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1.
Curr Biol ; 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016007

RESUMO

In nature, plant-insect interactions occur in complex settings involving multiple trophic levels, often with multiple species at each level.1 Herbivore attack of a host plant typically dramatically alters the plant's odor emission in terms of concentration and composition.2,3 Therefore, a well-adapted herbivore should be able to predict whether a plant is still suitable as a host by judging these changes in the emitted bouquet. Although studies have demonstrated that oviposition preferences of successive insects were affected by previous infestations,4,5 the underlying molecular and olfactory mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we report that tobacco hawkmoths (Manduca sexta) preferentially oviposit on Jimson weed (Datura wrightii) that is already infested by a specialist, the three-lined potato beetle (Lema daturaphila). Interestingly, the moths' offspring do not benefit directly, as larvae develop more slowly when feeding together with Lema beetles. However, one of M. sexta's main enemies, the parasitoid wasp Cotesia congregata, prefers the headspace of M. sexta-infested plants to that of plants infested by both herbivores. Hence, we conclude that female M. sexta ignore the interspecific competition with beetles and oviposit deliberately on beetle-infested plants to provide their offspring with an enemy-reduced space, thus providing a trade-off that generates a net benefit to the survival and fitness of the subsequent generation. We identify that α-copaene, emitted by beetle-infested Datura, plays a role in this preference. By performing heterologous expression and single-sensillum recordings, we show that odorant receptor (Or35) is involved in α-copaene detection.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(52)2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930840

RESUMO

Thymol and carvacrol are phenolic monoterpenes found in thyme, oregano, and several other species of the Lamiaceae. Long valued for their smell and taste, these substances also have antibacterial and anti-spasmolytic properties. They are also suggested to be precursors of thymohydroquinone and thymoquinone, monoterpenes with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor activities. Thymol and carvacrol biosynthesis has been proposed to proceed by the cyclization of geranyl diphosphate to γ-terpinene, followed by a series of oxidations via p-cymene. Here, we show that γ-terpinene is oxidized by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) of the CYP71D subfamily to produce unstable cyclohexadienol intermediates, which are then dehydrogenated by a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) to the corresponding ketones. The subsequent formation of the aromatic compounds occurs via keto-enol tautomerisms. Combining these enzymes with γ-terpinene in in vitro assays or in vivo in Nicotiana benthamiana yielded thymol and carvacrol as products. In the absence of the SDRs, only p-cymene was formed by rearrangement of the cyclohexadienol intermediates. The nature of these unstable intermediates was inferred from reactions with the γ-terpinene isomer limonene and by analogy to reactions catalyzed by related enzymes. We also identified and characterized two P450s of the CYP76S and CYP736A subfamilies that catalyze the hydroxylation of thymol and carvacrol to thymohydroquinone when heterologously expressed in yeast and N. benthamiana Our findings alter previous views of thymol and carvacrol formation, identify the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of these phenolic monoterpenes and thymohydroquinone in the Lamiaceae, and provide targets for metabolic engineering of high-value terpenes in plants.

3.
Elife ; 102021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632981

RESUMO

Gut enzymes can metabolize plant defense compounds and thereby affect the growth and fitness of insect herbivores. Whether these enzymes also influence feeding preference is largely unknown. We studied the metabolization of taraxinic acid ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G), a sesquiterpene lactone of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) that deters its major root herbivore, the common cockchafer larva (Melolontha melolontha). We have demonstrated that TA-G is rapidly deglucosylated and conjugated to glutathione in the insect gut. A broad-spectrum M. melolontha ß-glucosidase, Mm_bGlc17, is sufficient and necessary for TA-G deglucosylation. Using cross-species RNA interference, we have shown that Mm_bGlc17 reduces TA-G toxicity. Furthermore, Mm_bGlc17 is required for the preference of M. melolontha larvae for TA-G-deficient plants. Thus, herbivore metabolism modulates both the toxicity and deterrence of a plant defense compound. Our work illustrates the multifaceted roles of insect digestive enzymes as mediators of plant-herbivore interactions.


Assuntos
Besouros/enzimologia , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Taraxacum/metabolismo , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo , Animais , Besouros/embriologia , Besouros/genética , Digestão , Glucosídeos/toxicidade , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Inativação Metabólica , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Lactonas/toxicidade , Larva/enzimologia , Larva/genética , Metabolismo Secundário , Sesquiterpenos/toxicidade , Taraxacum/toxicidade , beta-Galactosidase/genética
4.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718797

RESUMO

Fungal infection of grasses, including rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), induces the formation and accumulation of flavonoid phytoalexins. In maize (Zea mays), however, investigators have emphasized benzoxazinoid and terpenoid phytoalexins, and comparatively little is known about flavonoid induction in response to pathogens. Here, we examined fungus-elicited flavonoid metabolism in maize and identified key biosynthetic enzymes involved in the formation of O-methylflavonoids. The predominant end products were identified as two tautomers of a 2-hydroxynaringenin-derived compound termed xilonenin, which significantly inhibited the growth of two maize pathogens, Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides. Among the biosynthetic enzymes identified were two O-methyltransferases, flavonoid O-methyltransferase 2 (FOMT2) and flavonoid O-methyltransferase 4 (FOMT4), which demonstrated distinct regiospecificity on a broad spectrum of flavonoid classes. In addition, a cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase in the CYP93G subfamily was found to serve as a flavanone 2-hydroxylase (F2H) providing the substrate for FOMT2-catalyzed formation of xilonenin. In summary, maize produces a diverse blend of O-methylflavonoids with antifungal activity upon attack by a broad range of fungi.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(48): 25468-25476, 2021 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580976

RESUMO

A versatile terpene synthase (LcTPS2) producing unconventional macrocyclic terpenoids was characterized from Leucosceptrum canum. Engineered Escherichia coli and Nicotiana benthamiana expressing LcTPS2 produced six 18-/14-membered sesterterpenoids including five new ones and two 14-membered diterpenoids. These products represent the first macrocyclic sesterterpenoids from plants and the largest sesterterpenoid ring system identified to date. Two variants F516A and F516G producing approximately 3.3- and 2.5-fold, respectively, more sesterterpenoids than the wild-type enzyme were engineered. Both 18- and 14-membered ring sesterterpenoids displayed significant inhibitory activity on the IL-2 and IFN-γ production of T cells probably via inhibition of the MAPK pathway. The findings will contribute to the development of efficient biocatalysts to create bioactive macrocyclic sesterterpenoids, and also herald a new potential in the well-trodden territory of plant terpenoid biosynthesis.

6.
Beilstein J Org Chem ; 17: 1698-1711, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367348

RESUMO

Plant volatiles play a major role in plant-insect interactions as defense compounds or attractants for insect herbivores. Recent studies have shown that endophytic fungi are also able to produce volatiles and this raises the question of whether these fungal volatiles influence plant-insect interactions. Here, we qualitatively investigated the volatiles released from 13 endophytic fungal species isolated from leaves of mature black poplar (Populus nigra) trees. The volatile blends of these endophytes grown on agar medium consist of typical fungal compounds, including aliphatic alcohols, ketones and esters, the aromatic alcohol 2-phenylethanol and various sesquiterpenes. Some of the compounds were previously reported as constituents of the poplar volatile blend. For one endophyte, a species of Cladosporium, we isolated and characterized two sesquiterpene synthases that can produce a number of mono- and sesquiterpenes like (E)-ß-ocimene and (E)-ß-caryophyllene, compounds that are dominant components of the herbivore-induced volatile bouquet of black poplar trees. As several of the fungus-derived volatiles like 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and the sesquiterpene (E)-ß-caryophyllene, are known to play a role in direct and indirect plant defense, the emission of volatiles from endophytic microbial species should be considered in future studies investigating tree-insect interactions.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(33)2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389667

RESUMO

Climate change is expected to pose a global threat to forest health by intensifying extreme events like drought and insect attacks. Carbon allocation is a fundamental process that determines the adaptive responses of long-lived late-maturing organisms like trees to such stresses. However, our mechanistic understanding of how trees coordinate and set allocation priorities among different sinks (e.g., growth and storage) under severe source limitation remains limited. Using flux measurements, isotopic tracing, targeted metabolomics, and transcriptomics, we investigated how limitation of source supply influences sink activity, particularly growth and carbon storage, and their relative regulation in Norway spruce (Picea abies) clones. During photosynthetic deprivation, absolute rates of respiration, growth, and allocation to storage all decline. When trees approach neutral carbon balance, i.e., daytime net carbon gain equals nighttime carbon loss, genes encoding major enzymes of metabolic pathways remain relatively unaffected. However, under negative carbon balance, photosynthesis and growth are down-regulated while sucrose and starch biosynthesis pathways are up-regulated, indicating that trees prioritize carbon allocation to storage over growth. Moreover, trees under negative carbon balance actively increase the turnover rate of starch, lipids, and amino acids, most likely to support respiration and mitigate stress. Our study provides molecular evidence that trees faced with severe photosynthetic limitation strategically regulate storage allocation and consumption at the expense of growth. Understanding such allocation strategies is crucial for predicting how trees may respond to extreme events involving steep declines in photosynthesis, like severe drought, or defoliation by heat waves, late frost, or insect attack.

8.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(5)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066079

RESUMO

While plants produce complex cocktails of chemical defences with different targets and efficacies, the biochemical effects of phytotoxin ingestion are often poorly understood. Here, we examine the physiological and metabolic effects of the ingestion of glucosinolates (GSLs), the frontline chemical defenses of brassicas (crucifers), on the generalist herbivore Helicoverpa armigera. We focus on kale and cabbage, two crops with similar foliar GSL concentrations but strikingly different GSL compositions. We observed that larval growth and development were well correlated with the nutritional properties of the insect diets, with low protein contents appearing to exacerbate the negative effects of GSLs on growth, pupation and adult eclosion, parameters that were all delayed upon exposure to GSLs. The different GSLs were metabolized similarly by the insect, indicating that the costs of detoxification via conjugation to glutathione (GSH) were similar on the two plant diets. Nevertheless, larval GSH contents, as well as some major nutritional markers (larval protein, free amino acids, and fat), were differentially affected by the different GSL profiles in the two crops. Therefore, the interplay between GSL and the nitrogen/sulfur nutritional availability of different brassicas strongly influences the effectiveness of these chemical defenses against this generalist herbivore.

9.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 671286, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149771

RESUMO

Cruciferous plants in the order Brassicales defend themselves from herbivory using glucosinolates: sulfur-containing pro-toxic metabolites that are activated by hydrolysis to form compounds, such as isothiocyanates, which are toxic to insects and other organisms. Some herbivores are known to circumvent glucosinolate activation with glucosinolate sulfatases (GSSs), enzymes that convert glucosinolates into inactive desulfoglucosinolates. This strategy is a major glucosinolate detoxification pathway in a phloem-feeding insect, the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a serious agricultural pest of cruciferous vegetables. In this study, we identified and characterized an enzyme responsible for glucosinolate desulfation in the globally distributed B. tabaci species MEAM1. In in vitro assays, this sulfatase showed a clear preference for indolic glucosinolates compared with aliphatic glucosinolates, consistent with the greater representation of desulfated indolic glucosinolates in honeydew. B. tabaci might use this detoxification strategy specifically against indolic glucosinolates since plants may preferentially deploy indolic glucosinolates against phloem-feeding insects. In vivo silencing of the expression of the B. tabaci GSS gene via RNA interference led to lower levels of desulfoglucosinolates in honeydew. Our findings expand the knowledge on the biochemistry of glucosinolate detoxification in phloem-feeding insects and suggest how detoxification pathways might facilitate plant colonization in a generalist herbivore.

10.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 5(8): 1135-1144, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140651

RESUMO

Balancing selection is frequently invoked as a mechanism that maintains variation within and across populations. However, there are few examples of balancing selection operating on loci underpinning complex traits, which frequently display high levels of variation. We investigated mechanisms that may maintain variation in a focal polymorphism-leaf chemical profiles of a perennial wildflower (Boechera stricta, Brassicaceae)-explicitly interrogating multiple ecological and genetic processes including spatial variation in selection, antagonistic pleiotropy and frequency-dependent selection. A suite of common garden and greenhouse experiments showed that the alleles underlying variation in chemical profile have contrasting fitness effects across environments, implicating two ecological drivers of selection on chemical profile: herbivory and drought. Phenotype-environment associations and molecular genetic analyses revealed additional evidence of past selection by these drivers. Together, these data are consistent with balancing selection on chemical profile, probably caused by pleiotropic effects of secondary chemical biosynthesis genes on herbivore defence and drought response.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Seleção Genética , Brassicaceae/genética , Herbivoria , Folhas de Planta , Polimorfismo Genético
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13244, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168179

RESUMO

Two-component plant defenses such as cyanogenic glucosides are produced by many plant species, but phloem-feeding herbivores have long been thought not to activate these defenses due to their mode of feeding, which causes only minimal tissue damage. Here, however, we report that cyanogenic glycoside defenses from cassava (Manihot esculenta), a major staple crop in Africa, are activated during feeding by a pest insect, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, and the resulting hydrogen cyanide is detoxified by conversion to beta-cyanoalanine. Additionally, B. tabaci was found to utilize two metabolic mechanisms to detoxify cyanogenic glucosides by conversion to non-activatable derivatives. First, the cyanogenic glycoside linamarin was glucosylated 1-4 times in succession in a reaction catalyzed by two B. tabaci glycoside hydrolase family 13 enzymes in vitro utilizing sucrose as a co-substrate. Second, both linamarin and the glucosylated linamarin derivatives were phosphorylated. Both phosphorylation and glucosidation of linamarin render this plant pro-toxin inert to the activating plant enzyme linamarase, and thus these metabolic transformations can be considered pre-emptive detoxification strategies to avoid cyanogenesis.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Hemípteros , Manihot/metabolismo , Animais , Glucose/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Nitrilas/metabolismo , Fosforilação
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 170, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protease inhibitors are defense proteins widely distributed in the plant kingdom. By reducing the activity of digestive enzymes in insect guts, they reduce the availability of nutrients and thus impair the growth and development of the attacking herbivore. One well-characterized class of protease inhibitors are Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors (KTIs), which have been described in various plant species, including Populus spp. Long-lived woody perennials like poplar trees encounter a huge diversity of herbivores, but the specificity of tree defenses towards different herbivore species is hardly studied. We therefore aimed to investigate the induction of KTIs in black poplar (P. nigra) leaves upon herbivory by three different chewing herbivores, Lymantria dispar and Amata mogadorensis caterpillars, and Phratora vulgatissima beetles. RESULTS: We identified and generated full-length cDNA sequences of 17 KTIs that are upregulated upon herbivory in black poplar leaves, and analyzed the expression patterns of the eight most up-regulated KTIs via qRT-PCR. We found that beetles elicited higher transcriptional induction of KTIs than caterpillars, and that both caterpillar species induced similar KTI expression levels. Furthermore, KTI expression strongly correlated with the trypsin-inhibiting activity in the herbivore-damaged leaves, but was not dependent on damage severity, i.e. leaf area loss, for most of the genes. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the induction of KTIs in black poplar is controlled at the transcriptional level in a threshold-based manner and is strongly influenced by the species identity of the herbivore. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and ecological consequences of these patterns remain to be investigated.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Expressão Gênica , Herbivoria , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Populus/genética , Inibidores de Proteases , Animais , Besouros/fisiologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Populus/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(10)2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674379

RESUMO

Insect damage to plants is known to up-regulate defense and down-regulate growth processes. While there are frequent reports about up-regulation of defense signaling and production of defense metabolites in response to herbivory, much less is understood about the mechanisms by which growth and carbon assimilation are down-regulated. Here we demonstrate that insect herbivory down-regulates the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a pathway making primarily metabolites for use in photosynthesis. Simulated feeding by the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis suppressed flux through the MEP pathway and decreased steady-state levels of the intermediate 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP). Simulated herbivory also increased reactive oxygen species content which caused the conversion of ß-carotene to ß-cyclocitral (ßCC). This volatile oxidation product affected the MEP pathway by directly inhibiting DXP synthase (DXS), the rate-controlling enzyme of the MEP pathway in Arabidopsis and inducing plant resistance against S. littoralis ßCC inhibited both DXS transcript accumulation and DXS activity. Molecular models suggested that ßCC binds to DXS at the binding site for the thymine pyrophosphate cofactor and blocks catalysis, which was confirmed by direct assays of ßCC with the purified DXS protein in vitro. Another intermediate of the MEP pathway, 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-2, 4-cyclodiphosphate, which is known to stimulate salicylate defense signaling, showed greater accumulation and enhanced export out of the plastid in response to simulated herbivory. Together, our work implicates ßCC as a signal of herbivore damage in Arabidopsis that increases defense and decreases flux through the MEP pathway, a pathway involved in growth and carbon assimilation.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Plastídeos/patologia , Terpenos/metabolismo , Herbivoria
15.
Plant Physiol ; 186(2): 891-909, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723573

RESUMO

Benzenoids (C6-C1 aromatic compounds) play important roles in plant defense and are often produced upon herbivory. Black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) produces a variety of volatile and nonvolatile benzenoids involved in various defense responses. However, their biosynthesis in poplar is mainly unresolved. We showed feeding of the poplar leaf beetle (Chrysomela populi) on P. trichocarpa leaves led to increased emission of the benzenoid volatiles benzaldehyde, benzylalcohol, and benzyl benzoate. The accumulation of salicinoids, a group of nonvolatile phenolic defense glycosides composed in part of benzenoid units, was hardly affected by beetle herbivory. In planta labeling experiments revealed that volatile and nonvolatile poplar benzenoids are produced from cinnamic acid (C6-C3). The biosynthesis of C6-C1 aromatic compounds from cinnamic acid has been described in petunia (Petunia hybrida) flowers where the pathway includes a peroxisomal-localized chain shortening sequence, involving cinnamate-CoA ligase (CNL), cinnamoyl-CoA hydratase/dehydrogenase (CHD), and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (KAT). Sequence and phylogenetic analysis enabled the identification of small CNL, CHD, and KAT gene families in P. trichocarpa. Heterologous expression of the candidate genes in Escherichia coli and characterization of purified proteins in vitro revealed enzymatic activities similar to those described in petunia flowers. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the CNL subfamily in gray poplar (Populus x canescens) resulted in decreased emission of C6-C1 aromatic volatiles upon herbivory, while constitutively accumulating salicinoids were not affected. This indicates the peroxisomal ß-oxidative pathway participates in the formation of volatile benzenoids. The chain shortening steps for salicinoids, however, likely employ an alternative pathway.

16.
J Exp Bot ; 72(10): 3864-3880, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711094

RESUMO

Flavonoids, such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonols, are widespread plant secondary metabolites and important for plant adaptation to diverse abiotic and biotic stresses. Flavonoids can be variously hydroxylated and decorated; their biological activity is partly dependent on the degree of hydroxylation of the B-ring. Flavonoid biosynthesis is regulated by MYB transcription factors, which have been identified and characterized in a diversity of plants. Here we characterize a new MYB activator, MYB117, in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×tremuloides). When overexpressed in transgenic poplar plants, MYB117 enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in all tissues. Transcriptome analysis of MYB117-overexpressing poplars confirmed the up-regulation of flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, as well as two flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) genes. We also identified up-regulated cytochrome b5 genes, required for full activity of F3'5'H . Phytochemical analysis demonstrated a corresponding increase in B-ring hydroxylation of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonols in these transgenics. Similarly, overexpression of F3'5'H1 directly in hybrid poplar also resulted in increased B-ring hydroxylation, but without affecting overall flavonoid content. However, the overexpression of the cytochrome b5 gene in F3'5'H1-overexpressing plants did not further increase B-ring hydroxylation. Our data indicate that MYB117 regulates the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in poplar, but also enhances B-ring hydroxylation by up-regulating F3'5'H1.


Assuntos
Populus , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Flavonoides , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hidroxilação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo
17.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494506

RESUMO

Pathogen infection often leads to the enhanced formation of specialized plant metabolites that act as defensive barriers against microbial attackers. In this study, we investigated the formation of potential defense compounds in roots of the Western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa) upon infection with the generalist root pathogen Phytophthora cactorum (Oomycetes). P. cactorum infection led to an induced accumulation of terpenes, aromatic compounds, and fatty acids in poplar roots. Transcriptome analysis of uninfected and P. cactorum-infected roots revealed a terpene synthase gene PtTPS5 that was significantly induced upon pathogen infection. PtTPS5 had been previously reported as a sesquiterpene synthase producing two unidentified sesquiterpene alcohols as major products and hedycaryol as a minor product. Using heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, enzyme assays with deuterium-labeled substrates, and NMR analysis of reaction products, we could identify the major PtTPS5 products as (1S,5S,7R,10R)-guaia-4(15)-en-11-ol and (1S,7R,10R)-guaia-4-en-11-ol, with the former being a novel compound. The transcript accumulation of PtTPS5 in uninfected and P. cactorum-infected poplar roots matched the accumulation of (1S,5S,7R,10R)-guaia-4(15)-en-11-ol, (1S,7R,10R)-guaia-4-en-11-ol, and hedycaryol in this tissue, suggesting that PtTPS5 likely contributes to the pathogen-induced formation of these compounds in planta.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases/química , Phytophthora/enzimologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Populus/microbiologia , Sesquiterpenos/química , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Phytophthora/genética , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo
18.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(3): 900-914, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300188

RESUMO

Flavonoids may mediate UV protection in plants either by screening of harmful radiation or by minimizing the resulting oxidative stress. To help distinguish between these alternatives, more precise knowledge of flavonoid distribution is needed. We used confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM) with the "emission fingerprinting" feature to study the cellular and subcellular distribution of flavonoid glucosides in the giant duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza), and investigated the fitness effects of these compounds under natural UV radiation and copper sulphate addition (oxidative stress) using common garden experiments indoors and outdoors. cLSM "emission fingerprinting" allowed us to individually visualize the major dihydroxylated B-ring-substituted flavonoids, luteolin 7-O-glucoside and luteolin 8-C-glucoside, in cross-sections of the photosynthetic organs. While luteolin 8-C-glucoside accumulated mostly in the vacuoles and chloroplasts of mesophyll cells, luteolin 7-O-glucoside was predominantly found in the vacuoles of epidermal cells. In congruence with its cellular distribution, the mesophyll-associated luteolin 8-C-glucoside increased plant fitness under copper sulphate addition but not under natural UV light treatment, whereas the epidermis-associated luteolin 7-O-glucoside tended to increase fitness under both stresses across chemically diverse genotypes. Taken together, we demonstrate that individual flavonoid glucosides have distinct cellular and subcellular locations and promote duckweed fitness under different abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Araceae/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Araceae/fisiologia , Flavonoides/fisiologia , Fluorescência , Microscopia Confocal , Estresse Oxidativo , Estresse Fisiológico , Raios Ultravioleta
19.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 578204, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33329639

RESUMO

The C5 hemiterpenes isoprene and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) are important biogenic volatiles emitted from terrestrial vegetation. Isoprene is emitted from many plant groups, especially trees such as Populus, while emission of MBO is restricted to certain North American conifers, including species of Pinus. MBO is also a pheromone emitted by several conifer bark beetles. Both isoprene and MBO have typically been measured by proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), but this method cannot accurately distinguish between them because of their signal overlap. Our study developed a method for using selective ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) that allows simultaneous on-line measurement of isoprene and MBO by employing different reagent ions. The use of m/z(NO+) = 68 u for isoprene and m/z(O2 +) = 71 u for MBO gave minimal interference between the compounds. We tested the suitability of the method by measuring the emission of young trees of Populus, Picea, and Pinus. Our results largely confirm previous findings that Populus nigra, Picea glauca, and Picea abies emit isoprene and Pinus ponderosa emits MBO, but we also found MBO to be emitted by Picea abies. Thus SIFT-MS provides a reliable, easy to use, on-line measuring tool to distinguish between isoprene and MBO. The method should be of use to atmospheric chemists, tree physiologists and forest entomologists, among others.

20.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 546295, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163010

RESUMO

The methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis produces chlorophyll side chains and compounds that function in resistance to abiotic stresses, including carotenoids, and isoprene. Thus we investigated the effects of moderate and severe drought on MEP pathway function in the conifer Picea glauca, a boreal species at risk under global warming trends. Although moderate drought treatment reduced the photosynthetic rate by over 70%, metabolic flux through the MEP pathway was reduced by only 37%. The activity of the putative rate-limiting step, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS), was also reduced by about 50%, supporting the key role of this enzyme in regulating pathway metabolic flux. However, under severe drought, as flux declined below detectable levels, DXS activity showed no significant decrease, indicating a much-reduced role in controlling flux under these conditions. Both MEP pathway intermediates and the MEP pathway product isoprene incorporate administered 13CO2 to high levels (75-85%) under well-watered control conditions indicating a close connection to photosynthesis. However, this incorporation declined precipitously under drought, demonstrating exploitation of alternative carbon sources. Despite the reductions in MEP pathway flux and intermediate pools, there was no detectable decline in most major MEP pathway products under drought (except for violaxanthin under moderate and severe stress and isoprene under severe stress) suggesting that the pathway is somehow buffered against this stress. The resilience of the MEP pathway under drought may be a consequence of the importance of the metabolites formed under these conditions.

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