Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 54
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580459

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical features, laboratory data and fetal-maternal outcomes between 1000 women with obstetric APS (OAPS) and 640 with aPL-related obstetric complications not fulfilling Sydney criteria (non-criteria OAPS, NC-OAPS). METHODS: This was a retrospective and prospective multicentre study from the European Registry on Obstetric Antiphospholipid Syndrome. RESULTS: A total of 1650 women with 5251 episodes, 3601 of which were historical and 1650 latest episodes, were included. Altogether, 1000 cases (OAPS group) fulfilled the Sydney classification criteria and 650 (NC-OAPS group) did not. Ten NC-OAPS cases were excluded for presenting thrombosis during follow-up. All cases were classified as category I (triple positivity or double positivity for aPL) or category II (simple positivity). Overall, aPL laboratory categories showed significant differences: 29.20% in OAPS vs 17.96% in NC-OAPS (P < 0.0001) for category I, and 70.8% in OAPS vs 82% in NC-OAPS (P < 0.0001) for category II. Significant differences were observed when current obstetric complications were compared (P < 0.001). However, major differences between groups were not observed in treatment rates, livebirths and thrombotic complications. In the NC-OAPS group, 176/640 (27.5%) did not fulfil Sydney clinical criteria (subgroup A), 175/640 (27.34%) had a low titre and/or non-persistent aPL positivity but did meet the clinical criteria (subgroup B) and 289/640 (45.15%) had a high aPL titre but did not fulfil Sydney clinical criteria (subgroup C). CONCLUSION: Significant clinical and laboratory differences were found between groups. Fetal-maternal outcomes were similar in both groups when treated. These results suggest that we could improve our clinical practice with better understanding of NC-OAPS patients.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1948, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475009

RESUMO

Objective: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are risk factors for thrombosis and adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO). The management of the so called "aPL carriers" (subjects with aPL positivity without the clinical criteria manifestations of APS) is still undefined. This study aims at retrospectively evaluating the outcomes and the factors associated with APO and maternal complications in 62 pregnant aPL carriers. Methods: Medical records of pregnant women regularly attending the Pregnancy Clinic of 3 Rheumatology centers from January 1994 to December 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with concomitant autoimmune diseases or other causes of pregnancy complications were excluded. Results: An aPL-related event was recorded in 8 out of 62 patients (12.9%) during pregnancy: 2 thrombosis and 6 APO. At univariate analysis, factors associated with pregnancy complications were acquired risk factors (p:0.008), non-criteria aPL manifestations (p:0.024), lupus-like manifestations (p:0.013), and triple positive aPL profile (p:0.001). At multivariate analysis, only the association with a triple aPL profile was confirmed (p:0.01, OR 21.3, CI 95% 1.84-247). Patients with triple aPL positivity had a higher rate of pregnancy complications, despite they were more frequently receiving combined treatment of low dose aspirin (LDA) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) at prophylactic dose. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of risk stratification in pregnant aPL carriers, in terms of both immunologic and non-immunologic features. Combination treatment with LDA and LMWH did not prevent APO in some cases, especially in carriers of triple aPL positivity. Triple positive aPL carriers may deserve additional therapeutic strategies during pregnancy.

3.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 40(2): 278-294, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137066

RESUMO

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired prothrombotic condition characterized by vascular thrombosis and/or obstetric complications, in the persistent positivity of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). The clinical spectrum of manifestations associated with aPL positivity is progressively expanding, including the description of several lung manifestations. The most common pulmonary involvement related to aPL positivity is pulmonary embolism (PE), which has been reported to occur in 14.1% of APS patients during disease course. PE acknowledges a purely thrombotic etiology and thus might be accounted as a criterion for APS, making imperative to test aPL in young subjects with unprovoked PE. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can manifest in APS patients, being the second most common lung complication of the syndrome, with a prevalence ranging between 1.8 and 3.5%. aPL-positive patients might present PH following a PE, might develop pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with connective tissue disease, or might present pulmonary venous hypertension due to Libman-Sacks endocarditis. Additional lung manifestations, such as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and pulmonary fibrosis, are rarely described in APS patients; it is still not clear whether in these settings aPLs exert a pathogenic role or is a mere epiphenomenon. Hereby we discuss impact, clinical presentation, histopathologic findings, etiology, and treatment of each aPL-associated lung manifestation.

