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1.
Am Heart J ; 219: 21-30, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comorbidities are common in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and affect prognosis, yet are often undertreated. However, contemporary rates of use of guideline-directed therapies (GDT) for non-AF comorbidities and their association with outcomes are not well described. METHODS: We used the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of AF (ORBIT-AF) to test the association between GDT for non-AF comorbidities and major adverse cardiac or neurovascular events (MACNE; cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke/thromboembolism, or new-onset heart failure), all-cause mortality, new-onset heart failure, and AF progression. Adjustment was performed using Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression. RESULTS: Only 6,782 (33%) of the 20,434 patients eligible for 1 or more GDT for non-AF comorbidities received all indicated therapies. Use of all comorbidity-specific GDT was highest for patients with hyperlipidemia (75.6%) and lowest for those with diabetes mellitus (43.1%). Use of "all eligible" GDT was associated with a nonsignificant trend toward lower rates of MACNE (HR 0.90 [0.79-1.02]) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.90 [0.80-1.01]). Use of GDT for heart failure was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.77 [0.67-0.89]), and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea was associated with a lower risk of AF progression (OR 0.75 [0.62-0.90]). CONCLUSIONS: In AF patients, there is underuse of GDT for non-AF comorbidities. The association between GDT use and outcomes was strongest in heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea patients where use of GDT was associated with lower mortality and less AF progression.

2.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746759

RESUMO

AIMS: There are limited data on the trends and outcomes of mechanical circulatory support (MCS)-assisted early percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the National Inpatient Sample database from 2005-2014 a retrospective cohort of AMI-CS admissions receiving early PCI (hospital day zero) was identified. MCS use was defined as intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), percutaneous left ventricular assist device (pLVAD) and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, resource utilization, trends and predictors of MCS-assisted PCI. Of the 110,452 admissions, MCS assistance was used in 55%. IABP, pLVAD and ECMO were used in 94.8%, 4.2% and 1% respectively. During 2009-2014, there was a decrease in MCS-assisted PCI due to a decrease in IABP, despite an increase in pLVAD and ECMO. Younger age, male sex, lower comorbidity, and cardiac arrest independently predicted MCS use. MCS-assisted PCI was predictive of higher in-hospital mortality (31% vs. 26%, adjusted odds ratio 1.23 [1.19-1.27]; p<0.001) and greater resource utilization. IABP-assisted PCI had lower in-hospital mortality and lesser resource utilization compared to pLVAD/ECMO. CONCLUSIONS: MCS-assisted PCI identified a sicker AMI-CS cohort. There was a decrease in IABP and an increase in the pLVAD/ECMO.

3.
Circulation ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747786

RESUMO

Background: The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with oral anticoagulants has been associated with an increased risk of bleeding. We investigated the risk of bleeding and major cardiovascular outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) taking NSAIDs and apixaban or warfarin. Methods: The ARISTOTLE trial (n=18,201) compared apixaban with warfarin in patients with AF at increased risk of stroke. Patients in ARISTOTLE without severe renal (creatine clearance ≤30 mL/min) or liver disease were included in this analysis (n=17,423). NSAID use at baseline, NSAID use during the trial (incident NSAID use) and never users were described. The primary outcome was major bleeding. Secondary outcomes included clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding, heart failure hospitalization, stroke or systemic embolism, and all-cause mortality. NSAID use during the trial and the interaction between randomized treatment and was analyzed using time dependent Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Those with baseline NSAID use (n=832 [4.8%]), incident NSAID use (n=2185 [13.2%]), and never users were similar in median age [25th, 75th] (70 [64, 77] vs. 70 [63, 75] vs. 70 [62, 76]). Those with NSAID use at baseline and incident NSAID use were more likely to have a history of bleeding (24.5% vs. 21.0% vs 15.6%) than never users. During a median follow-up [25th, 75th] of 1.8 [1.4, 2.3]) years and when excluding those taking NSAID at baseline, we found that incident NSAID use was associated with an increased risk of major bleeding (hazard ratio [HR] 1.61, 95% CI 1.11-2.33) and clinically relevant non-major bleeding (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.16-2.48), but not gastrointestinal bleeding. No significant interaction was observed between NSAID use and randomized treatment for any outcome. Conclusions: A substantial number of patients in the ARISTOTLE trial took NSAIDs. Incident NSAID use was associated with major and CRNM bleeding, but not gastrointestinal bleeding. The safety and efficacy of apixaban versus warfarin appeared not significantly to be altered by NSAID use. This study warrants more investigation of the effect of NSAIDs on the outcomes of patients treated with apixaban. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT00412984.

4.
Am J Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735328

RESUMO

The prognostic impact of resting heart rate (RHR) following revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) is unknown. We aimed to assess the effect of RHR at discharge on 3-year cardiovascular outcomes following PCI and CABG for LMCAD. In the EXCEL trial, 1,905 patients with LMCAD were randomized to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents versus CABG. RHR was measured at discharge following the index hospitalization. The principal outcome measure was the composite endpoint of death, myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke at 3 years. Among 1,303 patients in sinus rhythm with available ECGs, the median (IQR) discharge RHR was 72 (62to 81) bpm. Median discharge RHR was higher after CABG versus PCI (78 [IQR 70 to 86] versus 65 [IQR 59 to 74] bpm, p <0.0001). At 3 years, 107 patients (8.2%) had a primary composite endpoint event including 61 patients (4.7%) who died. By multivariable analysis, discharge RHR assessed as a continuous variable (per 5 bpm) was an independent predictor at 3 years of the primary composite endpoint of death, MI, or stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06 to 1.25, p = 0.0006); the secondary composite endpoint of death, MI, stroke, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 3 years (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.19, p = 0.0007); all-cause mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.31, p = 0.002); and cardiovascular death (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33, p = 0.046). No significant interactions were present between RHR and treatment with PCI versus CABG for the primary (pint = 0.20) or secondary (pint = 0.47) composite endpoints. In patients with LMCAD undergoing revascularization, an increased RHR at discharge was associated with a higher risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes at 3 years, irrespective of treatment modality.

5.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582839

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis and plaque disruption have a central pathological role in the majority of patients who present with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but non-atherosclerotic processes are also important contributors to a substantial number of ACS events and require different diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. In the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease, intravascular imaging techniques might be needed to delineate the underlying aetiology, together with a high index of suspicion for other important causes of ACS. In this Review, we discuss five non-atherosclerotic causes of ACS, including spontaneous coronary artery dissection, coronary artery embolism, vasospasm, myocardial bridging and stress-induced cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo syndrome). Important diagnostic findings, management strategies and prognostic data for these non-atherosclerotic mechanisms of ACS are reviewed.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588605

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with an increase in subsequent heart failure (HF), recurrent ischemic events, sudden cardiac arrest, and ventricular arrhythmias (SCA-VA). The primary objective of the study to determine the role of intercurrent HF and ischemic events on the development of SCA-VA following first type I MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective cohort study of patients experiencing first type 1 MI in Olmsted County, Minnesota (2002-2012) was conducted by identifying patients using the medical records linkage system (Rochester epidemiology project). Patients aged ≥18 years were followed from the time of MI till death or 31 July, 2017. Intercurrent HF and ischemic events were the primary exposures following MI and their association with outcome SCA-VA was assessed. Eight hundred and sixty-seven patients (mean age was 63 ± 14.5 years; 69% male; 49.8% ST-elevation myocardial infarction) who had their first type I MI during the study period were included. Majority of acute MI patients were revascularized using percutaneous coronary intervention and bypass surgery (628 [72.43%] and 87 [10.03%] respectively). During a mean follow-up of 7.69 ± 4.17 years, HF, recurrent ischemic events and SCA-VA occurred in 155 (17.9%), 245 (28.3%), and 40 (4.61%) patients respectively. Low ejection fraction (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.98; P < .001), intercurrent HF (adjusted HR 3.11; 95% CI, 1.39-6.95; P = .006) and recurrent ischemic events (adjusted HR 3.47; 95% CI, 1.68-7.18; P < .001) were associated with subsequent SCA-VA. CONCLUSION: SCA-VA occurred in a small proportion of patients after MI and is associated with intercurrent HF and recurrent ischemic events.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(19): e013026, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533511

RESUMO

Background Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia worldwide. Data regarding 30-day readmission rates after discharge for atrial fibrillation remain poorly reported. Methods and Results The Nationwide Readmission Database (2010-2014) was queried using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes to identify study population. Incidence, etiologies of 30-day readmission and predictors of 30-day readmissions, and cost of care were analyzed. Among 1 723 378 patients who survived to discharge, 249 343 (14.4%) patients were readmitted within 30 days. Compared with the readmitted group, the nonreadmitted group had higher utilization of electrical cardioversion and catheter ablation. Atrial fibrillation was the most common cause of readmission (24.1%). Median time to 30-day readmission was 13 days. Advancing age, female sex, and longer stay during index hospitalization predicted higher 30-day readmissions, whereas private insurance, electrical cardioversion, catheter ablation, higher income, and elective admissions correlated with lower 30-day readmission. Comorbidities such as heart failure, neurological disorder, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver failure, coagulopathy, anemia, peripheral vascular disease, and electrolyte disturbance, correlated with increased 30-day readmissions and cost burden. Trend analysis showed a progressive decline in 30-day readmission rates from 14.7% in 2010 to 14.3% in 2014 (P trend, <0.001). Conclusions Approximately 1 in 7 patients were readmitted within 30 days of discharge, with symptomatic atrial fibrillation being the most common cause. We identified a predictive model for increased risk of readmissions and treatment expense. Electrical cardioversion during index admission was associated with a significant reduction in 30-day readmissions and service charges. The 30-day readmissions correlated with a substantial rise in the cost of care.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222894, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on acute kidney injury (AKI) complicating acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS). This study sought to evaluate 15-year national prevalence, temporal trends and outcomes of AKI with no need for hemodialysis (AKI-ND) and requiring hemodialysis (AKI-D) following AMI-CS. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study from 2000-2014 from the National Inpatient Sample (20% stratified sample of all community hospitals in the United States). Adult patients (>18 years) admitted with a primary diagnosis of AMI and secondary diagnosis of CS were included. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality in cohorts with no AKI, AKI-ND, and AKI-D. Secondary outcomes included predictors, resource utilization and disposition. RESULTS: During this 15-year period, 440,257 admissions for AMI-CS were included, with AKI in 155,610 (35.3%) and hemodialysis use in 14,950 (3.4%). Older age, black race, non-private insurance, higher comorbidity, organ failure, and use of cardiac and non-cardiac organ support were associated with the AKI development and hemodialysis use. There was a 2.6-fold higher adjusted risk of developing AKI in 2014 compared to 2000. Presence of AKI-ND and AKI-D was associated with a 1.3 and 1.7-fold higher adjusted risk of mortality. Compared to the cohort without AKI, AKI-ND and AKI-D were associated with longer length of stay (9±10, 12±13, and 18±19 days respectively; p<0.001) and higher hospitalization costs ($101,859±116,204, $159,804±190,766, and $265,875 ± 254,919 respectively; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: AKI-ND and AKI-D are associated with higher in-hospital mortality and resource utilization in AMI-CS.

10.
11.
Lancet ; 394(10201): 861-867, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is frequently asymptomatic and thus underdetected but is associated with stroke, heart failure, and death. Existing screening methods require prolonged monitoring and are limited by cost and low yield. We aimed to develop a rapid, inexpensive, point-of-care means of identifying patients with atrial fibrillation using machine learning. METHODS: We developed an artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled electrocardiograph (ECG) using a convolutional neural network to detect the electrocardiographic signature of atrial fibrillation present during normal sinus rhythm using standard 10-second, 12-lead ECGs. We included all patients aged 18 years or older with at least one digital, normal sinus rhythm, standard 10-second, 12-lead ECG acquired in the supine position at the Mayo Clinic ECG laboratory between Dec 31, 1993, and July 21, 2017, with rhythm labels validated by trained personnel under cardiologist supervision. We classified patients with at least one ECG with a rhythm of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter as positive for atrial fibrillation. We allocated ECGs to the training, internal validation, and testing datasets in a 7:1:2 ratio. We calculated the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operatoring characteristic curve for the internal validation dataset to select a probability threshold, which we applied to the testing dataset. We evaluated model performance on the testing dataset by calculating the AUC and the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and F1 score with two-sided 95% CIs. FINDINGS: We included 180 922 patients with 649 931 normal sinus rhythm ECGs for analysis: 454 789 ECGs recorded from 126 526 patients in the training dataset, 64 340 ECGs from 18 116 patients in the internal validation dataset, and 130 802 ECGs from 36 280 patients in the testing dataset. 3051 (8·4%) patients in the testing dataset had verified atrial fibrillation before the normal sinus rhythm ECG tested by the model. A single AI-enabled ECG identified atrial fibrillation with an AUC of 0·87 (95% CI 0·86-0·88), sensitivity of 79·0% (77·5-80·4), specificity of 79·5% (79·0-79·9), F1 score of 39·2% (38·1-40·3), and overall accuracy of 79·4% (79·0-79·9). Including all ECGs acquired during the first month of each patient's window of interest (ie, the study start date or 31 days before the first recorded atrial fibrillation ECG) increased the AUC to 0·90 (0·90-0·91), sensitivity to 82·3% (80·9-83·6), specificity to 83·4% (83·0-83·8), F1 score to 45·4% (44·2-46·5), and overall accuracy to 83·3% (83·0-83·7). INTERPRETATION: An AI-enabled ECG acquired during normal sinus rhythm permits identification at point of care of individuals with atrial fibrillation. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Flutter Atrial/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Redes Neurais (Computação) , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(6): 864-870, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303247

RESUMO

The REVEAL AF study demonstrated a high incidence of previously undetected atrial fibrillation (AF) using insertable cardiac monitors (ICMs) in patients with risk factors for AF and stroke. This analysis evaluated whether ICM monitoring led to changes in clinical management after AF detection. Patients with CHADS2 scores ≥3 (or =2 with ≥1 additional AF risk factor) but no history of AF received an ICM and were followed 18 to 30 months. Physicians recorded changes in clinical management in response to AF detection at scheduled (every 6 months) and unscheduled follow-up visits. Changes in clinical management included oral anticoagulation, rhythm or rate control pharmacotherapy, cardioversion, ablation, and cardiac subspecialist referral. In 387 patients who met inclusion criteria and received an ICM, AF was found in 115. A change in clinical management was taken in 87 patients with AF (76%). In 80 of these 87, a change was taken at the first visit after AF detection. In total, 31 patients (27%) with AF had ≥2 visits at which changes in clinical management were taken. The most common change was initiation of oral anticoagulation (n = 73, 63% of patients with AF). Patients with a change in clinical management at the first visit after AF detection tended to have longer AF episodes and a higher maximal daily AF burden compared with AF patients for whom no change was taken (longest episode: 52 vs 28 minutes; maximal daily AF burden:112 vs 23 minutes). Changes in management more frequently occurred at visits where patients reported AF-compatible symptoms (65% vs 46% of visits, p = 0.01). In conclusion, ICM monitoring to identify AF guides both immediate and long-term patient management in a population at high risk for stroke.

14.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(4): 874-877, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271517

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate sex-specific disparities in acute kidney injury (AKI) complicating acute myocardial infarction-related cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS) in the United States. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a retrospective cohort study from 2000 to 2014 from the National Inpatient Sample (20% sample of all hospitals in the United States). Patients >18 years admitted with a primary diagnosis of AMI and concomitant CS that developed AKI were included. The endpoints of interest were the prevalence, trends, and outcomes of men and women with AKI in AMI-CS. Multivariable hierarchical logistic regression was used to control for confounding, and a two-sided P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. During this 15 year period, 440 257 admissions with AMI-CS met the inclusion criteria, with AKI noted in 155 610 (35.3%). Women constituted 36.3% of the cohort and were older, of non-White race, and with higher co-morbidity compared with men. Women with AKI less often received coronary angiography (59% vs. 66%), percutaneous coronary intervention (39% vs. 43%), mechanical circulatory support (39% vs. 48%), mechanical ventilation (49% vs. 54%), and haemodialysis (9% vs. 10%) compared with men (all P < 0.001). Adjusted in-hospital mortality was higher in women-odds ratio 1.16 (95% confidence interval 1.14-1.19); P < 0.001-compared with men. Women had shorter lengths of stay (12 ± 14 vs. 13 ± 14 days), lower hospital costs ($150 071 ± 180 796 vs. $181 260 ± 209 674), and were less often discharged to home (19% vs. 31%) (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Women with AKI in AMI-CS received fewer cardiac and non-cardiac interventions, had higher in-hospital mortality, and were less often discharged to home compared with men.

15.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268487

RESUMO

Importance: Bleeding and thrombotic events (eg, stroke and systemic embolism) are common in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) taking warfarin sodium despite a well-established therapeutic range. Objective: To evaluate whether history of therapeutic warfarin control in patients with AF is independently associated with subsequent bleeding or thrombotic events. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter cohort study of 176 primary care, cardiology, and electrophysiology clinics in the United States, data were obtained during 51 830 visits among 10 137 patients with AF in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF) Registry; 5545 patients treated with warfarin were included in the bleeding analysis, and 5635 patients were included in the thrombotic event analysis. Patient follow-up was performed from June 29, 2010, to November 30, 2014. Data analysis was performed from August 4, 2016, to February 15, 2019. Exposures: Multiple measures of warfarin control within the preceding 6 months were analyzed: time in therapeutic range of 2.0 to 3.0, most recent international normalized ratio (INR), percentage of time that a patient had interpolated INR values less than 2.0 or greater than 3.0, INR variance, INR range, and percentage of INR values in therapeutic range. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association of INR measures, alone or in combination, with clinical factors and risk for thrombotic events and bleeding during the subsequent 6 months was assessed post hoc using logistic regression models. Results: A total of 5545 patients (mean [SD] age, 74.5 [9.8] years; 3184 [57.4%] male) with AF were included in the major bleeding analysis and 5635 patients (mean [SD] age, 74.5 [9.8] years; 3236 [57.4%] male) in the thrombotic event analysis. During a median follow-up of 1.5 years (interquartile range, 1.0-2.5 years), there were 339 major bleeds (6.1%) and 51 strokes (0.9%). Multiple metrics of warfarin control were individually associated with subsequent bleeding. After adjustment for clinical bleeding risk, 3 measures-time in therapeutic range (per 1-SD increase ≤55: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02-1.32), variation in INR values (aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.19-1.47), and maximum INR (aOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.31)-remained associated with bleeding risk. Adding INR variance to a clinical risk model slightly increased the C statistic from 0.68 to 0.69 and had a net reclassification improvement index of 0.028 (95% CI, -0.029 to 0.067). No INR measures were associated with subsequent stroke risk. Conclusions and Relevance: Three metrics of prior warfarin control were associated with bleeding risk but only marginally more so than traditional clinical factors. This study did not identify any measures of INR control that were significantly associated with stroke risk.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e011954, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315497

RESUMO

Background This study sought to evaluate the 15-year national utilization, trends, predictors, disparities, and outcomes of palliative care services (PCS) use in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort from January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2014 was analyzed using the National Inpatient Sample database. Administrative codes for acute myocardial infarction-cardiogenic shock and PCS were used to identify eligible admissions. The primary outcomes were the frequency, utilization trends, and predictors of PCS. Secondary outcomes included in-hospital mortality and resources utilization. Multivariable regression and propensity-matching analyses were used to control for confounding. In this 15-year period, there were 444 253 acute myocardial infarction-cardiogenic shock admissions, of which 4.5% received PCS. The cohort receiving PCS was older, of white race, female sex, and with higher comorbidity and acute organ failure. The PCS cohort received fewer cardiac procedures, but more noncardiac organ support therapies. Older age, female sex, white race, higher comorbidity, higher socioeconomic status, admission to a larger hospital, and admission after 2008 were independent predictors of PCS use. Use of PCS was independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 6.59 [95% CI 6.37-6.83]; P<0.001). The cohort with PCS use had >2-fold higher in-hospital mortality, 12-fold higher use of do-not-resuscitate status, lesser in-hospital resource utilization, and fewer discharges to home. Similar findings were observed in the propensity-matched cohort. Conclusions PCS use in patients with acute myocardial infarction-cardiogenic shock is low, though there is a trend towards increased adoption. There are significant patient and hospital-specific disparities in the utilization of PCS.

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(1): 83-99, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272556

RESUMO

Most patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and risk factors for stroke require oral anticoagulation (OAC) to decrease the risk of stroke or systemic embolism. This is now best achieved with direct oral anticoagulants that decrease the risk of intracranial bleeding compared with vitamin K antagonists. Of note, approximately 5% to 10% of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention have AF, which complicates antithrombotic therapy in daily practice, because the guidelines recommend that these patients also receive dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) to reduce the risk of ischemic complications. However, combining OAC with DAPT, a strategy also known as triple antithrombotic therapy, is known to increase the risk of bleeding compared with the use of OAC or DAPT alone. Studies of direct oral anticoagulants are now emerging that show the favorable safety profile of double antithrombotic therapy with OAC and a P2Y12 inhibitor in comparison with triple antithrombotic therapy including the use of vitamin K antagonists. The scope of this review is to provide an update on this topic as well as to discuss future directions in the management of antithrombotic therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention in AF patients requiring chronic OAC.

18.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(6): e006951, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159582

RESUMO

Background The treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction has been the subject of numerous randomized controlled trials involving medications and cardiac implantable electronic device therapies. As newer effective pharmacological therapies suggest significant reductions in all-cause mortality, the role of additional device therapy in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction deserves further scrutiny. Methods A systematic review and network meta-analysis on the effect of medication and device therapies in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction on all-cause mortality was performed. Randomized controlled trials published between January 1980 and July 2017 were identified using Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials databases. Pcnetmeta package in R was used to calculate treatment arm-based estimated rates, rate ratios, and probability ranks with 95% credible intervals. Results Combination therapy of ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors or ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers) with ß-blockers (BBs) alone or in addition to implantable cardiac defibrillators or cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillators demonstrated a significant reduction of all-cause mortality when compared with placebo. By probability rank, implantable cardiac defibrillator+ACE inhibitor or ARB+BB+mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, implantable cardiac defibrillator+ACE inhibitor or ARB+BB, and angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor+BB+mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist combination therapies have the highest probability of being ranked the best treatment. There was no significant difference in the rate of mortality when comparing angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor+BB+mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist to implantable cardiac defibrillator+optimal pharmacological combination therapy. Conclusions BB and renin-angiotensin system blockers alone or in combination with defibrillator device therapy have robust evidence for a reduction in mortality compared with placebo. The comparative efficacy of pharmacological therapy with angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors and device therapy deserves further investigation.

19.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199474

RESUMO

Despite improvements in outcomes in the last few decades for heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), there still remains a need for novel therapies as many patients incompletely recover with existing therapies and progress to advanced HF. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the management of HFrEF with a focus on upcoming therapies that hold the greatest promise for clinical use. We will discuss novel pharmacological therapies and areas of uncertainty with existing therapies. We will also discuss the potential utility and controversy surrounding novel interventions for HF such as percutaneous mitral valve repair, atrial fibrillation ablation, and other emerging interventions with positive signals for benefit in HFrEF. Finally, we will summarize the current state of stem cell and gene therapy for HFrEF and future directions.

20.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(5): e005358, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092022

RESUMO

Background The Atrial Fibrillation Effect on Quality-of-Life (AFEQT) questionnaire has recently been validated to measure the impact of atrial fibrillation on quality of life, but a clinically important difference in AFEQT score has not been well defined. Methods and Results To determine the clinically important difference in overall AFEQT (score range= 0 [worst] to 100 [best]) and selected subscales, we analyzed data in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF) registry, a United States-based outpatient atrial fibrillation registry. AFEQT was assessed at baseline and 1 year in a subset of 1347 ORBIT-AF patients from 80 US sites participating in ORBIT-AF from June 2010 to August 2011. The mean change method was used to relate changes in 1-year AFEQT scores to clinically important changes in the physician assessment of European Heart Rhythm Association functional status (1 class improvement and separately 1 class deterioration). Clinically important differences and 95% CI corresponding to either a 1 European Heart Rhythm Association class improvement or deterioration were 5.4 (3.6-7.2) and -4.2 (-6.9 to -1.5) AFEQT points, respectively. Similarly, clinically important difference values were seen for a 1 European Heart Rhythm Association class improvement for the AFEQT subscales Activities of Daily Living and Symptoms: 5.1 (2.5-7.6) and 7.1 (5.3-9.0) AFEQT points, respectively. Conclusions Based on the anchor of 1 European Heart Rhythm Association class change, changes in AFEQT score of + or -5 points are clinically important changes in patients' health. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01165710.

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