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1.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803227

RESUMO

Stem cell and regenerative approaches that might rejuvenate the heart have immense intuitive appeal for the public and scientific communities. Hopes were fueled by initial findings from preclinical models that suggested that easily obtained bone marrow cells might have significant reparative capabilities; however, after initial encouraging pre-clinical and early clinical findings, the realities of clinical development have placed a damper on the field. Clinical trials were often designed to detect exceptionally large treatment effects with modest patient numbers with subsequent disappointing results. First generation approaches were likely overly simplistic and relied on a relatively primitive understanding of regenerative mechanisms and capabilities. Nonetheless, the field continues to move forward and novel cell derivatives, platforms, and cell/device combinations, coupled with a better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to regenerative capabilities in more primitive models and modifications in clinical trial design suggest a brighter future.

3.
Heart ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of mitral regurgitation (MR) on thromboembolic risk of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) undergoing transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE)-guided cardioversion. METHODS: Data for consecutive patients who underwent TEE-guided cardioversion for NVAF between 2000 and 2012 were analysed. MR severity was assessed by Doppler echocardiography and classified as ≤mild, moderate or severe. Left atrial appendage emptying velocities were averaged for five consecutive cycles. Multivariable regression models were used to identify independent predictors of left atrial appendage thrombus (LAAT) and stroke. RESULTS: 2950 patients (age, 69.3±12.2 years, 67% men) were analysed. 2173 (73.7%) had ≤mild MR; 631 (21.4%), moderate MR; and 146 (4.9%), severe MR. Patients with moderate (age, 72.4±10.7 years) and severe (age, 72.8±12.1 years) MR were older than those with ≤mild MR (age, 68.2±12.5 years). The prevalence of LAAT was 1.5% (n=43). CHA2DS2-VASc scores (≤mild MR, 3.0±1.6; moderate MR, 3.5±1.5; severe MR, 3.9±1.5; p<0.001) and heart failure frequency (≤mild MR, 38.4%; moderate MR, 48.0%; severe MR, 69.2%; p<0.001) were increasingly higher with greater MR severity. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed no association of moderate MR (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.56) or severe MR (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.49) with LAAT. During a mean follow-up of 7.3±5.1 years (median 7.5, IQR, 2.7-10.9), 216 patients had an ischaemic stroke. Adjusted Cox regression analysis showed no significant association of moderate MR (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.68) or severe MR (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.46) with stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with NVAF, the presence or severity of MR was not associated with a decreased risk of LAAT or stroke.

4.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; : CIRCINTERVENTIONS120010300, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF), mitral regurgitation (MR), and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction have a complex interplay. We evaluated the role of AF in patients with heart failure and moderate-to-severe or severe secondary MR enrolled in the randomized COAPT trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation) and its impact on mechanisms and outcomes with the MitraClip. METHODS: Patients in the COAPT trial were stratified by the presence (n=327) or absence (n=287) of a history of AF and by assignment to treatment group. Clinical, echocardiographic, and outcome measures were assessed. The primary outcome was the composite rate of death or heart failure hospitalization at 24 months. RESULTS: Patients with history of AF were older and more often male. They had a higher LV ejection fraction, larger left atrial volumes and mitral valve orifice areas, smaller LV volumes, and similar MR severity. Patients with AF compared with those without a history of AF had a higher unadjusted (hazard ratio [HR], 1.32 [95% CI, 1.06-1.64], P=0.01) and adjusted (HR, 1.30 [1.03-1.64], P=0.03) 2-year rate of the primary outcome. Treatment with the MitraClip compared with guideline-directed medical therapy alone reduced death or heart failure hospitalization in both those with (HR, 0.61 [0.46-0.82]) and without (HR, 0.46 [0.33-0.66]) a history of AF (Pint=0.18). Treatment with the MitraClip was associated with a lower risk of stroke in patients with a history of AF (HR, 0.18 [0.04-0.86]) but not in those without a history of AF (HR, 1.64 [0.58-4.62]; Pint=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In the COAPT trial, patients with a history of AF had larger left atrial and mitral valve orifice areas with higher LV ejection fraction and smaller LV volumes, suggesting an atrial mechanism contribution to functional MR. Despite the worse prognosis of heart failure patients with a history of AF, MR reduction with the MitraClip still afforded substantial clinical benefits. Treatment with MitraClip was associated with a lower risk of stroke in patients with a history of AF. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01626079.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786798

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have partial renal clearance and generally require dosage adjustments based on renal function. While current US and European guidance recommends dose adjustments in patients with moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD), it is unclear how often this is done appropriately in routine clinical practice. METHODS: We examined rates of appropriate and inappropriate dosing in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and moderate CKD, as determined by creatinine clearance (CrCl) of 30-50 mL/min calculated with the Cockcroft-Gault formula. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the rate of appropriate and inappropriate dosing as well as event rates. RESULTS: Among 1134 patients (8.5% of the overall ORBIT-AF II registry) with AF and CrCl 30-50 mL/min, the median age was 82 (25th, 75th percentile: 78, 86), 38% were male, and the median CHA2DS2VASC score was 4 (25th, 75th percentile: 4, 5). At baseline, more than one-third (34%) of patients with moderate CKD were inappropriately dosed with DOACs. When evaluating the specific prescribed doses in those with moderate CKD, 15% (N = 170/1134) were underdosed, 66% (743/1134) were appropriately dosed, and 20% (N = 221/1134) were overdosed. There were no significant differences in comorbid medical conditions between patients with moderate CKD who were appropriately and inappropriately dosed with a DOAC. CONCLUSION: In routine clinical practice, prescribing of DOACs in patients with AF with moderate CKD is often inconsistent with drug labeling, with up to one-third of patients being inappropriately dosed.

6.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a biomarker independently associated with bleeding and death in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). GDF-15 is also used as one component in the more precise biomarker-based ABC (age, biomarkers, clinical history)-AF-bleeding and ABC-AF-death risk scores. Data from large trials indicate a geographic variability in regard to overall outcomes, including bleeding and mortality risk. Our aim was to assess the consistency of the association between GDF-15, ABC-AF-bleeding score and ABC-AF-death score, with major bleeding and death, across world geographic regions. METHODS: Data were available from 14 767 patients with AF from the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial and 8651 patients with AF from the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial in this cohort study. GDF-15 was analysed from plasma samples obtained at randomisation. The geographical consistency of the associations between outcomes and GDF-15, ABC-AF-bleeding score and ABC-AF-death scores were assessed by Cox-regression models including interactions with predefined geographical region. RESULTS: GDF-15 and the ABC-AF-bleeding score were associated with major bleeding in both trials across regions (p<0.0001). Similarly, GDF-15 and the ABC-AF-death score were associated with all-cause mortality in both trials across regions (p<0.0001). Overall, the association between GDF-15, the ABC-AF-bleeding score and ABC-AF-death risk score with major bleeding and death was consistent across regions in both ARISTOTLE and the RE-LY trial cohorts. The ABC-AF-bleeding and ABC-AF-death risk scores were consistent regarding discriminative ability when comparing geographic regions in both trial cohorts. The C-indices ranged from 0.649 to 0.760 for the ABC-AF-bleeding and from 0.677 to 0.806 for the ABC-AF-death score by different geographic regions. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AF on anticoagulation, GDF-15 and the biomarker-based ABC-AF-bleeding and ABC-AF-death risk scores are consistently associated with respectively increased risk of major bleeding and death and have similar prognostic value across world geographic regions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry NCT00412984 and NCT00262600.

7.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652498

RESUMO

The concept that cell-based repair of myocardial injury might be possible was introduced almost two decades ago; however, the field of cardiovascular reparative medicine has been criticized as translation to clinically effective approaches has been slow. The recent retraction of a series of papers has further impacted perception of this area of research. As researchers, clinicians, and teachers in this field, we felt it incumbent to critically appraise the current state of cardiac cell repair, determine what can be learned from past mistakes, and formulate best practices for future work. This special communication summarizes an introspective assessment of what has fallen short, how to prevent similar issues, and how the field might best move forward in the service of science and patients.

8.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704924

RESUMO

AIMS: There are limited contemporary data on the use of initial fibrinolysis in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction cardiogenic shock (STEMI-CS). This study sought to compare the outcomes of STEMI-CS receiving initial fibrinolysis vs. primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). METHODS: Using the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample from 2009 to 2017, a comparative effectiveness study of adult (>18 years) STEMI-CS admissions receiving pre-hospital/in-hospital fibrinolysis were compared with those receiving PPCI. Admissions with alternate indications for fibrinolysis and STEMI-CS managed medically or with surgical revascularization (without fibrinolysis) were excluded. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, development of non-cardiac organ failure, complications, hospital length of stay, hospitalization costs, use of palliative care, and do-not-resuscitate status. RESULTS: During 2009-2017, 5297 and 110 452 admissions received initial fibrinolysis and PPCI, respectively. Compared with those receiving PPCI, the fibrinolysis group was more often non-White, with lower co-morbidity, and admitted on weekends and to small rural hospitals (all P < 0.001). In the fibrinolysis group, 95.3%, 77.4%, and 15.7% received angiography, PCI, and coronary artery bypass grafting, respectively. The fibrinolysis group had higher rates of haemorrhagic complications (13.5% vs. 9.9%; P < 0.001). The fibrinolysis group had comparable all-cause in-hospital mortality [logistic regression analysis: 28.8% vs. 28.5%; propensity-matched analysis: 30.8% vs. 30.3%; adjusted odds ratio 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.90-1.05); P = 0.50]. The fibrinolysis group had comparable rates of acute organ failure, hospital length of stay, rates of palliative care referrals, do-not-resuscitate status use, and lesser hospitalization costs. CONCLUSIONS: The use of initial fibrinolysis had comparable in-hospital mortality than those receiving PPCI in STEMI-CS in the contemporary era in this large national observational study.

9.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 13(1): 17, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation may improve myocardial performance in the context of ischaemia, independent of glycaemic control, in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The LIONESS trial was a single-centre randomised double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study to determine whether prolonged GLP-1R activation could improve exercise haemodynamics in chronic stable angina patients. Eligibility criteria comprised angiographic evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and an abnormal baseline exercise tolerance test (ETT) demonstrating > 0.1 mV of planar or downsloping ST-segment depression (STD). Those randomised to active agent started with a 1-week run-in phase of 0.6 mg liraglutide daily, an established injectable GLP-1R agonist, followed by 1 week of 1.2 mg liraglutide, after which patients performed a week 2 ETT. Patients then self-administered 1.8 mg liraglutide for a week before completing a week 3 ETT. The placebo arm received visually and temporally matched daily saline injections. Participants then crossed over to a 3-week course of saline injections interspersed with a week 5 ETT and week 6 ETT and vice versa. Co-primary endpoints were rate pressure product (RPP) at 0.1 mV STD and magnitude of STD at peak exercise. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients (21 without diabetes) were randomised. There was no significant difference between saline versus liraglutide in the co-primary endpoints of RPP achieved at 0.1 mV STD (saline vs. liraglutide 1.2 mg p = 0.097; saline vs. liraglutide 1.8 mg p = 0.48) or the degree of STD at peak exercise (saline vs. liraglutide 1.2 mg p = 0.68; saline vs. liraglutide 1.8 mg p = 0.57). Liraglutide did not cause symptomatic hypoglycaemia, renal dysfunction, acute pancreatitis or provoke early withdrawal from the trial. Liraglutide significantly reduced weight (baseline 88.75 ± 16.5 kg vs. after liraglutide 87.78 ± 16.9 kg; p = 0.0008) and improved the lipid profile (mean total cholesterol: at baseline 3.97 ± 0.88 vs. after liraglutide 3.56 ± 0.71 mmol/L; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Liraglutide did not enhance exercise tolerance or haemodynamics compared with saline placebo during serial treadmill testing in patients with established obstructive CAD. It did, however, significantly reduce weight and improve the lipid profile. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02315001. Retrospectively registered on 11th December 2014.

10.
Heart ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the comparative effectiveness of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) and factor Xa inhibitors (FXaI) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) at risk of stroke in everyday practice. METHODS: Data from patients with AF and Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age 75 years, Diabetes mellitus, prior Stroke, TIA, or thromboembolism, Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category (CHA2DS2-VASc) score ≥2 (excluding gender) in the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation registry were analysed using an improved method of propensity weighting, overlap weights and Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: All-cause mortality, non-haemorrhagic stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and major bleeding over 2 years were compared in 25 551 patients, 7162 (28.0%) not treated with oral anticoagulant (OAC) and 18 389 (72.0%) treated with OAC (FXaI (41.8%), DTI (11.4%) and VKA (46.8%)). OAC treatment compared with no OAC treatment was associated with decreased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.91)) and non-haemorrhagic stroke/SE (HR 0.71 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.88)) but increased risk of major bleeding (HR 1.46 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.86)). Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) use compared with no OAC treatment was associated with lower risks of all-cause mortality and non-haemorrhagic stroke/SE (HR 0.67 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.77)) and 0.65 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.86)) respectively, with no increase in major bleeding (HR 1.10 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.47)). NOAC use compared with VKA use was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality and major bleeding (rates/100 patient-years 3.6 (95% CI 3.3 to 3.9) vs 4.8 (95% CI 4.5 to 5.2) and 1.0 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.1) vs 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.6); HR 0.79 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.89) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.98) respectively), with similar risk of non-haemorrhagic stroke/SE (rates/100 patient-years 0.8 (95% CI 0.7 to 0.9) versus 1.0 (95% CI 0.8 to 1.1); HR 0.96 (95% CI 0.73 to 1.25). CONCLUSION: Important benefits in terms of mortality and major bleeding were observed with NOAC versus VKA with no difference among NOAC subtypes. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01090362.

13.
Am J Cardiol ; 144: 52-59, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385355

RESUMO

Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs) require dose adjustment based on specific patient characteristics, making them prone to incorrect dosing. The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of inappropriate DOAC dosing, its predictors, and corresponding outcomes in a single-center cohort of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. We reviewed all patients with AF treated at Mayo Clinic with a DOAC (Apixaban, Rivaroxaban, or Dabigatran) between 2010 and 2017. Outcomes examined were ischemic stroke /transient ischemic attack (TIA)/embolism and bleeding. 8,576 patients (mean age 69.5 ± 11.9 years, 35.1 % female, CHA2DS2-VASc 3.0±1.8) received a DOAC (38.6% apixaban, 35.8% rivaroxaban, 25.6% dabigatran). DOAC dosing was inappropriate in 1,273 (14.8%) with 1071 (12.4%) receiving an inappropriately low dose, and 202(2.4%) an inappropriately high dose. Patients prescribed inappropriate doses were older (72.4 ± 11.7 vs 69.0 ± 11.8, p <0.0001), more likely to be female (43.1% vs 33.7%, p <0.0001), had a higher CHA2DS2-VASc score (3.4 ± 1.8 vs 2.9 ± 1.8, p <0.0001) and a greater Charlson co-morbidity index (3.5 ± 3.3 vs 2.9 ± 3.2, p<0.0001). Over 1.2 ±1.6 years (median 0.5 years) follow up; there was no significant difference in the incidence of stroke and/or TIA and/or embolism and bleeding between patients who were inappropriately dosed versus appropriately dosed. In conclusion, DOAC dosing was not in compliance with current recommendations in 15% of AF patients. Patients at higher risk of stroke and/or TIA based on older age, female gender, and higher CHA2DS2-VASc score were more likely to be underdosed, but there was no significant difference in outcomes including stroke/TIA/embolism and bleeding.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Erros de Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Comorbidade , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Embolia/etiologia , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Am J Cardiol ; 145: 64-68, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497655

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) comes to attention clinically during an evaluation of symptoms, an evaluation of its adverse outcomes, or because of incidental detection during a routine examination or electrocardiogram. However, a notable number of additional individuals have AF that has not yet been clinically apparent or suspect-subclinical AF (SCAF). SCAF has been recognized during interrogation of pacemakers and defibrillators. More recently, SCAF has been demonstrated in prospective studies with long-term monitors-both external and implanted. The REVEAL AF trial enrolled a demographically "enriched" population that underwent monitoring for up to 3 years with an insertable cardiac monitor. SCAF was noted in 40% by 30 months. None of these patients had AF known before the study; however, some had nonspecific symptoms common to patients with known AF. The current study assessed whether patients with versus without such symptoms were more likely to have SCAF detected. We found that only palpitations had an association with AF detection when controlling for other baseline symptoms (hazard ratio 1.61 (95% confidence interval 1.12 to 2.32; p = 0.011). No other prescreening symptoms evaluated were associated with an increased likelihood of SCAF detection although patients without detected SCAF had an even higher frequency of symptoms than those with detected SCAF. Thus, REVEAL AF demonstrated that the presence of palpitations is associated with an increased likelihood of SCAF whereas other common symptoms are not; and, symptoms, per se, may more likely be consequent to associated disorders than they are a direct consequence of SCAF.

15.
Int J Cardiol ; 322: 272-277, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction, it may be difficult to distinguish between the normal and diseased heart. Novel assessments of ventricular function, such as extracellular volume imaging, myocardial perfusion imaging and myocardial contraction fraction are emerging to better assess disease burden in these cases. This study endeavored to determine whether the ratio of myocardial volume in systole to myocardial volume in diastole (MVs/MVd), differs between normal hearts and those with disease states characterized by normal ejection fraction. METHOD: Consecutive patients from 2008 to 2018 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), cardiac amyloidosis, and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were selected for inclusion, along with a sex- and age-matched cohort of normal volunteers who also underwent cardiac MRI. Manual tracings were performed on each MRI to calculate MVs/MVd, which was then compared across subgroups. RESULTS: Included were 50 patients with HCM, 50 patients with cardiac amyloidosis, 26 patients with HFpEF, and 30 normal subjects. Age was 54.1 years (SD 16.7); mean MVs/MVd was 0.88 (SD 0.04) in the normal subgroup, 1.03 (SD 0.06) in HCM patients, 1.03 (SD 0.06) in cardiac amyloidosis patients, and 0.97 (SD 0.02) in HFpEF patients, with all pathology subgroups different from the normal subgroup (p < .0001 for each). The ratio of MVs/MVd discriminated diseased from normal with c statistic 0.989 (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a novel and easily-captured metric of ventricular function, MVs/MVd, can differentiate normal ventricular function from multiple cardiomyopathies with normal ejection fractions.

16.
Int J Cardiol ; 322: 278-283, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The professional guidelines assume that the myocardial volume in systole (MVs) is equal to that in diastole (MVd), despite some limited evidence that points to the contrary. The aim of this manuscript is to determine whether this is true in healthy myocardium using gold standard cardiac MRI, as well as transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). The secondary aim is to determine whether there are similar MV changes in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHOD: A prospectively derived cohort at Mayo Clinic of 115 adult subjects (mean age 42.8 years, 58% female) with no cardiac risk factors was identified. Cardiac MRI was obtained on all 115 patients, 51 of whom also consented to a TTE. MRI from a retrospectively derived cohort of 50 HFrEF patients was also collected. MVs and MVd was calculated using standard approaches with inclusion of the papillary muscles. RESULTS: In the healthy population, MRI demonstrated MVs/MVd = 0.87 (SD 0.04) and TTE demonstrated MVs/MVd = 0.79 (SD 0.07), suggesting compressibility (p < 0.0001). In the 51 healthy patients who received both imaging modalities, MVs/MVd was 8.0% higher in MRI than TTE (p < 0.0001), but both modalities had MVs/MVd < 1 (p < 0.0001). A Bland-Altman plot demonstrated that as the mean MVs/MVd increases, the difference in MVs/MVd MRI-TTE declines (r = -0.53, p < 0.0001). However, in HFrEF populations, MVs/MVd = 1.01 (0.03), suggesting myocardial incompressibility. CONCLUSION: Contrary to currently accepted standards, healthy myocardium is compressible but HFrEF myocardium is incompressible. The ratio MVs/MVd merits further study in an expanded normal cohort and in disease states.

17.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307074

RESUMO

Transapical septal myectomy can be performed for patients with nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and diastolic dysfunction to enlarge the left ventricular cavity. The procedure may also include limited shaving of severely hypertrophied papillary muscles. This report illustrates the usefulness of papillary muscle resection to enlarge the left ventricle in a patient with nonobstructive HCM and pre-existing mitral valve prosthesis.

18.
Lancet Digit Health ; 2(9): e486-e488, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328116

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a disruptive technology that involves the use of computerised algorithms to dissect complicated data. Among the most promising clinical applications of AI is diagnostic imaging, and mounting attention is being directed at establishing and fine-tuning its performance to facilitate detection and quantification of a wide array of clinical conditions. Investigations leveraging computer-aided diagnostics have shown excellent accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the detection of small radiographic abnormalities, with the potential to improve public health. However, outcome assessment in AI imaging studies is commonly defined by lesion detection while ignoring the type and biological aggressiveness of a lesion, which might create a skewed representation of AI's performance. Moreover, the use of non-patient-focused radiographic and pathological endpoints might enhance the estimated sensitivity at the expense of increasing false positives and possible overdiagnosis as a result of identifying minor changes that might reflect subclinical or indolent disease. We argue for refinement of AI imaging studies via consistent selection of clinically meaningful endpoints such as survival, symptoms, and need for treatment.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/patologia
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2025505, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216139

RESUMO

Importance: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is highly prevalent in the US, with studies indicating substantial rates of nonadherence to and undertreatment with statin therapy. The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline recommended high-intensity statins for all patients age 75 years and younger with documented ASCVD in whom such therapy is tolerated, but there is limited evidence documenting population trends of statin use, adherence, and outcomes in the periods before and after the update to the guideline. Objective: To assess trends in the use, adherence, cost, and outcomes of statin therapy for secondary prevention in patients with different types of ASCVD between 2007 and 2016. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used data from the OptumLab Data Warehouse database containing privately insured and Medicare Advantage enrollees with demographic characteristics similar to the national US population. Participants were adult patients (age ≥21 years) who had their first ASCVD event between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2016. Data were characterized as belonging to 3 groups: (1) cardiovascular heart disease (CHD); (2) ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA); and (3) peripheral artery disease (PAD). Data were analyzed from July 1 to August 1, 2018. Exposures: Calendar year of the initial ASCVD event. Main Outcomes and Measures: Trends in the statin use (within 30 days of discharge from hospitalization), adherence (proportion of days covered ≥80% within the first year), cost, major adverse cardiac events (1-year cumulative risk), and statin intolerance (within the first year). Results: Of the 284 954 patients with a new ASCVD event, 128 422 (45.1%) were women; the median age was 63 years (interquartile range [IQR], 54-72 years); 207 781 (72.9%) were White. The use of statins increased from 50.3% in 2007 to 59.9% in 2016, the use of high-intensity statins increased from 25.0% to 49.2%, and the adherence increased from 58.7% to 70.5% (P < .001 for all trends). Patients with CHD were more likely to receive statins and high-intensity statins and adhere to medications than patients with ischemic stroke, TIA, or PAD despite similar observed treatment benefit. In 2016, 80.9% of patients with CHD used a statin vs 65.8% of patients with ischemic stroke or TIA and 37.5% of patients with PAD. Out-of-pocket cost per 30-day decreased from a median of $20 (interquartile range, $7.6-$31.9) in 2007 to $2 (interquartile range, $1.6-$10.0) in 2016 (P < .001) with the increasing use of generic statins (42.0% in 2007 vs 94.9% in 2016; P < .001). Major adverse cardiac events decreased from 8.9% in 2007 to 6.5% in 2016 (P < .001) whereas statin intolerance increased from 4.0% to 5.1% (P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: There have been modest improvements in the use, adherence, and cardiovascular outcomes over the past decade for statin therapy in patients with ASCVD, but a substantial and persistent treatment gap exists between patients with and without CHD, between men and women.

20.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067581

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Selected patients with obstructive coronary artery disease benefit from revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Many (but not all) studies have demonstrated increased survival and greater freedom from adverse cardiovascular events after complete revascularization (CR) than after incomplete revascularization (ICR) in patients with multivessel disease. However, achieving CR after PCI or CABG surgery might not be feasible owing to patient comorbidities, anatomical factors, and technical or procedural considerations. These factors also mean that comparisons between CR and ICR are subject to multiple confounders and are difficult to understand or apply to real-world clinical practice. In this Review, we summarize and critically appraise the evidence linking various types of ICR to adverse outcomes in patients with multivessel disease and stable ischaemic heart disease, non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, with or without cardiogenic shock. In addition, we provide practical recommendations for revascularization in patients with high-risk multivessel disease to optimize their long-term clinical outcomes and identify areas requiring future clinical investigation.

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