among 1000 age- and sex-stratified healthy adults of the Milieu Intérieur cohort, using quantification of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) in peripheral blood T cells as a surrogate marker of thymopoiesis. Age and sex were the only nonheritable factors identified that affect thymic function. TREC amounts decreased with age and were higher in women compared to men. In addition, a genome-wide association study revealed a common variant (rs2204985) within the T cell receptor TCRA-TCRD locus, between the DD2 and DD3 gene segments, which associated with TREC amounts. Strikingly, transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells with the rs2204985 GG genotype into immunodeficient mice led to thymopoiesis with higher TRECs, increased thymocyte counts, and a higher TCR repertoire diversity. Our population immunology approach revealed a genetic locus that influences thymopoiesis in healthy adults, with potentially broad implications in precision medicine.

8.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(9): 877-882, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30073300

RESUMO

Importance: Women are at higher risk of drug-induced torsade de pointes (TdP) than men. Androgens are protective. Influence of oral contraception on drug-induced TdP and QT prolongation is controversial. Objective: To determine if the extent of sotalol-induced corrected QT (QTc) prolongation and specific T-wave morphological changes, which are biomarkers for the risk of drug-induced TdP, differ in patients according to the androgenic activity of the type of oral contraceptive (OCs) they take compared with patients who took no pills. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cohort of 498 healthy, nonmenopausal women received 80 mg of oral sotalol, a drug with known risk of drug-induced TdP, during this study in a clinical investigation center. The participants also took either no oral contraception or received OCs with different types of progestin: levonorgestrel (which has high androgenic potency), desogestrel or gestodene (which has intermediate androgenic potency), or drospirenone (which has antiandrogenic properties). Women were enrolled from February 2008 to February 2012, and data analysis took place from September 2014 to May 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Electrocardiographic changes 3 hours after sotalol administration. Results: A total of 137 women received levonorgestrel, 41 received desogestrel, 51 received gestodene, and 62 received drospirenone; another 207 received no OCs. Baseline QTc duration, plasma sotalol levels, and potassium levels did not significantly differ among groups. However, 3 hours after sotalol exposure, QTc prolongation was greater in women taking drospirenone (mean [SD] increase, 31.2 [12.6] milliseconds from baseline) than in women taking no OCs (mean [SD] increase, 24.6 [12.5] milliseconds; P = .005) or those taking levonorgestrel (mean [SD] increase, 24.2 [13.7] milliseconds; P = .005). The frequency of sotalol-induced T-wave alteration was higher in women taking drospirenone (n = 13 of 61 [21.0%]) than those taking levonorgestrel (n = 20 of 137 [14.6%]) or women taking no OCs (n = 24 of 207 [11.6%]; P = .01). Disproportionality analysis using the European pharmacovigilance database showed a higher reporting rate of OC-induced prolonged QT and ventricular arrhythmias in women taking drospirenone than levonorgestrel (drug-induced long QT syndrome: reporting odds ratio [ROR], 6.2 [95% CI, 1.3-30.8]; P = .01; ventricular arrhythmia: ROR, 3.3 [95% CI, 1.7-6.3]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Contraceptive pills are associated with variable drug-induced alterations of ventricular repolarization in healthy nonmenopausal women. Drospirenone, an antiandrogenic pill, was associated with increased sotalol-induced QTc prolongation, although absolute QTc prolongation was modest. This finding was supported by the European pharmacovigilance database, which showed a higher reporting rate of suspected OC-induced ventricular arrhythmias on drospirenone compared with levonorgestrel. More data are required on whether antiandrogenic OCs lead to clinically significant adverse events in patients taking QTc-prolonging drugs.

