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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725262

RESUMO

The concern about the offspring's health is one of the reasons for a reduced family size of women with rheumatic diseases (RD). Increased risk of autoimmune diseases (AD) and neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) has been reported in children born to patients with RD. Within a nationwide survey about reproductive issues of women with RD, we aimed at exploring the long-term outcome of their children. By surveying 398 patients who received their diagnosis of RD during childbearing age (before the age of 45), information about the offspring were obtained from 230 women who declared to have had children. A total of 148 (64.3%) patients were affected by connective tissue diseases (CTD) and 82 (35.7%) by chronic arthritis. Data on 299 children (156 males, 52.1%; mean age at the time of interview 17.1 ± 9.7 years) were collected. Twelve children (4.0%), who were born to patients with CTD in 75% of the cases, were affected by AD (8 cases of celiac disease). Eleven children had a certified diagnosis of ND (3.6%; 6 cases of learning disabilities); 9 of them were born to mothers with CTD (5 after maternal diagnosis). No association was found between ND and prenatal exposure to either maternal autoantibodies or anti-rheumatic drugs. Absolute numbers of offspring affected by AD and ND were low in a multicentre cohort of Italian women with RD. This information can be helpful for the counselling about reproductive issues, as the health outcomes of the offspring might not be an issue which discourage women with RD from having children.

2.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(12): 102685, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115633

RESUMO

Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) are chronic conditions with a striking female predominance, frequently affecting women of childbearing age. Sex hormones and gender dimorphism of immune response are major determinants in the multifactorial pathogenesis of ARDs, with significant implications throughout reproductive life. Particularly, pregnancy represents a challenging condition in the context of autoimmunity, baring profound hormonal and immunologic changes, which are responsible for the bi-directional interaction between ARDs outcome and pregnancy course. In the latest years epigenetics has proven to be an important player in ARDs pathogenesis, finely modulating major immune functions and variably tuning the significant gender effects in autoimmunity. Additionally, epigenetics is a recognised influencer of the physiological dynamic modifications occurring during pregnancy. Still, there is currently little evidence on the pregnancy-related epigenetic modulation of immune response in ARDs patients. This review aims to overview the current knowledge of the role of epigenetics in the context of autoimmunity, as well as during physiologic and pathologic pregnancy, discussing under-regarded aspects in the interplay between ARDs and pregnancy pathology. The outline of a new ongoing European project will be presented.

3.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 126(4): 203-209, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to: i) perform an ultrasonographic (US) evaluation of the lacrimal glands (LGs) in healthy subjects in order to define the sonographic elementary lesions which could be identified in the LGs and describe their frequencies in healthy subjects; ii) test the intra and inter-rater agreement between four rheumatologists; iii) preliminary assess whether the elementary lesions of the LGs let us differentiate healthy subjects from primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients. METHODS: A consensus meeting was held to define the sonographic lesions to be evaluated. Healthy subjects and pSS patients underwent lacrimal glands ultrasound (LGUS) examinations in two Italian Rheumatology Clinics. A web-based reliability exercise was performed on healthy subjects' images by four rheumatologists. Afterward, images of pSS patients were evaluated for the presence of the sonographic lesions previously defined and compared to the US findings in healthy subjects. RESULTS: Fifty-seven healthy subjects and 17 pSS patients were evaluated. The intra and inter-rater reliability score was good-excellent for almost all the agreed US features assessed (glandular parenchyma visibility, size, homogeneity, hypoechoic areas, hyperechoic spots, fibrous gland appearance, fatty deposition). Among the LGUS elementary lesions in pSS patients compared with healthy subjects, we detected a significantly difference in glandular inhomogeneity [13/33 (39.4%) vs. 9/63 (14.3%), p=0.01], and in fibrous gland appearance [3/33 (9.1%) vs. 0/63 (0%), p=0.04]. CONCLUSIONS: In this preliminary study, LGUS proved to have a good-excellent intra and inter-rater reliability. The glandular parenchyma inhomogeneity and the fibrous gland appearance could help differentiate pSS patients from healthy subjects.


Assuntos
Aparelho Lacrimal , Síndrome de Sjogren , Estudos Transversais , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Aparelho Lacrimal/diagnóstico por imagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trial of Rivaroxaban in AntiPhospholipid Syndrome was a prospective randomized, open-label, noninferiority study conducted in 14 centers in Italy. Rivaroxaban was compared with warfarin for the prevention of thromboembolic events, major bleeding, and vascular death in high-risk, triple-positive patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to report the events during the 2-year follow-up after the study closure. METHODS: On January 28, 2018, the trial was prematurely stopped by adjudication and safety committee for an excess of events in the rivaroxaban group. Randomized patients were advised on trial results and those randomized to rivaroxaban were solicited to switch to warfarin. All 14 participating centers were asked and accepted to follow their patients for clinical events. This report describes the rate of events that occurred between January 28, 2018, and January 28, 2020. RESULTS: Of 120 randomized patients, 115 were available for follow-up. Outcome events were two in six (33.3%) patients who remained on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and six in 109 (5.7%) patients on warfarin (hazard ratio [HR] 6.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-34.5, P = .018). The two patients on DOACs (one taking dabigatran and one taking rivaroxaban) suffered from thromboembolic events, whereas of the six patients with composite outcomes on warfarin, three had thromboembolic events (HR for thrombosis 13.3; 95% CI 2.2-79.9, P = .005). CONCLUSION: These data further support the use of warfarin in high-risk patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe baseline characteristics of antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-positive patients, overall and by clinical and laboratory subtypes, enrolled in an international registry. METHODS: AntiPhospholipid Syndrome Alliance for Clinical Trials and InternatiOnal Networking Registry includes persistently aPL-positive adults. We evaluated baseline sociodemographic and aPL-related (APS classification criteria and "non-criteria") characteristics of patients overall and in subgroups (aPL-positive without APS, APS overall, thrombotic APS [TAPS] only, obstetric APS [OAPS] only, and both TAPS/OAPS). We assessed baseline characteristics of patients tested for three aPL (lupus anticoagulant test [LA], anticardiolipin antibody [aCL], and anti-ß2 -Glycoprotein-I [aß2 GPI]) by aPL profiles (LA only, single, double, and triple aPL positivity). RESULTS: Of 804 aPL-positive patients (mean age: 45 ± 13y; female: 74%; white 68%; other systemic autoimmune diseases: 36%), 80% were classified as APS (55% TAPS, 9% OAPS, and 15% TAPS/OAPS). In the overall cohort, 71% had vascular thrombosis, 50% with pregnancy history had obstetric morbidity, and 56% had at least one non-criteria manifestation. Among those with three aPL tested (n: 660), 42% were triple aPL positive. While single, double and triple aPL positive subgroups had similar frequencies of vascular, obstetric, and non-criteria events, these events were lowest in the single aPL subgroup consisting of aCL or aß2 GPI only. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates the heterogeneity of aPL-related clinical manifestations and laboratory profiles in a multicenter, international cohort. Within single aPL-positivity, LA may be a major contributor to clinical events. Future prospective analyses, using standardized core laboratory aPL tests, will help clarify aPL risk profiles and improve risk stratification.

6.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The AQUEOUS (Anti-phospholipid syndrome: a QUEstionnaire for yOUng patientS) study aimed to assess how the diagnosis of primary anti-phospholipid syndrome (PAPS) affects the psychosocial status of young patients. METHODS: Subjects with PAPS aged 18-45 years were invited to compile an ad hoc designed questionnaire and the Short Form-12 to assess quality of life (QoL). RESULTS: Ninety-two patients (83.7% females) were recruited in 10 Italian centres. Vascular and obstetric manifestations were equally represented. Nearly half of the patients perceived the need for psychological support, 89.2% when considering women after pregnancy complications. Social activities and working efficiency were reduced in APS patients, also intimacy was threatened. In all cases, fatigue appeared to be the main determinant. PAPS affected family planning, due to fears of treatment side-effects, disease hereditariness, inability to care for the newborn child. Fertility appeared to be conserved: the median time to pregnancy was 2 months; assisted reproduction techniques were pursued by 5 women. Our survey documented significantly lower rates of hospitalisation and learning disabilities in 51 children born after APS diagnosis as compared to 48 children born before. PAPS patients displayed lower QoL in physical and, to a greater extent, mental scores compared to the general Italian population. Both components were significantly lower in women and in patients with fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: The AQUEOUS study assessed for the first time the unmet needs of young PAPS patients, enabling the development of a future "youth-focused" strategy to reduce disease burden.

7.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 50(5): 1150-1157, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic disease characterised by autoimmunity and increased susceptibility to infections. COVID-19 is a systemic viral disease currently spreading as a pandemic. Little is known about the impact of COVID-19 in patients with SLE. OBJECTIVE: to acquire information on the impact of COVID-19 in SLE. METHODS: A 26-item anonymous questionnaire investigating demographics, SLE clinical features, COVID-19 diagnoses and changes in treatments and daily habits was administered to patients with SLE from three referral centres through www.surveymonkey.com over 10 days. Data from the survey were compared to those from published estimates about the general population. RESULTS: Four-hundred-seventeen patients responded to the survey. More than 60% of subjects complained of symptoms that are also associated to COVID-19. Fourteen COVID-19 diagnoses (five confirmed by polymerase chain reaction) were reported, in contrast to a 0.73% prevalence of confirmed cases in Lombardy. One hospitalisation was reported. Fever, anosmia, dry cough, a self-reported history of neuropsychiatric SLE and a recent contact with confirmed COVID-19 cases were more strongly associated with COVID-19, as were symptoms and lower compliance to behavioural preventive measures in patients' contacts. No protective effect was seen in subjects on hydroxychloroquine. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 morbidity might only moderately be increased in most patients with SLE, although limited information can be inferred on more severe cases. Hydroxychloroquine apparently seems not to confer protection to infection per se, although other beneficial roles cannot be excluded. Containment policies and behavioural preventive measures could have a major role in limiting the impact of COVID-19 in patients with SLE.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Avaliação de Sintomas/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Lupus ; : 961203320940776, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to use cluster analysis (CA) to identify different clinical phenotypes among antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL)-positive patients. METHODS: The Alliance for Clinical Trials and International Networking (APS ACTION) Registry includes persistently positive aPL of any isotype based on the Sydney antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) classification criteria. We performed CA on the baseline characteristics collected retrospectively at the time of the registry entry of the first 500 patients included in the registry. A total of 30 clinical data points were included in the primary CA to cover the broad spectrum of aPL-positive patients. RESULTS: A total of 497 patients from international centres were analysed, resulting in three main exclusive clusters: (a) female patients with no other autoimmune diseases but with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and triple-aPL positivity; (b) female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, VTE, aPL nephropathy, thrombocytopaenia, haemolytic anaemia and a positive lupus anticoagulant test; and (c) older men with arterial thrombosis, heart valve disease, livedo, skin ulcers, neurological manifestations and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our hierarchical cluster analysis, we identified different clinical phenotypes of aPL-positive patients discriminated by aPL profile, lupus or CVD risk factors. Our results, while supporting the heterogeneity of aPL-positive patients, also provide a foundation to understand disease mechanisms, create new approaches for APS classification and ultimately develop new management approaches.

10.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(9): 1218-1226, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The analysis of annotated transcripts from genome-wide expression studies may help to understand the pathogenesis of complex diseases, such as systemic sclerosis (SSc). We performed a whole blood (WB) transcriptome analysis on RNA collected in the context of the European PRECISESADS project, aiming at characterising the pathways that differentiate SSc from controls and that are reproducible in geographically diverse populations. METHODS: Samples from 162 patients and 252 controls were collected in RNA stabilisers. Cases and controls were divided into a discovery (n=79+163; Southern Europe) and validation cohort (n=83+89; Central-Western Europe). RNA sequencing was performed by an Illumina assay. Functional annotations of Reactome pathways were performed with the Functional Analysis of Individual Microarray Expression (FAIME) algorithm. In parallel, immunophenotyping of 28 circulating cell populations was performed. We tested the presence of differentially expressed genes/pathways and the correlation between absolute cell counts and RNA transcripts/FAIME scores in regression models. Results significant in both populations were considered as replicated. RESULTS: Overall, 15 224 genes and 1277 functional pathways were available; of these, 99 and 225 were significant in both sets. Among replicated pathways, we found a deregulation in type-I interferon, Toll-like receptor cascade, tumour suppressor p53 protein function, platelet degranulation and activation. RNA transcripts or FAIME scores were jointly correlated with cell subtypes with strong geographical differences; neutrophils were the major determinant of gene expression in SSc-WB samples. CONCLUSIONS: We discovered a set of differentially expressed genes/pathways validated in two independent sets of patients with SSc, highlighting a number of deregulated processes that have relevance for the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and SSc.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Interferon Tipo I/sangue , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Receptores Toll-Like/sangue
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441742

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: aPL, the serum biomarkers of APS, are the most common acquired causes of pregnancy morbidity (PM). This study investigates the impact of aPL positivity fulfilling classification criteria ('criteria aPL') and at titres lower than thresholds considered by classification criteria ('low-titre aPL') on PM and assesses the effectiveness of low-dose aspirin (LDASA), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and HCQ in reducing the probability of PM (PPM). METHODS: Longitudinal data on 847 pregnancies in 155 women with persistent aPL at any titre and 226 women with autoimmune diseases and negative aPL were retrospectively collected. A generalized estimating equations model for repeated measures was applied to quantify PPM under different clinical situations. RESULTS: EUREKA is a novel algorithm that accurately predicts the risk of aPL-associated PM by considering aPL titres and profiles. aPL significantly impact PPM when at low titres and when fulfilling classification criteria. PPM was further stratified upon the aPL tests: aCL IgG/IgM and anti-ß2-glycoprotein I (ß2GPI) IgM, alone or combined, do not affect the basal risks of PPM, an increase occurs in case of positive LA or anti-ß2GPI IgG. LDASA significantly affects PPM exclusively in women with low-titre aPL without anti-ß2GPI IgG. The LDASA + LMWH combination significantly reduces PPM in all women with low-titre aPL and women with criteria aPL, except those carrying LA and anti-ß2GPI IgG. In this group, the addition of HCQ further reduces PPM, although not significantly. CONCLUSION: EUREKA allows a tailored therapeutic approach, impacting everyday clinical management of aPL-positive pregnant women.

13.
J Nephrol ; 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ideal long-term maintenance therapy of Lupus Nephritis (LN) is still a matter of debate. The present study was aimed at comparing the efficacy/safety profile of cyclosporine (CsA), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and azathioprine (AZA) in long-term maintenance therapy of LN. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients with biopsy-proven active LN. After induction therapy, all patients received maintenance therapy with CsA, MMF or AZA based on medical decision. Primary endpoint was complete renal remission (CRR) after 8 years (defined as proteinuria < 0.5 g/24 h, eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 mq); secondary endpoints were: CRR after 1 year, renal and extrarenal flares, progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD stage 3 or above) and side-effects. RESULTS: Out of 106 patients, 34 received CsA, 36 MMF and 36 AZA. Clinical and histological characteristics at start of induction therapy were comparable among groups. At start of maintenance therapy, CsA patients had significantly higher proteinuria (P = 0.004) or nephrotic syndrome (P = 0.024) and significantly lower CRR (23.5% vs 55.5% on MMF and 41.7% on AZA, P = 0.024). At one year, CRR was similar in the three groups (79.4% on CsA, 63.8% on MMF, 58.3% on AZA, P = 0.2). At 8 years, the primary endpoint was achieved by 79.4% of CsA vs 83.3% of MMF and 77.8% of AZA patients (P = 0.83); 24 h proteinuria, serum creatinine, eGFR were similar. CKD stage 3 or above developed in 8.8% of CsA, in 8.3% of MMF and in 8.3% of AZA patients (P = 0.92). Flares-free survival curves and incidence of side-effects were not different. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study comparing CsA, MMF and AZA on long-term LN maintenance therapy. All treatments had similar efficacy in achieving and maintaining CRR, despite more severe baseline clinical features in patients treated with CsA.

14.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; : e13258, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347616

RESUMO

Anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) recapitulates the link between autoimmunity and pregnancy failure: Acquired anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) play a pathogenic role in pregnancy complications. The diagnosis of obstetric APS can easily be pursued when women present with laboratory and clinical features fulfilling the international classification criteria. Standard therapeutic approach to obstetric APS consists in the association of anti-platelet agents and anticoagulants. Most patients achieve a live birth thanks to conventional treatment; however, approximately 20% fail to respond and are managed with additional therapeutic tools added on the top of conventional treatment. Surely, a refinement of risk stratification tools would allow early identification of high-risk pregnancies that warrant tailored treatment. In real life, obstetricians and rheumatologists face complex diagnostic scenarios including women with pregnancy morbidities other than those mentioned in classification criteria such as one or two early losses and premature birth after 34 weeks due to preeclampsia or placental insufficiency, women with low-titer aPL not fulfilling criteria laboratory requirements, women with positive non-criteria aPL, asymptomatic aPL carriers, and infertile women found to be aPL-positive. This review focuses on some of the several unanswered questions related to diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic aspects in obstetric APS.

15.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(8): 1314-1324, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate predictors of response, remission, low disease activity, damage, and drug discontinuation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who were treated with belimumab. METHODS: In this retrospective study of a multicenter cohort of SLE patients who received intravenous belimumab, the proportion of patients who achieved remission, low disease activity, and treatment response according to the SLE Responder Index 4 (SRI-4) was determined, and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SDI) was used to score disease damage yearly over the follow-up. Predictors of outcomes were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression with the results expressed as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: The study included 466 patients with active SLE from 24 Italian centers, with a median follow-up period of 18 months (range 1-60 months). An SRI-4 response was achieved by 49.2%, 61.3%, 69.7%, 69.6%, and 66.7% of patients at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months, respectively. Baseline predictors of response at 6 months included a score of ≥10 on the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) (OR 3.14 [95% CI 2.033-4.860]) and a disease duration of ≤2 years (OR 1.94 [95% CI 1.078-3.473). Baseline predictors of response at 12 months included a score of ≥10 on the SLEDAI-2K (OR 3.48 [95% CI 2.004-6.025]) and an SDI score of 0 (OR 1.74 [95% CI 1.036-2.923]). Baseline predictors of response at 24 months included a score of ≥10 on the SLEDAI-2K (OR 4.25 [95% CI 2.018-8.940]) and a disease duration of ≤2 years (OR 3.79 [95% CI 1.039-13.52]). Baseline predictors of response at 36 months included a score of ≥10 on the SLEDAI-2K (OR 14.59 [95% CI 3.54-59.79) and baseline status of current smoker (OR 0.19 [95% CI 0.039-0.69]). Patients who were in remission for ≥25% of the follow-up period (44.3%) or who had low disease activity for ≥50% of the follow-up period (66.1%) accrued significantly less damage (P = 0.046 and P = 0.007). A baseline SDI score of 0 was an independent predictor of achieving low disease activity in ≥50% of the follow-up period and remission in ≥25% of the follow-up period. Our findings suggest that the lower the baseline damage, the greater the probability of achieving remission over the course of ≥25% of the follow-up. Further, there was a negative association between the number of flares reported prior to belimumab initiation and the frequency of belimumab discontinuation due to inefficacy (P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: In patients with active SLE and low damage at baseline, treatment with belimumab early in the disease may lead to favorable outcomes in a real-life setting.

16.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(6): 1306-1314, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580459

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical features, laboratory data and fetal-maternal outcomes between 1000 women with obstetric APS (OAPS) and 640 with aPL-related obstetric complications not fulfilling Sydney criteria (non-criteria OAPS, NC-OAPS). METHODS: This was a retrospective and prospective multicentre study from the European Registry on Obstetric Antiphospholipid Syndrome. RESULTS: A total of 1650 women with 5251 episodes, 3601 of which were historical and 1650 latest episodes, were included. Altogether, 1000 cases (OAPS group) fulfilled the Sydney classification criteria and 650 (NC-OAPS group) did not. Ten NC-OAPS cases were excluded for presenting thrombosis during follow-up. All cases were classified as category I (triple positivity or double positivity for aPL) or category II (simple positivity). Overall, aPL laboratory categories showed significant differences: 29.20% in OAPS vs 17.96% in NC-OAPS (P < 0.0001) for category I, and 70.8% in OAPS vs 82% in NC-OAPS (P < 0.0001) for category II. Significant differences were observed when current obstetric complications were compared (P < 0.001). However, major differences between groups were not observed in treatment rates, livebirths and thrombotic complications. In the NC-OAPS group, 176/640 (27.5%) did not fulfil Sydney clinical criteria (subgroup A), 175/640 (27.34%) had a low titre and/or non-persistent aPL positivity but did meet the clinical criteria (subgroup B) and 289/640 (45.15%) had a high aPL titre but did not fulfil Sydney clinical criteria (subgroup C). CONCLUSION: Significant clinical and laboratory differences were found between groups. Fetal-maternal outcomes were similar in both groups when treated. These results suggest that we could improve our clinical practice with better understanding of NC-OAPS patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/diagnóstico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1948, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475009

RESUMO

Objective: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are risk factors for thrombosis and adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO). The management of the so called "aPL carriers" (subjects with aPL positivity without the clinical criteria manifestations of APS) is still undefined. This study aims at retrospectively evaluating the outcomes and the factors associated with APO and maternal complications in 62 pregnant aPL carriers. Methods: Medical records of pregnant women regularly attending the Pregnancy Clinic of 3 Rheumatology centers from January 1994 to December 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with concomitant autoimmune diseases or other causes of pregnancy complications were excluded. Results: An aPL-related event was recorded in 8 out of 62 patients (12.9%) during pregnancy: 2 thrombosis and 6 APO. At univariate analysis, factors associated with pregnancy complications were acquired risk factors (p:0.008), non-criteria aPL manifestations (p:0.024), lupus-like manifestations (p:0.013), and triple positive aPL profile (p:0.001). At multivariate analysis, only the association with a triple aPL profile was confirmed (p:0.01, OR 21.3, CI 95% 1.84-247). Patients with triple aPL positivity had a higher rate of pregnancy complications, despite they were more frequently receiving combined treatment of low dose aspirin (LDA) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) at prophylactic dose. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of risk stratification in pregnant aPL carriers, in terms of both immunologic and non-immunologic features. Combination treatment with LDA and LMWH did not prevent APO in some cases, especially in carriers of triple aPL positivity. Triple positive aPL carriers may deserve additional therapeutic strategies during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/imunologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/tratamento farmacológico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Complicações na Gravidez/imunologia , Adulto , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/prevenção & controle , beta 2-Glicoproteína I/imunologia
18.
J Clin Med ; 8(9)2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450824

RESUMO

Dysbiosis has been described in systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs), including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome (SjS), and primary anti-phosholipid syndrome (PAPS), however the biological implications of these associations are often elusive. Stool and plasma samples from 114 subjects, including in SLE (n = 27), SjS (n = 23), PAPs (n = 11) and undifferentiated connective tissue (UCTD, n = 26) patients, and geographically-matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 27), were collected for microbiome (16s rRNA gene sequencing) and metabolome (high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry) analysis to identify shared characteristics across diseases. Out of 130 identified microbial genera, a subset of 29 bacteria was able to differentiate study groups (area under receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) = 0.730 ± 0.025). A fair classification was obtained with a subset of 41 metabolic peaks out of 254 (AUROC = 0.748 ± 0.021). In both models, HCs were well separated from SADs, while UCTD largely overlapped with the other diseases. In all of the SADs pro-tolerogenic bacteria were reduced, while pathobiont genera were increased. Metabolic alterations included two clusters comprised of: (a) members of the acylcarnitine family, positively correlating with a Prevotella-enriched cluster and negatively correlating with a butyrate-producing bacteria-enriched cluster; and (b) phospholipids, negatively correlating with butyrate-producing bacteria. These findings demonstrate a strong interaction between intestinal microbiota and metabolic function in patients with SADs.

19.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 40(2): 278-294, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137066

RESUMO

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired prothrombotic condition characterized by vascular thrombosis and/or obstetric complications, in the persistent positivity of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). The clinical spectrum of manifestations associated with aPL positivity is progressively expanding, including the description of several lung manifestations. The most common pulmonary involvement related to aPL positivity is pulmonary embolism (PE), which has been reported to occur in 14.1% of APS patients during disease course. PE acknowledges a purely thrombotic etiology and thus might be accounted as a criterion for APS, making imperative to test aPL in young subjects with unprovoked PE. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can manifest in APS patients, being the second most common lung complication of the syndrome, with a prevalence ranging between 1.8 and 3.5%. aPL-positive patients might present PH following a PE, might develop pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with connective tissue disease, or might present pulmonary venous hypertension due to Libman-Sacks endocarditis. Additional lung manifestations, such as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and pulmonary fibrosis, are rarely described in APS patients; it is still not clear whether in these settings aPLs exert a pathogenic role or is a mere epiphenomenon. Hereby we discuss impact, clinical presentation, histopathologic findings, etiology, and treatment of each aPL-associated lung manifestation.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Hemorragia/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , /complicações , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/sangue , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/classificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações
20.
Front Immunol ; 10: 773, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031764

RESUMO

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a chronic and disabling condition characterized by recurrent thrombosis and miscarriages mediated by antibodies against phospholipid-binding proteins (aPL), such as beta2glycoprotein I (ß2GPI). Complement is involved in APS animal models and complement deposits have been documented in placenta and thrombotic vessels despite normal serum levels. Analysis of circulating blood cells coated with C4d displays higher sensitivity than the conventional assays that measure soluble native complement components and their unstable activation products in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). As C4d-coated blood cell count has been reported to be more sensitive than serum levels of complement components and their activation products in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, we decided to evaluate the percentage of C4d positive B lymphocytes (BC4d), erythrocytes (EC4d), and platelets (PC4d) in primary APS patients and asymptomatic aPL positive carriers as marker of complement activation in APS. We assessed by flow cytometry the percentages of BC4d, EC4d, and PC4d in primary APS (PAPS; n. 23), 8 asymptomatic aPL positive carriers, 11 APS-associated SLE (SAPS), 17 aPL positive SLE, 16 aPL negative SLE, 8 aPL negative patients with previous thrombosis, 11 immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients, and 26 healthy subjects. In addition, we used an in vitro model to evaluate the ability of a monoclonal anti-ß2GPI antibody (MBB2) to bind to normal resting or activated platelets and fix complement. EC4d and PC4d percentages were significantly higher in PAPS and aPL carriers as well as aPL positive SLE and SAPS than in aPL negative controls. The highest values were found in PAPS and in SAPS. The EC4d and PC4d percentages were significantly correlated with serum C3/C4 and anti-ß2GPI/anti-cardiolipin IgG. In vitro studies showed that MBB2 bound to activated platelets only and induced C4d deposition. The detection of the activation product C4d on circulating erythrocytes and platelets supports the role of complement activation in APS. Complement may represent a new therapeutic target for better treatment and prevention of disability of APS patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/metabolismo , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Ativação do Complemento/imunologia , Complemento C4/imunologia , Complemento C4/metabolismo , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Plaquetas/imunologia , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Complemento C3/imunologia , Complemento C3/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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