4.
Front Immunol ; 10: 773, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031764

RESUMO

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a chronic and disabling condition characterized by recurrent thrombosis and miscarriages mediated by antibodies against phospholipid-binding proteins (aPL), such as beta2glycoprotein I (ß2GPI). Complement is involved in APS animal models and complement deposits have been documented in placenta and thrombotic vessels despite normal serum levels. Analysis of circulating blood cells coated with C4d displays higher sensitivity than the conventional assays that measure soluble native complement components and their unstable activation products in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). As C4d-coated blood cell count has been reported to be more sensitive than serum levels of complement components and their activation products in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, we decided to evaluate the percentage of C4d positive B lymphocytes (BC4d), erythrocytes (EC4d), and platelets (PC4d) in primary APS patients and asymptomatic aPL positive carriers as marker of complement activation in APS. We assessed by flow cytometry the percentages of BC4d, EC4d, and PC4d in primary APS (PAPS; n. 23), 8 asymptomatic aPL positive carriers, 11 APS-associated SLE (SAPS), 17 aPL positive SLE, 16 aPL negative SLE, 8 aPL negative patients with previous thrombosis, 11 immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients, and 26 healthy subjects. In addition, we used an in vitro model to evaluate the ability of a monoclonal anti-ß2GPI antibody (MBB2) to bind to normal resting or activated platelets and fix complement. EC4d and PC4d percentages were significantly higher in PAPS and aPL carriers as well as aPL positive SLE and SAPS than in aPL negative controls. The highest values were found in PAPS and in SAPS. The EC4d and PC4d percentages were significantly correlated with serum C3/C4 and anti-ß2GPI/anti-cardiolipin IgG. In vitro studies showed that MBB2 bound to activated platelets only and induced C4d deposition. The detection of the activation product C4d on circulating erythrocytes and platelets supports the role of complement activation in APS. Complement may represent a new therapeutic target for better treatment and prevention of disability of APS patients.

5.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(4): 406-414, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772493

RESUMO

AIM: To analyse the clinical features, laboratory data and foetal-maternal outcomes, and follow them up on a cohort of 1000 women with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (OAPS). METHODS: The European Registry of OAPS became a registry within the framework of the European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibody projects and was placed on a website in June 2010. Thirty hospitals throughout Europe have collaborated to carry out this registry. Cases with obstetric complaints related to antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) who tested positive for aPL at least twice were included prospectively and retrospectively. The seven-year survey results are reported. RESULTS: 1000 women with 3553 episodes were included of which 2553 were historical and 1000 were latest episodes. All cases fulfilled the Sydney classification criteria. According to the laboratory categories, 292 (29.2%) were in category I, 357 (35.7%) in IIa, 224 (22.4%) in IIb and 127 (12.7%) in IIc. Miscarriages were the most prevalent clinical manifestation in 386 cases (38.6%). Moreover, the presence of early preeclampsia (PE) and early foetal growth restriction (FGR) appeared in 181 (18.1%) and 161 (16.1%), respectively. In this series, 448 (44.8%) women received the recommended OAPS treatment. Patients with recommended treatment had a good live-birth rate (85%), but worse results (72.4%) were obtained in patients with any treatment (low-dose aspirin (LDA) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) not on recommended schedule, while patients with no treatment showed a poor birth rate (49.6%). CONCLUSION: In this series, recurrent miscarriage is the most frequent poor outcome. To avoid false-negative diagnoses, all laboratory category subsets were needed. OAPS cases have very good foetal-maternal outcomes when treated. Results suggest that we were able to improve our clinical practice to offer better treatment and outcomes to OAPS patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aborto Habitual/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Habitual/epidemiologia , Aborto Habitual/etiologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/imunologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/imunologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Exp Med ; 216(2): 317-336, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655308

RESUMO

Altered control of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells can lead to generation of autoantibodies and autoimmune manifestations. Signaling pathways that selectively limit pathogenic responses without affecting the protective function of Tfh cells are unknown. Here we show that the ATP-gated ionotropic P2X7 receptor restricts the expansion of aberrant Tfh cells and the generation of self-reactive antibodies in experimental murine lupus, but its activity is dispensable for the expansion of antigen-specific Tfh cells during vaccination. P2X7 stimulation promotes caspase-mediated pyroptosis of Tfh cells and controls the development of pathogenic ICOS+ IFN-γ-secreting cells. Circulating Tfh cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but not primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS), a nonlupus systemic autoimmune disease, were hyporesponsive to P2X7 stimulation and resistant to P2X7-mediated inhibition of cytokine-driven expansion. These data point to the P2X7 receptor as a checkpoint regulator of Tfh cells; thus, restoring P2X7 activity in SLE patients could selectively limit the progressive amplification of pathogenic autoantibodies, which deteriorate patients' conditions.

7.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(2): 164-176, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572134

RESUMO

Pregnancy requires a special management in women with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (RDs), with the aim of controlling maternal disease activity and avoiding fetal complications. Despite the heterogeneous course of RDs during pregnancy, their impact on pregnancy largely relates to the extent of active inflammation at the time of conception. Therefore, accurate evaluation of disease activity is crucial for the best management of pregnant patients. Nevertheless, there are limitations in using conventional measures of disease activity in pregnancy, as some items included in these instruments can be biased by symptoms or by physiological changes related to pregnancy and the pregnancy itself may influence laboratory parameters used to assess disease activity. This article aims to summarize the current literature about the available instruments to measure disease activity during pregnancy in RDs. Systemic lupus erythematosus is the only disease with instruments that have been modified to account for several adaptations which might interfere with the attribution of signs or symptoms to disease activity during pregnancy. No modified-pregnancy indices exist for women affected by other RDs, but standard indices have been applied to pregnant patients. The current body of knowledge shows that the physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy need to be either adapted from existing instruments or developed to improve the management of pregnant women with RDs. Standardized instruments to assess disease activity during pregnancy would be helpful not only for clinical practice but also for research purposes.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Doenças Reumáticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/patologia , Doenças Reumáticas/patologia
8.
Joint Bone Spine ; 86(4): 475-481, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579917

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The reproductive choices of women affected by rheumatic diseases (RD) can be influenced by several factors, including the quality of physician-patient communication. We conducted a survey on reproductive issues aiming at exploring the unmet needs of women with RD during childbearing age. METHODS: We administered 65 multiple-choice and 12 open-answer questions about pregnancy counselling, contraception, use of drugs during pregnancy and other women reproductive issues to 477 consecutive women with RD aged 18-55 years followed-up in 24 rheumatology centres in Italy. Analysis was restricted to 398 patients who received their diagnosis of RD before the age of 45. According to the RD diagnosis, patients were subdivided into 2 groups: connective tissue diseases (n = 249) and chronic arthritis (n = 149). RESULTS: At the time of interview, women in both groups had a mean age of 40 years. Nearly one third of patients in each group declared not to have received any counselling about either pregnancy desire nor contraception. A smaller family size than desired was reported by nearly 37% of patients, because of concerns related to maternal disease in one fourth of the cases. A "Disease Knowledge Index" (DKI) was created to investigate the degree of patients' information about the implications of their RD on reproductive issues. Having received counselling was associated with higher DKI values and with a positive impact on family planning. CONCLUSION: Italian women of childbearing age affected by RD reported several unmet needs in their knowledge about reproductive issues. Strategies are needed to implement and facilitate physician-patient communication.

9.
Autoimmun Rev ; 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408582

RESUMO

Autoimmune rheumatic diseases are characterised by an abnormal immune system response, complement activation, cytokines dysregulation and inflammation. In last years, despite many progresses in managing these patients, it has been shown that clinical remission is reached in less than 50% of patients and a personalised and tailored therapeutic approach is still lacking resulting in a significant gap between guidelines and real-world practice. In this context, the need for biomarkers facilitating early diagnosis and profiling those individuals at the highest risk for a poor outcome has become of crucial interest. A biomarker generally refers to a measured characteristic which may be used as an indicator of some biological state or condition. Three different types of medical biomarkers has been suggested: i. mechanistic markers; ii. clinical disease markers; iii. therapeutic markers. A combination of biomarkers from these different groups could be used for an ideal more accurate diagnosis and treatment. However, although a growing body of evidence is focused on improving biomarkers, a significant amount of this information is not integrated on standard clinical care. The overarching aim of this work was to clarify the meaning of specific biomarkers during autoimmune diseases; their possible role in confirming diagnosis, predicting outcome and suggesting specific treatments.

10.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 11(10): 987-998, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227748

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Biological agents have radically changed the prognosis of rheumatic patients. Current evidence demonstrates that tight disease control during pregnancy is mandatory to minimize adverse outcome risk. As the new therapeutic tools are pivotal to maintain appropriate disease activity, it is timely to review available evidence about the safety of biologics and small molecules in pregnancy. Areas covered: A comprehensive literature review has been performed, reporting available data about the passage into breast milk, rate of pregnancy loss and fetal malformations, and long-term complications due to in utero exposure to biological agents and small molecules. Expert commentary: Data about the safety of agents against tumor necrosis factor in pregnancy are reassuring. Even rituximab, tocilizumab, belimumab, ustekinumab, secukinumab, and abatacept have not been associated with an increased rate of fetal abnormalities or adverse pregnancy outcome. Experience with small molecules is too small to draw any conclusion. Even if further data are warranted to define the possible long-term effects of in utero biologic exposure on the infant immune system development, it is reasonable to speculate that in the next future the use of biologics during pregnancy will continue to expand, at least when maternal benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Doenças Reumáticas/fisiopatologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
11.
Blood ; 132(13): 1365-1371, 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002145

RESUMO

Rivaroxaban is an effective and safe alternative to warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. We tested the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in high-risk patients with thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome. This is a randomized open-label multicenter noninferiority study with blinded end point adjudication. Rivaroxaban, 20 mg once daily (15 mg once daily based on kidney function) was compared with warfarin (international normalized ratio target 2.5) for the prevention of thromboembolic events, major bleeding, and vascular death in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. Only high-risk patients triple positive for lupus anticoagulant, anti-cardiolipin, and anti-ß2-glycoprotein I antibodies of the same isotype (triple positivity) were included in the study. The trial was terminated prematurely after the enrollment of 120 patients (59 randomized to rivaroxaban and 61 to warfarin) because of an excess of events among patients in the rivaroxaban arm. Mean follow-up was 569 days. There were 11 (19%) events in the rivaroxaban group, and 2 (3%) events in the warfarin group. Thromboembolic events occurred in 7 (12%) patients randomized to rivaroxaban (4 ischemic stroke and 3 myocardial infarction), whereas no event was recorded in those randomized to warfarin. Major bleeding occurred in 6 patients: 4 (7%) in the rivaroxaban group and 2 (3%) in the warfarin group. No death was reported. The use of rivaroxaban in high-risk patients with antiphospholipid syndrome was associated with an increased rate of events compared with warfarin, thus showing no benefit and excess risk. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02157272.

12.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1388, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971066

RESUMO

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired autoimmune disease characterized by thromboembolic events, pregnancy morbidity, and the presence of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies. There is sound evidence that aPL act as pathogenic autoantibodies being responsible for vascular clots and miscarriages. However, the exact mechanisms involved in the clinical manifestations of the syndrome are still a matter of investigation. In particular, while vascular thrombosis is apparently not associated with inflammation, the pathogenesis of miscarriages can be explained only in part by the aPL-mediated hypercoagulable state and additional non-thrombotic effects, including placental inflammation, have been described. Despite this difference, evidence obtained from animal models and studies in APS patients support the conclusion that complement activation is a common denominator in both vascular and obstetric APS. Tissue-bound aPL rather than circulating aPL-beta2 glycoprotein I immune complexes seem to be responsible for the activation of the classical and the alternative complement pathways. The critical role of complement is supported by the finding that complement-deficient animals are protected from the pathogenic effect of passively infused aPL and similar results have been obtained blocking complement activation. Moreover, elevated levels of complement activation products in the absence of abnormalities in regulatory molecules have been found in the plasma of APS patients, strongly suggesting that the activation of complement cascade is the result of aPL binding to the target antigen rather than of a defective regulation. Placental complement deposits represent a further marker of complement activation both in animals and in patients, and there is also some suggestive evidence that complement activation products are deposited in the affected vessels. The aim of this review is to analyze the state of the art of complement involvement in the pathogenesis of APS in order to provide insights into the role of this system as predictive biomarker for the clinical manifestations and as therapeutic target.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the most common autoimmune disease associated with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), limited data exist on the impact of SLE on the clinical phenotype of aPL-positive patients. The primary objective was to compare the clinical, laboratory, and treatment characteristics of aPL-positive patients with or without SLE. METHODS: A secure web-based data capture system stores patient demographics, and aPL-related clinical and laboratory characteristics. Inclusion criteria include aPL positivity according to the Updated Sapporo Classification Criteria. Patients fulfilling the SLE Classification Criteria and those with no other autoimmune diseases were included in the analysis. RESULTS: 672 aPL-positive patients were recruited from 24 international centers; 426 were without other autoimmune diseases and 197 with SLE. The aPL with SLE group had higher rates of thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, low complements, and IgA anti-ß2 glycoprotein-I antibodies (aß2GPI), whereas the aPL only group had higher rates of cognitive dysfunction and IgG aß2GPI. The frequency of arterial and venous thromboses (including recurrent) as well as the pregnancy morbidity were similar between the groups. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors at the registry entry did not differ between the two groups, except current smoking, which was more frequent in aPL with SLE group. CONCLUSIONS: Although the frequencies of thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity are similar between aPL-positive patients with or without SLE, the diagnosis of SLE in persistently aPL-positive patients is associated with an increased frequency of thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, low complements, and IgA aß2GPI positivity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 36(4): 643-647, 2018 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29533753

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: B cells play an important role in the initiation and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Accordingly, B cell-targeted therapy has been suggested as a new rational approach for treating lupus. Belimumab, a human monoclonal antibody directed against B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), was reported as the first biological treatment effective in reducing mild-to-moderate SLE disease activity by using different scoring systems and endpoints. Conversely clinical trials with rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 expressed by B cells, have failed to achieve primary endpoints in spite of a number of reports showing its beneficial effects. Anecdotal reports have described the sequential use of rituximab and belimumab as a more effective treatment than using the individual drugs alone, without compromising safety. METHODS: We report a case series of three patients with active SLE refractory to conventional therapies, who underwent treatment with rituximab followed by belimumab as maintenance therapy. RESULTS: We observed a beneficial effect after sequential treatment with rituximab and belimumab. All patients achieved long-standing remission and could reduce or discontinue corticosteroids. Concomitantly, after rituximab administration we observed a rise in BLyS levels, which were dramatically reduced after belimumab introduction. CONCLUSIONS: The modulation of plasma BLyS kinetics in patients undergoing sequential treatment with rituximab and belimumab may represent a possible rationale behind the effectiveness of this combined therapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Fator Ativador de Células B/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Thromb Haemost ; 118(4): 639-646, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29490410

RESUMO

The effect of additional treatments combined with conventional therapy on pregnancy outcomes was examined in high-risk primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) patients to identify the most effective treatment strategy. The study's inclusion criteria were (1) positivity to lupus anticoagulant alone or associated with anticardiolipin and/or anti-ß2 glycoprotein I antibodies; (2) a history of severe maternal-foetal complications (Group I) or a history of one or more pregnancies refractory to conventional therapy leading to unexplained foetal deaths not associated with severe maternal-foetal complications (Group II). Two different additional treatments were considered: oral-low-dose steroids (10-20 mg prednisone daily) and/or 200 to 400 mg daily doses of hydroxychloroquine and parenteral-intravenous immunoglobulins at 2 g/kg per month and/or plasma exchange. The study's primary outcomes were live birth rates and pregnancy complications. A total of 194 pregnant PAPS patients attending 20 tertiary centres were retrospectively enrolled. Hydroxychloroquine was found to be linked to a significantly higher live birth rate with respect to the other oral treatments in the Group II patients. The high (400 mg) versus low (200 mg) doses of hydroxychloroquine (p = 0.036) and its administration before versus during pregnancy (p = 0.021) were associated with a significantly higher live birth rate. Hydroxychloroquine therapy appeared particularly efficacious in the PAPS patients without previous thrombosis. Parenteral treatments were associated with a significantly higher live birth rate with respect to the oral ones (p = 0.037), particularly in the Group I patients. In conclusion, some additional treatments were found to be safe and efficacious in high-risk PAPS pregnant women.

16.
J Autoimmun ; 90: 1-27, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29449131

RESUMO

Anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired pro-thrombotic autoimmune disease that predisposes to thrombotic events and/or obstetric complications, in the persistent presence of anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL). Life long moderate-intensity anticoagulation is the option of choice for aPL-positive patients with a previous thrombosis; critical issues concern the management of those with a history of arterial event due to the high rate of recurrence. Alternatives comprise anti-platelet agents and high-intensity anticoagulation. Low dose aspirin (LDASA) and low molecular weight heparin provide the mainstay of the treatment of obstetric APS, allowing a birth rate in 70% of cases. The management of refractory APS, thrombotic as well as obstetric, is highly debated, but an increasing burden of evidence points towards the beneficial effects of multiple treatments. Similarly, a management envisaging multiple drugs (anticoagulation, steroids, plasma exchange and/or intravenous immunoglobulins) is the most effective approach in catastrophic APS. Asymptomatic aPL carriers are at higher risk of thrombotic and obstetric complications compared to the general population, thus potentially benefitting of a pharmacological intervention. LDASA and hydroxychloroquine can be considered as options, in particular in case of high risk aPL profile, concomitant cardiovascular risk factors or associated autoimmune disease. APS is apparently a simple condition, but its multifaceted nature requires a complex and tailored treatment.

17.
J Autoimmun ; 90: 76-83, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29454510

RESUMO

Antibodies against ß2 glycoprotein I (anti-ß2GPI) have been identified as the main pathogenic autoantibody subset in anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS); the most relevant epitope is a cryptic and conformation-dependent structure on ß2GPI domain (D) 1. Anti-ß2GPI domain profiling has been investigated in thrombotic APS, leading to the identification of antibodies targeting D1 as the main subpopulation. In contrast, scarce attention has been paid to obstetric APS, hence this study aimed at characterizing the domain reactivity with regards to pregnancy morbidity (PM). To this end, 135 women with persistently positive, medium/high titre anti-ß2GPI IgG, without any associated systemic autoimmune diseases and at least one previous pregnancy were included: 27 asymptomatic carriers; 53 women with obstetric APS; 20 women with thrombotic APS; and 35 women with both thrombotic and obstetric complications. Anti-D1 and anti-D4/5 antibodies were tested using a chemiluminescent immunoassay and a research ELISA assay, respectively (QUANTA Flash® ß2GPI Domain 1 IgG and QUANTA Lite® ß2GPI D4/5 IgG, Inova Diagnostics). Positivity for anti-D1 antibodies, but not anti-D4/5 antibodies, was differently distributed across the 4 subgroups of patients (p < 0.0001) and significantly correlated with thrombosis (χ2 = 17.28, p < 0.0001) and PM (χ2 = 4.28, p = 0.039). Patients with triple positivity for anti-phospholipid antibodies displayed higher anti-D1 titres and lower anti-D4/5 titres compared to women with one or two positive tests (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.005, respectively). Reactivity against D1 was identified as a predictor for PM (OR 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-5.0, p = 0.017); in particular, anti-D1 antibodies were predictive of late PM, conveying an odds ratio of 7.3 (95% CI 2.1-25.5, p = 0.022). Positivity for anti-D1 antibodies was not associated with early pregnancy loss. Anti-D4/5 antibodies were not associated with clinical APS manifestations. As a whole, our data suggest that anti-D1 antibodies are significantly associated not only with thrombosis, but also with late PM, while positive anti-D4/5 antibodies are not predictive of thrombosis or PM.