9.
Blood ; 132(17): 1842-1850, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042098

RESUMO

Many hemostatic factors are associated with age and age-related diseases; however, much remains unknown about the biological mechanisms linking aging and hemostatic factors. DNA methylation is a novel means by which to assess epigenetic aging, which is a measure of age and the aging processes as determined by altered epigenetic states. We used a meta-analysis approach to examine the association between measures of epigenetic aging and hemostatic factors, as well as a clotting time measure. For fibrinogen, we performed European and African ancestry-specific meta-analyses which were then combined via a random effects meta-analysis. For all other measures we could not estimate ancestry-specific effects and used a single fixed effects meta-analysis. We found that 1-year higher extrinsic epigenetic age as compared with chronological age was associated with higher fibrinogen (0.004 g/L/y; 95% confidence interval, 0.001-0.007; P = .01) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1; 0.13 U/mL/y; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.20; P = 6.6 × 10-5) concentrations, as well as lower activated partial thromboplastin time, a measure of clotting time. We replicated PAI-1 associations using an independent cohort. To further elucidate potential functional mechanisms, we associated epigenetic aging with expression levels of the PAI-1 protein encoding gene (SERPINE1) and the 3 fibrinogen subunit-encoding genes (FGA, FGG, and FGB) in both peripheral blood and aorta intima-media samples. We observed associations between accelerated epigenetic aging and transcription of FGG in both tissues. Collectively, our results indicate that accelerated epigenetic aging is associated with a procoagulation hemostatic profile, and that epigenetic aging may regulate hemostasis in part via gene transcription.

11.
Thromb Res ; 158: 102-107, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association between impaired kidney function and venous thrombosis has been previously reported but supportive data are still sparse. We here wish to strengthen this association by investigating, by use of a genetic risk score approach, whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to decrease the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a surrogate marker for renal dysfunction, are associated with increased risk of venous thrombosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Fifty-one polymorphisms selected from the literature to robustly associate with eGFR were first tested for association with venous thrombosis in a French case-control collection of 1953 patients and 2338 healthy individuals. This led to the identification of a genetic risk score based on 9 polymorphisms that strongly associated with increased risk (odds ratio (OR)=1.09 [1.06-1.15], p=1.44·10-7). This genetic score association replicated (OR=1.18 [1.11-1.26], p=8.86·10-8) in an independent sample of 1289 patients and 1049 healthy controls part of the Dutch MEGA study. We then categorized the genetic score distribution observed in the combined samples into quintiles. Compared with the lowest quintile, the OR for increased risk of disease associated with the second, third, fourth and fifth quintiles were 1.13 [0.94-1.16], 1.47 [1.22-1.77], 1.52 [1.26-1.82] and 1.70 [1.41-2.05], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using a genetic risk score analysis, our study provides new elements supporting the association between impaired renal function and the risk of venous thrombosis.


Assuntos
Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Trombose Venosa/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0181875, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800628

RESUMO

Many drugs used for non-cardiovascular and cardiovascular purposes, such as sotalol, have the side effect of prolonging cardiac repolarization, which can trigger life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias by inhibiting the potassium-channel IKr (KCNH2). On the electrocardiogram (ECG), IKr inhibition induces an increase in QTc and Tpeak-Tend (TpTe) interval and a decrease of T wave maximal amplitude (TAmp). These changes vary markedly between subjects, suggesting the existence of predisposing genetic factors. 990 healthy individuals, prospectively challenged with an oral 80mg sotalol dose, were monitored for changes in ventricular repolarization on ECG between baseline and 3 hours post dosing. QTc and TpTe increased by 5.5±3.5% and 15±19.6%, respectively, and TAmp decreased by 13.2±15.5%. A principal-component analysis derived from the latter ECG changes was performed. A random subsample of 489 individuals were subjected to a genome-wide-association analysis where 8,306,856 imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with QTc, TpTe and TAmp modulations, as well their derived principal-components, to search for common genetic variants associated with sotalol-induced IKr inhibition. None of the studied SNPs reached the statistical threshold for genome-wide significance. This study supports the lack of common variants with larger effect sizes than one would expect based on previous ECG genome-wide-association studies. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00773201.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Sotalol/farmacologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Demografia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sotalol/administração & dosagem
13.
Hum Genet ; 136(7): 897-902, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28528403

RESUMO

Observational studies have shown an association between obesity and venous thromboembolism (VTE) but it is not known if observed associations are causal, due to reverse causation or confounding bias. We conducted a Mendelian Randomization study of body mass index (BMI) and VTE. We identified 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been previously associated with BMI and assessed the association between genetically predicted high BMI and VTE leveraging data from a previously conducted GWAS within the INVENT consortium comprising a total of 7507 VTE cases and 52,632 controls of European ancestry. Five BMI SNPs were associated with VTE at P < 0.05, with the strongest association seen for the FTO SNP rs1558902 (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.12, P = 0.005). In addition, we observed a significant association between genetically predicted BMI and VTE (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.30-1.93 per standard deviation increase in BMI, P = 5.8 × 10-6). Our study provides evidence for a causal relationship between high BMI and risk of VTE. Reducing obesity levels will likely result in lower incidence in VTE.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações
14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(9): 1867-74, 2016 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26908601

RESUMO

Thrombotic diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. To add insights into the genetic regulation of thrombotic disease, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 6135 self-reported blood clots events and 252 827 controls of European ancestry belonging to the 23andMe cohort of research participants. Eight loci exceeded genome-wide significance. Among the genome-wide significant results, our study replicated previously known venous thromboembolism (VTE) loci near the F5, FGA-FGG, F11, F2, PROCR and ABO genes, and the more recently discovered locus near SLC44A2 In addition, our study reports for the first time a genome-wide significant association between rs114209171, located upstream of the F8 structural gene, and thrombosis risk. Analyses of expression profiles and expression quantitative trait loci across different tissues suggested SLC44A2, ILF3 and AP1M2 as the three most plausible candidate genes for the chromosome 19 locus, our only genome-wide significant thrombosis-related locus that does not harbor likely coagulation-related genes. In addition, we present data showing that this locus also acts as a novel risk factor for stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD). In conclusion, our study reveals novel common genetic risk factors for VTE, stroke and CAD and provides evidence that self-reported data on blood clots used in a GWAS yield results that are comparable with those obtained using clinically diagnosed VTE. This observation opens up the potential for larger meta-analyses, which will enable elucidation of the genetics of thrombotic diseases, and serves as an example for the genetic study of other diseases.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Trombose/genética , Complexo 1 de Proteínas Adaptadoras/genética , Subunidades mu do Complexo de Proteínas Adaptadoras/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Fator Nuclear 90/genética , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 96(4): 532-42, 2015 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25772935

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), the third leading cause of cardiovascular mortality, is a complex thrombotic disorder with environmental and genetic determinants. Although several genetic variants have been found associated with VTE, they explain a minor proportion of VTE risk in cases. We undertook a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to identify additional VTE susceptibility genes. Twelve GWASs totaling 7,507 VTE case subjects and 52,632 control subjects formed our discovery stage where 6,751,884 SNPs were tested for association with VTE. Nine loci reached the genome-wide significance level of 5 × 10(-8) including six already known to associate with VTE (ABO, F2, F5, F11, FGG, and PROCR) and three unsuspected loci. SNPs mapping to these latter were selected for replication in three independent case-control studies totaling 3,009 VTE-affected individuals and 2,586 control subjects. This strategy led to the identification and replication of two VTE-associated loci, TSPAN15 and SLC44A2, with lead risk alleles associated with odds ratio for disease of 1.31 (p = 1.67 × 10(-16)) and 1.21 (p = 2.75 × 10(-15)), respectively. The lead SNP at the TSPAN15 locus is the intronic rs78707713 and the lead SLC44A2 SNP is the non-synonymous rs2288904 previously shown to associate with transfusion-related acute lung injury. We further showed that these two variants did not associate with known hemostatic plasma markers. TSPAN15 and SLC44A2 do not belong to conventional pathways for thrombosis and have not been associated to other cardiovascular diseases nor related quantitative biomarkers. Our findings uncovered unexpected actors of VTE etiology and pave the way for novel mechanistic concepts of VTE pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Tetraspaninas/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Razão de Chances
16.
Nat Commun ; 6: 6326, 2015 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25716334

RESUMO

The interplay between genetic and epigenetic variation is only partially understood. One form of epigenetic variation is methylation at CpG sites, which can be measured as methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTL). Here we report that in a panel of lymphocytes from 1,748 individuals, methylation levels at 1,919 CpG sites are correlated with at least one distal (trans) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (P<3.2 × 10(-13); FDR<5%). These trans-meQTLs include 1,657 SNP-CpG pairs from different chromosomes and 262 pairs from the same chromosome that are >1 Mb apart. Over 90% of these pairs are replicated (FDR<5%) in at least one of two independent data sets. Genomic loci harbouring trans-meQTLs are significantly enriched (P<0.001) for long non-coding transcripts (2.2-fold), known epigenetic regulators (2.3-fold), piwi-interacting RNA clusters (3.6-fold) and curated transcription factors (4.1-fold), including zinc-finger proteins (8.75-fold). Long-range epigenetic networks uncovered by this approach may be relevant to normal and disease states.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Genótipo , Humanos , Linfócitos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Diabetologia ; 58(3): 543-8, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25476525

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The genetic determinants of diabetic nephropathy remain poorly understood. We aimed to identify novel susceptibility genes for diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study using 1000 Genomes-based imputation to compare type 1 diabetic nephropathy cases with proteinuria and with or without renal failure with control patients who have had diabetes for more than 15 years and no evidence of renal disease. RESULTS: None of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tested in a discovery cohort composed of 683 cases and 779 controls reached genome-wide statistical significance. The 46 top hits (p < 10(-5)) were then sought for first-stage analysis in the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes US (US-GoKinD) study, an independent population of 820 cases and 885 controls. Two SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other and located in the SORBS1 gene were consistently and significantly (p < 10(-4)) associated with diabetic nephropathy. The minor rs1326934-C allele was less frequent in cases than in controls (0.34 vs 0.43) and was associated with a decreased risk for diabetic nephropathy (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.60, 0.82). However, this association was not observed in a second stage with two additional diabetic nephropathy cohorts, the All Ireland-Warren 3-Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes UK and Republic of Ireland (UK-ROI; p = 0.15) and the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane; p = 0.44) studies, totalling 2,142 cases and 2,494 controls. Altogether, the random-effect meta-analysed rs1326934-C allele OR for diabetic nephropathy was 0.83 (95% CI 0.72, 0.96; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These data suggest that SORBS1 might be a gene involved in diabetic nephropathy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 9(9): e108087, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25265411

RESUMO

In order to investigate whether DNA methylation marks could contribute to the incomplete penetrance of the FV Leiden mutation, a major genetic risk factor for venous thrombosis (VT), we measured genome-wide DNA methylation levels in peripheral blood samples of 98 VT patients carrying the mutation and 251 VT patients without the mutation using the dedicated Illumina HumanMethylation450 array. The genome-wide analysis of 388,120 CpG probes identified three sites mapping to the SLC19A2 locus whose DNA methylation levels differed significantly (p<3 10-8) between carriers and non-carriers. The three sites replicated (p<2 10-7) in an independent sample of 214 individuals from five large families ascertained on VT and FV Leiden mutation among which 53 were carriers and 161 were non-carriers of the mutation. In both studies, these three CpG sites were also associated (2.33 10-110.05). In conclusion, our work clearly illustrates some promises and pitfalls of DNA methylation investigations on peripheral blood DNA in large epidemiological cohorts. DNA methylation levels at SLC19A2 are influenced by SNPs in LD with FV Leiden, but these DNA methylation marks do not explain the incomplete penetrance of the FV Leiden mutation.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Fator V/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mutação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 7(5): 634-41, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25053723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a circulating vasoactive peptide involved in vascular homeostasis and endothelial function. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the ADM gene are associated with blood pressure variability, and elevated levels of plasma midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-pro-ADM) are associated with cardiovascular diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the sources of variability of ADM gene expression and plasma MR-pro-ADM concentrations in the general population, and their relationship with markers of atherosclerosis. MR-pro-ADM levels were assessed in 4155 individuals who underwent evaluation of carotid intima-media thickness and arterial rigidity (reflection index and stiffness index). In a subsample of 1372 individuals, ADM gene expression was assessed as part of a transcriptomic study of circulating monocytes. Nongenetic factors explained 45.8% and 7.5% of MR-pro-ADM and ADM expression variability, respectively. ADM expression correlated with plasma C-reactive protein, interleukin-receptor 1A, and myeloperoxidase, whereas MR-pro-ADM levels correlated with C-terminal proendothelin-1, creatinine, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Genome-wide association study of ADM expression and MR-pro-ADM levels both identified a single locus encompassing the ADM gene. ADM expression was associated with 1 single nucleotide polymorphism rs11042717 (P=2.36×10(-12)), whereas MR-pro-ADM was associated with 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms with additive effects, rs2957692 (P=1.54×10(-13)) and rs2957717 (P=4.24×10(-8)). Reflection index was independently associated with rs11042717 (P<10(-4)) and ADM expression (P=0.0002) but not with MR-pro-ADM. Weaker associations were observed for stiffness index. Intima-media thickness was not related to ADM single nucleotide polymorphisms or expression. CONCLUSIONS: These results support an involvement of the ADM gene in the modulation of peripheral vascular tone.


Assuntos
Adrenomedulina/sangue , Adrenomedulina/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Rigidez Vascular/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/genética , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/citologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transcrição Genética , Transcriptoma
20.
J Exp Med ; 211(7): 1349-62, 2014 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24958846

RESUMO

The nature of an inherited platelet disorder was investigated in three siblings affected by severe bleeding. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified the culprit mutation (cG742T) in the RAS guanyl-releasing protein-2 (RASGRP2) gene coding for calcium- and DAG-regulated guanine exchange factor-1 (CalDAG-GEFI). Platelets from individuals carrying the mutation present a reduced ability to activate Rap1 and to perform proper αIIbß3 integrin inside-out signaling. Expression of CalDAG-GEFI mutant in HEK293T cells abolished Rap1 activation upon stimulation. Nevertheless, the PKC- and ADP-dependent pathways allow residual platelet activation in the absence of functional CalDAG-GEFI. The mutation impairs the platelet's ability to form thrombi under flow and spread normally as a consequence of reduced Rac1 GTP-binding. Functional deficiencies were confined to platelets and megakaryocytes with no leukocyte alteration. This contrasts with the phenotype seen in type III leukocyte adhesion deficiency caused by the absence of kindlin-3. Heterozygous did not suffer from bleeding and have normal platelet aggregation; however, their platelets mimicked homozygous ones by failing to undergo normal adhesion under flow and spreading. Rescue experiments on cultured patient megakaryocytes corrected the functional deficiency after transfection with wild-type RASGRP2. Remarkably, the presence of a single normal allele is sufficient to prevent bleeding, making CalDAG-GEFI a novel and potentially safe therapeutic target to prevent thrombosis.


Assuntos
Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea , Plaquetas , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina , Hemorragia , Mutação , Agregação Plaquetária/genética , Difosfato de Adenosina/genética , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/metabolismo , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/patologia , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Plaquetas/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Guanosina Trifosfato/genética , Guanosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Hemorragia/genética , Hemorragia/metabolismo , Hemorragia/patologia , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Megacariócitos/metabolismo , Megacariócitos/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIIb-IIIa de Plaquetas , Proteína Quinase C/genética , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA