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1.
PLoS Genet ; 15(7): e1008245, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306407

RESUMO

Major depression is a common and severe psychiatric disorder with a highly polygenic genetic architecture. Genome-wide association studies have successfully identified multiple independent genetic loci that harbour variants associated with major depression, but the exact causal genes and biological mechanisms are largely unknown. Tissue-specific network approaches may identify molecular mechanisms underlying major depression and provide a biological substrate for integrative analyses. We provide a framework for the identification of individual risk genes and gene co-expression networks using genome-wide association summary statistics and gene expression information across multiple human brain tissues and whole blood. We developed a novel gene-based method called eMAGMA that leverages tissue-specific eQTL information to identify 99 biologically plausible risk genes associated with major depression, of which 58 are novel. Among these novel associations is Complement Factor 4A (C4A), recently implicated in schizophrenia through its role in synaptic pruning during postnatal development. Major depression risk genes were enriched in gene co-expression modules in multiple brain tissues and the implicated gene modules contained genes involved in synaptic signalling, neuronal development, and cell transport pathways. Modules enriched with major depression signals were strongly preserved across brain tissues, but were weakly preserved in whole blood, highlighting the importance of using disease-relevant tissues in genetic studies of psychiatric traits. We identified tissue-specific genes and gene co-expression networks associated with major depression. Our novel analytical framework can be used to gain fundamental insights into the functioning of the nervous system in major depression and other brain-related traits.

2.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1196, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168101

RESUMO

Several occurrences of the word 'schizophrenia' have been re-worded as 'liability to schizophrenia' or 'schizophrenia risk', including in the title, which should have been "GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal effect of schizophrenia liability," as well as in Supplementary Figures 1-10 and Supplementary Tables 7-10, to more accurately reflect the findings of the work.

3.
Psychol Med ; 49(7): 1218-1226, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite established clinical associations among major depression (MD), alcohol dependence (AD), and alcohol consumption (AC), the nature of the causal relationship between them is not completely understood. We leveraged genome-wide data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) and UK Biobank to test for the presence of shared genetic mechanisms and causal relationships among MD, AD, and AC. METHODS: Linkage disequilibrium score regression and Mendelian randomization (MR) were performed using genome-wide data from the PGC (MD: 135 458 cases and 344 901 controls; AD: 10 206 cases and 28 480 controls) and UK Biobank (AC-frequency: 438 308 individuals; AC-quantity: 307 098 individuals). RESULTS: Positive genetic correlation was observed between MD and AD (rgMD-AD = + 0.47, P = 6.6 × 10-10). AC-quantity showed positive genetic correlation with both AD (rgAD-AC quantity = + 0.75, P = 1.8 × 10-14) and MD (rgMD-AC quantity = + 0.14, P = 2.9 × 10-7), while there was negative correlation of AC-frequency with MD (rgMD-AC frequency = -0.17, P = 1.5 × 10-10) and a non-significant result with AD. MR analyses confirmed the presence of pleiotropy among these four traits. However, the MD-AD results reflect a mediated-pleiotropy mechanism (i.e. causal relationship) with an effect of MD on AD (beta = 0.28, P = 1.29 × 10-6). There was no evidence for reverse causation. CONCLUSION: This study supports a causal role for genetic liability of MD on AD based on genetic datasets including thousands of individuals. Understanding mechanisms underlying MD-AD comorbidity addresses important public health concerns and has the potential to facilitate prevention and intervention efforts.

4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 117, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877270

RESUMO

The major depressive disorder (MDD) working group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) has published a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for MDD in 130,664 cases, identifying 44 risk variants. We used these results to investigate potential drug targets and repurposing opportunities. We built easily interpretable bipartite drug-target networks integrating interactions between drugs and their targets, genome-wide association statistics, and genetically predicted expression levels in different tissues, using the online tool Drug Targetor ( drugtargetor.com ). We also investigated drug-target relationships that could be impacting MDD. MAGMA was used to perform pathway analyses and S-PrediXcan to investigate the directionality of tissue-specific expression levels in patients vs. controls. Outside the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, 153 protein-coding genes are significantly associated with MDD in MAGMA after multiple testing correction; among these, five are predicted to be down or upregulated in brain regions and 24 are known druggable genes. Several drug classes were significantly enriched, including monoamine reuptake inhibitors, sex hormones, antipsychotics, and antihistamines, indicating an effect on MDD and potential repurposing opportunities. These findings not only require validation in model systems and clinical examination, but also show that GWAS may become a rich source of new therapeutic hypotheses for MDD and other psychiatric disorders that need new-and better-treatment options.

5.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(9): 1161-1170, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150663

RESUMO

Cannabis use is a heritable trait that has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes. In the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) for lifetime cannabis use to date (N = 184,765), we identified eight genome-wide significant independent single nucleotide polymorphisms in six regions. All measured genetic variants combined explained 11% of the variance. Gene-based tests revealed 35 significant genes in 16 regions, and S-PrediXcan analyses showed that 21 genes had different expression levels for cannabis users versus nonusers. The strongest finding across the different analyses was CADM2, which has been associated with substance use and risk-taking. Significant genetic correlations were found with 14 of 25 tested substance use and mental health-related traits, including smoking, alcohol use, schizophrenia and risk-taking. Mendelian randomization analysis showed evidence for a causal positive influence of schizophrenia risk on cannabis use. Overall, our study provides new insights into the etiology of cannabis use and its relation with mental health.

6.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 69, 2018 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29357833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migraine is a common heritable neurovascular disorder typically characterised by episodic attacks of severe pulsating headache and nausea, often accompanied by visual, auditory or other sensory symptoms. Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with migraine, there remains uncertainty about the casual genes involved in disease pathogenesis and how their function is regulated. RESULTS: We performed an epigenome-wide association study, quantifying genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation in 67 migraine cases and 67 controls with a matching age and sex distribution. Association analyses between migraine and methylation probe expression, after adjustment for cell type proportions, indicated an excess of small P values, but there was no significant single-probe association after correction for multiple testing (P < 1.09 × 10- 7). However, utilising a 1 kb sliding window approach to combine adjacent migraine-methylation association P values, we identified 62 independent differentially methylated regions (DMRs) underlying migraine (false discovery rate < 0.05). Migraine association signals were subtle but consistent in effect direction across the length of each DMR. Subsequent analyses showed that the migraine-associated DMRs were enriched in regulatory elements of the genome and were in close proximity to genes involved in solute transportation and haemostasis. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the first genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in migraine. We have identified DNA methylation in the whole blood of subjects associated with migraine, highlighting novel loci that provide insight into the biological pathways and mechanisms underlying migraine pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma Humano , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cephalalgia ; 38(2): 292-303, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28058943

RESUMO

Background Typical migraine is a frequent, debilitating and painful headache disorder with an estimated heritability of about 50%. Although genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified over 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with migraine, further research is required to determine their biological role in migraine susceptibility. Therefore, we performed a study of genome-wide gene expression in a large sample of 83 migraine cases and 83 non-migraine controls to determine whether altered expression levels of genes and pathways could provide insights into the biological mechanisms underlying migraine. Methods We assessed whole blood gene expression data for 17994 expression probes measured using IlluminaHT-12 v4.0 BeadChips. Differential expression was assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Gene expression probes with a nominal p value < 0.05 were classified as differentially expressed. We identified modules of co-regulated genes and tested them for enrichment of differentially expressed genes and functional pathways using a false discovery rate <0.05. Results Association analyses between migraine and probe expression levels, adjusted for age and gender, revealed an excess of small p values, but there was no significant single-probe association after correction for multiple testing. Network analysis of pooled expression data identified 10 modules of co-expressed genes. One module harboured a significant number of differentially expressed genes and was strongly enriched with immune-inflammatory pathways, including multiple pathways expressed in microglial cells. Conclusions These data suggest immune-inflammatory pathways play an important role in the pathogenesis, manifestation, and/or progression of migraine in some patients. Furthermore, gene-expression associations are measurable in whole blood, suggesting the analysis of blood gene expression can inform our understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying migraine, identify biomarkers, and facilitate the discovery of novel pathways and thus determine new targets for drug therapy.

9.
Cephalalgia ; 36(7): 669-78, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26862113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global gene expression analysis may be used to obtain insights into the functional processes underlying migraine. However, there is a shortage of high-quality post-mortem brain tissue samples for genetic analysis. One approach is to use a more accessible tissue as a surrogate, such as peripheral blood. PURPOSE: Discuss the benefits and caveats of blood genomic profiling in migraine and its potential application in the development of biomarkers of migraine susceptibility and outcome. Demonstrate the utility of blood-based expression profiles in migraine by analysing pilot Illumina HT-12 expression data from 76 (38 case, 38 control) whole-blood samples. CONCLUSION: Current evidence suggests peripheral blood is a biologically valid substrate for genetic studies of migraine, and may be used to identify biomarkers and therapeutic pathways. Pilot blood gene expression data confirm that expression profiles significantly differ between migraine case and non-migraine control individuals.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/sangue , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos
10.
Per Med ; 13(3): 205-207, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767612
11.
Policy Polit Nurs Pract ; 13(1): 45-53, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22454218

RESUMO

There are universal concerns about youth health and recognition of the potential of school health services but little consensus internationally as to how these are best configured. Limited information about nursing services in New Zealand secondary schools, changing patterns of youth health needs and expanding roles for nurses in primary health care indicated a need to research school nursing services. This study found that within New Zealand schools there was wide variation in the types of health services and their funding; that nurses are well qualified and highly experienced, although some lack clinical supervision; that students present most commonly for sexual health and injuries or sickness; and that they choose school health services for accessibility and confidentiality. It concludes that one way forward would be to develop a national-level policy for nurse-led school health centers, with appropriate funding, that allows for local flexibility and includes a career pathway for school nurses.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Serviços de Enfermagem Escolar/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Intervalos de Confiança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Razão de Chances , Formulação de Políticas , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gestão da Qualidade Total , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
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