18.
J Autoimmun ; 86: 1-8, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate efficacy, safety and survival of belimumab and to identify predictors of drug response and drug discontinuation in patients with active SLE in clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of SLE patients, treated with belimumab, from 11 Italian prospective cohorts were analyzed. SLEDAI-2K, anti-dsDNA, C3, C4, prednisone daily dose, DAS-28, 24-h proteinuria, CLASIa (Cutaneous LE Disease Area and Severity Index Activity) were recorded at baseline and every 6 months. SLE Responder Index-4 (SRI-4) was calculated at 12 and 24 months. Demographic and clinical features and comorbidities were included in the univariate and multivariate analysis. Adverse events were recorded at each visit. Statistics was performed using the SPSS software. RESULTS: We studied 188 SLE patients, mean follow-up 17.5 ± 10.6 months. The most frequent manifestations, which required the use of belimumab, were polyarthritis (45.2%) and skin rashes (25.5%). SRI-4 was achieved by 77.0% and 68.7% of patients at 12 and 24-months. Independent predictors of 12-month response were SLEDAI-2K ≥ 10 (OR 40.46, p = 0.001) and polyarthritis (OR 12.64, p = 0.001) and of 24-month response were SLEDAI-2K ≥ 10 (OR 15.97, p = 0.008), polyarthritis (OR 32.36, p = 0.006), and prednisone ≥7.5 mg/day (OR 9.94, p = 0.026). We observed a low rate of severe adverse events. Fifty-eight patients (30.8%) discontinued belimumab after a mean follow-up of 10.4 ± 7.5 months. The drug survival was 86.9%, 76.9%, 69.4%, 67.1%, and 61.9% at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months, respectively. No factors associated with drug discontinuation were found. CONCLUSION: Belimumab is effective and safe when used in clinical practice setting.

19.
J Rheumatol ; 44(8): 1165-1172, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28572466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the longterm frequency of thrombotic recurrences, obstetrical complications, organ damage, severe comorbidities, and evolution toward connective tissue disease (CTD) in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS). METHODS: Medical records of patients with PAPS followed in 6 centers for ≥ 15 years were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: One hundred fifteen patients were studied: 88% women, followed between 1983 and 2014 with a mean (± SD) age at diagnosis of 33 (± 10) years. During a median followup of 18 years (range 15-30), 50 patients (44%) had at least a thrombotic event for a total of 75 events and an annual incidence of 3.5%. Thromboses were more frequent in patients with previous thrombotic history (p = 0.002). A catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome occurred in 6 patients (5%). The use of oral anticoagulants in patients with thrombotic onset did not appear to be protective against recurrences (p = 0.26). Fifty-two women had 87 pregnancies, successful in 78%. Twenty-nine percent of patients accrued functional damage. Damage was significantly associated with a thrombotic history (p = 0.004) and with arterial events (p < 0.001), especially stroke, but not with demographics, serology, or treatment. Twenty-four major bleeding episodes were recorded in 18 patients, all receiving anticoagulants. Severe infections affected 6 patients (5%), with 1 fatality. A solid cancer was diagnosed in 8 patients (7%). Altogether, 16 patients (14%) developed an autoimmune disease and 13 (11%) a full-blown picture of CTD. CONCLUSION: Despite therapy, a high proportion of patients experienced new thrombotic events and organ damage, while evolution toward CTD was infrequent.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/etiologia , Adulto , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Immunol ; 198(7): 2640-2648, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28193831

RESUMO

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by recurrent arterial/venous thrombosis and miscarriages in the persistent presence of autoantibodies against phospholipid-binding proteins (aPLs), such as ß2 glycoprotein I (ß2GPI). In addition to the aPL thrombophilic effect, arterial thrombosis was related to accelerated atherosclerosis in animal models; however, contrasting findings were reported in primary APS patients with regard to the increased number of plaques or abnormal arterial wall thickness. We investigated the cytokine production induced by ß2GPI in activated T cells that infiltrate in vivo atherosclerotic lesions of primary APS patients with atherothrombosis. We also examined the helper function of ß2GPI-specific T cells for monocyte matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue factor production, as well as their cytolytic potential and their helper function for Ab production. APS patients with atherothrombosis harbor in vivo-activated CD4+ T cells that recognize ß2GPI in atherothrombotic lesions. ß2GPI induces T cell proliferation and IFN-γ expression in plaque-derived T cell clones. ß2GPI-specific T cells display helper function for monocyte matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue factor production and promote Ig production in autologous B cells. Moreover, plaque-derived ß2GPI-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes express perforin-mediated and Fas/Fas ligand-mediated cytotoxicity. ß2GPI, and especially the DI domain, drive a local Th1 inflammatory response, with subsequent plaque instability that eventually favors atherothrombosis. This finding may explain the association between aPLs and arterial thrombosis, despite the lack of evidence of surrogate markers for atherosclerosis in primary APS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , beta 2-Glicoproteína I/imunologia , Adulto , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/patologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA