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1.
Heart ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) require dose adjustment for renal function. We sought to investigate change in renal function over time in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and whether those on NOACs have appropriate dose adjustments according to its decline. METHODS: We included patients with AF enrolled in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation II registry treated with oral anticoagulation. Worsening renal function (WRF) was defined as a decrease of >20% in creatinine clearance (CrCl) from baseline. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved package inserts were used to define the reduction criteria of NOACs dosing. RESULTS: Among 6682 patients with AF from 220 sites (median age (25th, 75th): 72.0 years (65.0, 79.0); 57.1% male; median CrCl at baseline: 80.1 mL/min (57.4, 108.5)), 1543 patients (23.1%) experienced WRF with mean decline in CrCl during 2 year follow-up of -6.63 mL/min for NOACs and -6.16 mL/min for warfarin. Among 4120 patients on NOACs, 154 (3.7%) patients had a CrCl decline sufficient to warrant FDA-recommended dose reductions. Of these, NOACs dosing was appropriately reduced in only 31 (20.1%) patients. Compared with patients with appropriately reduced NOACs, those without were more likely to experience bleeding complications (major bleeding: 1.7% vs 0%; bleeding hospitalisation: 2.6% vs 0%) at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: In the US practice, about one-fourth of patients with AF had >20% decline in CrCl over time during 2 year follow-up. As a result, about 3.7% of those treated with NOACs met guideline criteria for dose reduction, but of these, only 20.1% actually had a reduction.

2.
Circulation ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902228

RESUMO

Background: Type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI) occurs due to an acute imbalance in myocardial oxygen supply and demand in the absence of athero-thrombosis. Despite being frequently encountered in clinical practice, the population-based incidence and trends remain unknown and the long-term outcomes incompletely characterized. Methods: We prospectively recruited residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota who experienced an event associated with a cardiac troponin T (cTnT) >99th percentile of a normal reference population (≥0.01 ng/mL) between 1/1/2003 and 12/31/2012. Events were retrospectively classified into type 1 MI (T1MI, atherothombotic event), T2MI or myocardial injury (troponin rise not meeting criteria for MI) using the universal definition. Outcomes were long term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and recurrent MI. T2MI was further subclassified by inciting event for supply/demand mismatch. Results: A total of 5460 patients had at least one cTnT ≥0.01 ng/mL, of whom 1365 were classified as index T1MI (age 68.5±14.8 years, 63% male) and 1054 T2MI (age 73.7±15.8 years, 46% male). The annual incidence of T1MI decreased markedly from 202 to 84 per 100,000 persons between 2003 and 2012 (p<0.001), while the incidence of T2MI declined from 130 to 78 per 100,000 persons (p=0.02). Compared to T1MI, patients with T2MI had higher long-term all-cause mortality after adjustment for age and sex, driven by early and non-cardiovascular death. Rates of cardiovascular death were similar after either type of MI (HR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-1.0, p=0.11). Sub-classification of T2MI by etiology demonstrated a more favorable prognosis when the principal provoking mechanism was arrhythmia, compared with post-operative status, hypotension, anemia and hypoxia. After index T2MI, the most common MI during follow-up was a recurrent T2MI while the occurrence of a new T1MI was relatively rare (estimated rates 9.7% and 1.7% at 5 years). Conclusions: There has been an evolution in type of MI occurring in the community over a decade, with the incidence of T2MI now being similar to T1MI. Mortality after T2MI is higher and driven by early and non-cardiovascular death. The provoking mechanism of supply/demand mismatch affects long-term survival. These findings underscore the healthcare burden of T2MI and provide benchmarks for clinical trial design.

3.
Am Heart J ; 219: 128-136, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing atrial fibrillation (AF)-related stroke requires timely AF diagnosis, but the optimal monitoring strategy is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We used insertable cardiac monitor (ICM) data from the REVEAL AF study to compare AF detection rates by various short-term continuous monitoring (STM) strategies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients without known AF, but with CHADS2 scores ≥3 (or = 2 with ≥1 additional AF risk factor) received an ICM for AF detection. One-time STM strategies were assessed by computing AF incidence at 1, 2, 7, 14, and 30 days post-ICM insertion. Repeated STM strategies (quarterly 24-hour, 48-hour, 7-day, or monthly 24-hour monitoring) were modeled by randomly selecting day(s) within a 30-day window around each nominal evaluation date over a 1-year period (simulated 10,000 times). Endpoints included AF ≥6 minutes, AF ≥1 hour, and daily AF burden ≥1 and ≥ 5.5 hours. The impact of compliance on AF detection was evaluated using daily compliance rates of 85%, 75%, 65% and 55% during follow-up months 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, and 9-12, respectively. Based on data from 385 patients (71.5 ±â€¯9.9 years; CHADS2 score 3.0 ±â€¯1.0) the incidence of AF ≥6 minutes via ICM at 12 months was 27.1% (95% CI, 22.5-31.5%). This exceeded the range of estimated rates from all modeled one-time and repeated STM strategies (0.8% for 24-hour Holter monitoring to 10.6% for quarterly 7-day monitoring). Findings were similar for all AF endpoints. Modeled non-compliance reduced AF detection by 4.5% to 22.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Most AF episodes detected via ICMs would go undetected via conventional STM strategies, thus preventing optimal prophylaxis for adverse consequences.

4.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the impact of post-infarct left ventricular (LV) remodeling on outcomes in the contemporary era. BACKGROUND: LV remodeling after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is associated with heart failure and increased mortality. Pivotal studies have mostly been performed in the era of thrombolysis, whereas the long-term prognostic impact of LV remodeling has not been reinvestigated in the current era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and optimal pharmacotherapy. METHODS: Data were obtained from an ongoing registry of patients with STEMI (all treated with primary PCI). Baseline, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month echocardiograms were analyzed. LV remodeling was defined as a ≥20% increase in LV end-diastolic volume at 3, 6, or 12 months post-infarct. The impact of LV remodeling on outcomes was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1,995 patients with STEMI were studied (mean age 60 ± 12 years, 77% men), 953 (48%) of whom demonstrated remodeling in the first 12 months of follow-up. After a median follow-up of 94 (interquartile range: 69 to 119) months, 225 (11%) patients had died. There was no difference in survival between remodelers and nonremodelers (p = 0.144). However, LV remodelers were more likely to be admitted to hospital for heart failure than were nonremodelers (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In the contemporary era, in which STEMI is treated with primary PCI and optimal pharmacotherapy, almost one-half of patients demonstrate LV post-infarct remodeling. However, there is no difference in long-term survival between LV remodelers and nonremodelers, and LV remodelers experience a higher rate of heart failure hospitalization, which indicates the need to intensify preventative strategies in these patients.

5.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(12): e007612, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating the effects of atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter ablation versus antiarrhythmic therapy on outcomes have shown mixed results. In addition, guidelines recommend continuing oral anticoagulation (OAC) after ablation for those at risk of stroke, but real-world data are lacking. METHODS: We evaluated outcomes including death, myocardial infarction, stroke or systemic embolism, intracranial bleeding, major bleeding, and hospitalization in patients undergoing AF ablation compared with a propensity score matched cohort of patients treated with anti-arrhythmic medications only in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation registries. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to evaluate the association between AF ablation and outcomes. We then evaluated patterns of treatment with OAC among AF ablation patients. RESULTS: Among 21 595 patients, 1190 (6%) underwent de novo AF ablation. Our propensity score-matched cohort included 1087 patients who underwent AF ablation matched 1:1 with 1087 patients treated with antiarrhythmic medications only. There were no significant differences in the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, and most other major adverse cardiovascular and neurological events. AF catheter ablation was associated with an increased risk of all-cause hospitalization during follow-up (hazard ratio, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.05-1.46]), particularly in the first 3 months (the standard blanking period) after the procedure. Among those who underwent AF ablation with a CHA2DS2 VASc score ≥2 for men and ≥3 for women, 23% had OAC discontinued after ablation. Among those who discontinued OAC, the median time to discontinuation was 6.2 months. CONCLUSIONS: In this large US national registry, we found no difference in adjusted rates of cardiovascular or all-cause death between patients treated with AF catheter ablation and antiarrhythmic medications only. Notably, discontinuation of OAC after ablation remains relatively common despite guideline recommendations for continued stroke prevention therapy in patients at risk of stroke.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most clinical risk stratification models are based on measurement at a single time-point rather than serial measurements. Artificial intelligence (AI) is able to predict one-dimensional outcomes from multi-dimensional datasets. Using data from GARFIELD-AF registry, a new AI model was developed for predicting clinical outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients up to 1 year based on sequential measures of PT-INR within 30 days of enrolment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with newly diagnosed AF who were treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and had at least 3 measurements of PT-INR taken over the first 30 days after prescription were analyzed. The AI model was constructed with multilayer neural network including long short-term memory (LSTM) and one-dimensional convolution layers. The neural network was trained using PT-INR measurements within days 0-30 after starting treatment and clinical outcomes over days 31-365 in a derivation cohort (cohorts 1-3; n = 3185). Accuracy of the AI model at predicting major bleed, stroke/SE, and death was assessed in a validation cohort (cohorts 4-5; n = 1523). The model's c-statistic for predicting major bleed, stroke/SE, and all-cause death was 0.75, 0.70, and 0.61, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using serial PT-INR values collected within 1 month after starting VKA, the new AI model performed better than time in therapeutic range (TTR) at predicting clinical outcomes occurring up to 12 months thereafter. Serial PT-INR values contain important information that can be analyzed by computer to help predict adverse clinical outcomes.

7.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(12): e005929, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly used in acute myocardial infarction (AMI); however, there are limited large-scale national data. METHODS: Using the National Inpatient Sample database from 2000 to 2014, a retrospective cohort of AMI utilizing ECMO was identified. Use of percutaneous coronary intervention, intra-aortic balloon pump, and percutaneous left ventricular assist device (LVAD) was also identified in this population. Outcomes of interest included temporal trends in utilization of ECMO alone and with concomitant procedures (percutaneous coronary intervention, intra-aortic balloon pump, and percutaneous LVAD), in-hospital mortality, and resource utilization. RESULTS: In ≈9 million AMI admissions, ECMO was used in 2962 (<0.01%) and implanted a median of 1 day after admission. ECMO was used in 0.5% and 0.3% AMI admissions complicated by cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest, respectively. ECMO was used more commonly in admissions that were younger, nonwhite, and with less comorbidity. ECMO use was 11× higher in 2014 as compared with 2000 (odds ratio, 11.37 [95% CI, 7.20-17.97]). Same-day percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 23.1%; intra-aortic balloon pump/percutaneous LVAD was used in 57.9%, of which 30.3% were placed concomitantly. In-hospital mortality with ECMO was 59.2% overall but decreased from 100% (2000) to 45.1% (2014). Durable LVAD and cardiac transplantation were performed in 11.7% as an exit strategy. Of the hospital survivors, 40.8% were discharged to skilled nursing facilities. Older age, male sex, nonwhite race, and lower socioeconomic status were independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality with ECMO use. CONCLUSIONS: In AMI admissions, a steady increase was noted in the utilization of ECMO alone and with concomitant procedures (percutaneous coronary intervention, intra-aortic balloon pump, and percutaneous LVAD). In-hospital mortality remained high in AMI admissions treated with ECMO.

9.
Am Heart J ; 220: 145-154, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amiodarone is the most effective antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) for atrial fibrillation (AF), but it has a high incidence of adverse effects. METHODS: Using the ORBIT AF registry, patients with AF on amiodarone at enrollment, prescribed amiodarone during follow-up, or never on amiodarone were analyzed for the proportion treated with a guideline-based indication for amiodarone, the variability in amiodarone use across sites, and the outcomes (mortality, hospitalization, and stroke) among patients treated with amiodarone. Hierarchical logistic regression modeling with site-specific random intercepts compared rates of amiodarone use across 170 sites. A logistic regression model for propensity to receive amiodarone created a propensity-matched cohort. Cox proportional hazards modeling, stratified by matched pairs evaluated the association between amiodarone and outcomes. RESULTS: Among 6,987 AF patients, 867 (12%) were on amiodarone at baseline and 451 (6%) started on incident amiodarone during the 3-year follow-up. Use of amiodarone varied among sites from 3% in the lowest tertile to 21% in the highest (p<0.0001). Among those treated, 32% had documented contraindications to other AADs or had failed another AAD in the past. Mortality, cardiovascular hospitalization, and stroke were similar among matched patients on and not on amiodarone at baseline, while incident amiodarone use in matched patients was associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.35-3.16). CONCLUSIONS: Use of amiodarone among AF patients in community practice is highly variable. More than 2 out of 3 patients treated with amiodarone appeared to be eligible for a different AAD.

10.
Am J Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813531

RESUMO

The incidence, recurrence rate, and prognostic significance of atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF) following hospital discharge after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) are unknown. We sought to determine the 3-year incidence and clinical impact of postdischarge AF in patients with LMCAD treated with PCI or CABG. In the EXCEL trial, 1,905 patients with LMCAD were randomized to PCI versus CABG. We analyzed the occurrence of postdischarge AF through 3 years and its time-adjusted association with adverse outcomes. A total of 1,802 patients without AF at baseline comprised the study cohort. Within 3 years, 227 episodes of AF occurred (29 [12.8%] in the PCI arm and 198 [87.2%] in the CABG arm, p <0.0001); of those, 63 (27.7%) occurred following discharge from the index hospitalization in 57 patients. In-hospital AF predicted postdischarge AF (hazard ratio [HR] 2.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42 to 6.10, p = 0.004). By multivariable analysis, time-updated postdischarge AF was an independent predictor of 3-year cardiovascular death (HR 4.91, 95% CI 1.92 to 12.60, p = 0.0009), stroke (HR 4.87, 95% CI 1.12 to 21.12, p = 0.035), and the composite outcome of death, stroke or myocardial infarction (HR 3.09, 95% CI 1.56 to 3.6-6.11, p = 0.001). Among patients with postdischarge AF, the rate of the primary composite outcome did not vary according to presence or absence of in-hospital AF (21.0% vs 23.8%, p = 0.78). In conclusion, postdischarge AF following CABG or PCI for LMCAD is associated with increased mortality and stroke. In-hospital atrial fibrillation is an independent predictor of AF following discharge.

12.
Am Heart J ; 219: 21-30, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comorbidities are common in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and affect prognosis, yet are often undertreated. However, contemporary rates of use of guideline-directed therapies (GDT) for non-AF comorbidities and their association with outcomes are not well described. METHODS: We used the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of AF (ORBIT-AF) to test the association between GDT for non-AF comorbidities and major adverse cardiac or neurovascular events (MACNE; cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke/thromboembolism, or new-onset heart failure), all-cause mortality, new-onset heart failure, and AF progression. Adjustment was performed using Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression. RESULTS: Only 6,782 (33%) of the 20,434 patients eligible for 1 or more GDT for non-AF comorbidities received all indicated therapies. Use of all comorbidity-specific GDT was highest for patients with hyperlipidemia (75.6%) and lowest for those with diabetes mellitus (43.1%). Use of "all eligible" GDT was associated with a nonsignificant trend toward lower rates of MACNE (HR 0.90 [0.79-1.02]) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.90 [0.80-1.01]). Use of GDT for heart failure was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.77 [0.67-0.89]), and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea was associated with a lower risk of AF progression (OR 0.75 [0.62-0.90]). CONCLUSIONS: In AF patients, there is underuse of GDT for non-AF comorbidities. The association between GDT use and outcomes was strongest in heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea patients where use of GDT was associated with lower mortality and less AF progression.

13.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746759

RESUMO

AIMS: There are limited data on the trends and outcomes of mechanical circulatory support (MCS)-assisted early percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the National Inpatient Sample database from 2005-2014 a retrospective cohort of AMI-CS admissions receiving early PCI (hospital day zero) was identified. MCS use was defined as intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), percutaneous left ventricular assist device (pLVAD) and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, resource utilization, trends and predictors of MCS-assisted PCI. Of the 110,452 admissions, MCS assistance was used in 55%. IABP, pLVAD and ECMO were used in 94.8%, 4.2% and 1% respectively. During 2009-2014, there was a decrease in MCS-assisted PCI due to a decrease in IABP, despite an increase in pLVAD and ECMO. Younger age, male sex, lower comorbidity, and cardiac arrest independently predicted MCS use. MCS-assisted PCI was predictive of higher in-hospital mortality (31% vs. 26%, adjusted odds ratio 1.23 [1.19-1.27]; p<0.001) and greater resource utilization. IABP-assisted PCI had lower in-hospital mortality and lesser resource utilization compared to pLVAD/ECMO. CONCLUSIONS: MCS-assisted PCI identified a sicker AMI-CS cohort. There was a decrease in IABP and an increase in the pLVAD/ECMO.

14.
Circulation ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747786

RESUMO

Background: The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with oral anticoagulants has been associated with an increased risk of bleeding. We investigated the risk of bleeding and major cardiovascular outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) taking NSAIDs and apixaban or warfarin. Methods: The ARISTOTLE trial (n=18,201) compared apixaban with warfarin in patients with AF at increased risk of stroke. Patients in ARISTOTLE without severe renal (creatine clearance ≤30 mL/min) or liver disease were included in this analysis (n=17,423). NSAID use at baseline, NSAID use during the trial (incident NSAID use) and never users were described. The primary outcome was major bleeding. Secondary outcomes included clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding, heart failure hospitalization, stroke or systemic embolism, and all-cause mortality. NSAID use during the trial and the interaction between randomized treatment and was analyzed using time dependent Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Those with baseline NSAID use (n=832 [4.8%]), incident NSAID use (n=2185 [13.2%]), and never users were similar in median age [25th, 75th] (70 [64, 77] vs. 70 [63, 75] vs. 70 [62, 76]). Those with NSAID use at baseline and incident NSAID use were more likely to have a history of bleeding (24.5% vs. 21.0% vs 15.6%) than never users. During a median follow-up [25th, 75th] of 1.8 [1.4, 2.3]) years and when excluding those taking NSAID at baseline, we found that incident NSAID use was associated with an increased risk of major bleeding (hazard ratio [HR] 1.61, 95% CI 1.11-2.33) and clinically relevant non-major bleeding (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.16-2.48), but not gastrointestinal bleeding. No significant interaction was observed between NSAID use and randomized treatment for any outcome. Conclusions: A substantial number of patients in the ARISTOTLE trial took NSAIDs. Incident NSAID use was associated with major and CRNM bleeding, but not gastrointestinal bleeding. The safety and efficacy of apixaban versus warfarin appeared not significantly to be altered by NSAID use. This study warrants more investigation of the effect of NSAIDs on the outcomes of patients treated with apixaban. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT00412984.

15.
Am J Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735328

RESUMO

The prognostic impact of resting heart rate (RHR) following revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) is unknown. We aimed to assess the effect of RHR at discharge on 3-year cardiovascular outcomes following PCI and CABG for LMCAD. In the EXCEL trial, 1,905 patients with LMCAD were randomized to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents versus CABG. RHR was measured at discharge following the index hospitalization. The principal outcome measure was the composite endpoint of death, myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke at 3 years. Among 1,303 patients in sinus rhythm with available ECGs, the median (IQR) discharge RHR was 72 (62to 81) bpm. Median discharge RHR was higher after CABG versus PCI (78 [IQR 70 to 86] versus 65 [IQR 59 to 74] bpm, p <0.0001). At 3 years, 107 patients (8.2%) had a primary composite endpoint event including 61 patients (4.7%) who died. By multivariable analysis, discharge RHR assessed as a continuous variable (per 5 bpm) was an independent predictor at 3 years of the primary composite endpoint of death, MI, or stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06 to 1.25, p = 0.0006); the secondary composite endpoint of death, MI, stroke, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 3 years (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.19, p = 0.0007); all-cause mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.31, p = 0.002); and cardiovascular death (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33, p = 0.046). No significant interactions were present between RHR and treatment with PCI versus CABG for the primary (pint = 0.20) or secondary (pint = 0.47) composite endpoints. In patients with LMCAD undergoing revascularization, an increased RHR at discharge was associated with a higher risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes at 3 years, irrespective of treatment modality.

16.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(12): 2869-2876, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588605

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with an increase in subsequent heart failure (HF), recurrent ischemic events, sudden cardiac arrest, and ventricular arrhythmias (SCA-VA). The primary objective of the study to determine the role of intercurrent HF and ischemic events on the development of SCA-VA following first type I MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective cohort study of patients experiencing first type 1 MI in Olmsted County, Minnesota (2002-2012) was conducted by identifying patients using the medical records linkage system (Rochester epidemiology project). Patients aged ≥18 years were followed from the time of MI till death or 31 July, 2017. Intercurrent HF and ischemic events were the primary exposures following MI and their association with outcome SCA-VA was assessed. Eight hundred and sixty-seven patients (mean age was 63 ± 14.5 years; 69% male; 49.8% ST-elevation myocardial infarction) who had their first type I MI during the study period were included. Majority of acute MI patients were revascularized using percutaneous coronary intervention and bypass surgery (628 [72.43%] and 87 [10.03%] respectively). During a mean follow-up of 7.69 ± 4.17 years, HF, recurrent ischemic events and SCA-VA occurred in 155 (17.9%), 245 (28.3%), and 40 (4.61%) patients respectively. Low ejection fraction (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.98; P < .001), intercurrent HF (adjusted HR 3.11; 95% CI, 1.39-6.95; P = .006) and recurrent ischemic events (adjusted HR 3.47; 95% CI, 1.68-7.18; P < .001) were associated with subsequent SCA-VA. CONCLUSION: SCA-VA occurred in a small proportion of patients after MI and is associated with intercurrent HF and recurrent ischemic events.

17.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582839

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis and plaque disruption have a central pathological role in the majority of patients who present with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but non-atherosclerotic processes are also important contributors to a substantial number of ACS events and require different diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. In the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease, intravascular imaging techniques might be needed to delineate the underlying aetiology, together with a high index of suspicion for other important causes of ACS. In this Review, we discuss five non-atherosclerotic causes of ACS, including spontaneous coronary artery dissection, coronary artery embolism, vasospasm, myocardial bridging and stress-induced cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo syndrome). Important diagnostic findings, management strategies and prognostic data for these non-atherosclerotic mechanisms of ACS are reviewed.

19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(19): e013026, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533511

RESUMO

Background Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia worldwide. Data regarding 30-day readmission rates after discharge for atrial fibrillation remain poorly reported. Methods and Results The Nationwide Readmission Database (2010-2014) was queried using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes to identify study population. Incidence, etiologies of 30-day readmission and predictors of 30-day readmissions, and cost of care were analyzed. Among 1 723 378 patients who survived to discharge, 249 343 (14.4%) patients were readmitted within 30 days. Compared with the readmitted group, the nonreadmitted group had higher utilization of electrical cardioversion and catheter ablation. Atrial fibrillation was the most common cause of readmission (24.1%). Median time to 30-day readmission was 13 days. Advancing age, female sex, and longer stay during index hospitalization predicted higher 30-day readmissions, whereas private insurance, electrical cardioversion, catheter ablation, higher income, and elective admissions correlated with lower 30-day readmission. Comorbidities such as heart failure, neurological disorder, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver failure, coagulopathy, anemia, peripheral vascular disease, and electrolyte disturbance, correlated with increased 30-day readmissions and cost burden. Trend analysis showed a progressive decline in 30-day readmission rates from 14.7% in 2010 to 14.3% in 2014 (P trend, <0.001). Conclusions Approximately 1 in 7 patients were readmitted within 30 days of discharge, with symptomatic atrial fibrillation being the most common cause. We identified a predictive model for increased risk of readmissions and treatment expense. Electrical cardioversion during index admission was associated with a significant reduction in 30-day readmissions and service charges. The 30-day readmissions correlated with a substantial rise in the cost of care.

20.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222894, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on acute kidney injury (AKI) complicating acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS). This study sought to evaluate 15-year national prevalence, temporal trends and outcomes of AKI with no need for hemodialysis (AKI-ND) and requiring hemodialysis (AKI-D) following AMI-CS. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study from 2000-2014 from the National Inpatient Sample (20% stratified sample of all community hospitals in the United States). Adult patients (>18 years) admitted with a primary diagnosis of AMI and secondary diagnosis of CS were included. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality in cohorts with no AKI, AKI-ND, and AKI-D. Secondary outcomes included predictors, resource utilization and disposition. RESULTS: During this 15-year period, 440,257 admissions for AMI-CS were included, with AKI in 155,610 (35.3%) and hemodialysis use in 14,950 (3.4%). Older age, black race, non-private insurance, higher comorbidity, organ failure, and use of cardiac and non-cardiac organ support were associated with the AKI development and hemodialysis use. There was a 2.6-fold higher adjusted risk of developing AKI in 2014 compared to 2000. Presence of AKI-ND and AKI-D was associated with a 1.3 and 1.7-fold higher adjusted risk of mortality. Compared to the cohort without AKI, AKI-ND and AKI-D were associated with longer length of stay (9±10, 12±13, and 18±19 days respectively; p<0.001) and higher hospitalization costs ($101,859±116,204, $159,804±190,766, and $265,875 ± 254,919 respectively; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: AKI-ND and AKI-D are associated with higher in-hospital mortality and resource utilization in AMI-CS.

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