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1.
New Phytol ; 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597727

RESUMO

Laticifers are hypothesized to mediate both plant-herbivore and plant-microbe interactions. However, there is little evidence for this dual function. We investigated whether the major constituent of natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, a phylogenetically widespread and economically important latex polymer, alters plant resistance and the root microbiome of the Russian dandelion (Taraxacum koksaghyz) under attack of a root herbivore, the larva of the May cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha). Rubber-depleted transgenic plants lost more shoot and root biomass upon herbivory than normal rubber content near-isogenic lines. M. melolontha preferred to feed on artificial diet supplemented with rubber-depleted rather than normal rubber content latex. Likewise, adding purified cis-1,4-polyisoprene in ecologically relevant concentrations to diet deterred larval feeding and reduced larval weight gain. Metagenomics and metabarcoding revealed that abolishing biosynthesis of natural rubber alters the structure but not the diversity of the rhizosphere and root microbiota (ecto- and endophytes), and that these changes depended on M. melolontha damage. However, the assumption that rubber reduces microbial colonization or pathogen load is contradicted by four lines of evidence. Taken together, our data demonstrate that natural rubber biosynthesis reduces herbivory and alters the plant microbiota, which highlights the role of plant specialized metabolites and secretory structures in shaping multitrophic interactions.

2.
iScience ; 25(10): 105261, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274949

RESUMO

Ant-plant defensive mutualism is a widely studied phenomenon, where ants protect their host plants (myrmecophytes) against herbivores in return for the provision of nesting sites and food. However, few studies addressed the influence of ant colonization and herbivory on the plant's metabolism. We chose the Amazonian plant Tococa quadrialata, living in association with Azteca cf. tonduzi ants for an ant-exclusion study to reveal the chemistry behind this symbiosis. We found that colonized plants did not only benefit from protection but also from increased amino acid and nitrogen content, enabling better performance even in an herbivore-free environment. In contrast, ant-deprived T. quadrialata plants accumulated more ellagitannins, a major class of constitutive defense compounds. Moreover, herbivory-induced jasmonate-mediated defense responses, including the upregulation of signaling and defense genes and the emission of volatiles irrespective of colonization status. Altogether, we show how ant-colonization can influence the general and defense-related metabolism and performance of myrmecophytes.

3.
Symbiosis ; 87(1): 59-66, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36164313

RESUMO

Plant toxins constitute an effective defense against herbivorous animals. However, many herbivores have evolved adaptations to cope with dietary toxins through detoxification, excretion, sequestration, target site insensitivity and/or via behavioral avoidance. While these adaptations are often directly encoded in herbivore genomes, evidence is accumulating that microbial symbionts can reduce the dose of plant toxins by metabolizing or sequestering them prior to absorption by the herbivore. Here, we describe a few well-studied examples to assess such symbiont-mediated detoxification and showcase different approaches that have been used for their analyses. These include: (i) a host phenotypic route in which the symbiotic association is manipulated to reveal host fitness costs upon toxin exposure in the presence/absence of detoxifying symbionts, including function restoration after symbiont re-infection, (ii) a molecular microbiological approach that focuses on the identification and characterization of microbial genes involved in plant toxin metabolism, and (iii) an analytical chemical route that aims to characterize the conversion of the toxin to less harmful metabolites in vivo and link conversion to the activities of a detoxifying symbiont. The advantages and challenges of each approach are discussed, and it is argued that a multi-pronged strategy combining phenotypic, molecular, and chemical evidence is needed to unambiguously demonstrate microbial contributions to plant toxin reduction and the importance of these processes for host fitness. Given the interdisciplinary nature of the topic, we aim to provide a guideline to researchers interested in symbiont-mediated detoxification and hope to encourage future studies that contribute to a more comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of detoxification in herbivores and their symbionts.

4.
Methods Enzymol ; 674: 497-517, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36008018

RESUMO

The carotenoid content of plants may be impacted by stress with major consequences for photosynthesis and photoprotection. Most carotenoid stress research, however, has concentrated on abiotic stresses, and we know little about how biological stresses, such as herbivory, alter profiles of plant carotenoids and their degradation products. For example, carotenoid derivatives such as ß-cyclocitral and ß-ionone have been recently shown to act as signals in plant growth and protection against oxidative stress and herbivory. To understand how carotenoid composition is influenced by herbivory, changes in biosynthesis and degradation should be investigated. This chapter describes methods to simulate herbivory in a simple reproducible fashion and to assess carotenoid biosynthesis and degradation. Carotenoid biosynthesis depends on precursors provided by the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, which converts pyruvate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to the five-carbon units used for construction of larger isoprenoids. We present protocols to quantify the activity of the first enzyme of the MEP pathway, deoxy-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), usually assumed to be rate-controlling, and to estimate the concentration of the first intermediate of the pathway, deoxy-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP). We also discuss procedures to measure the formation of volatile carotenoid breakdown products after herbivory. To monitor the activity of carotenoid-specific biosynthetic enzymes, such as phytoene synthase, protocols are available elsewhere in this volume (Wurtzel, 2022b).


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Xilulose , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Fosfatos , Plantas/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo
6.
Plant Cell Environ ; 45(10): 2906-2922, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35864601

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated Arabidopsis thaliana plants with altered levels of the enzyme JASMONATE RESISTANT 1 (JAR1), which converts jasmonic acid (JA) to jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile). Analysis of a newly generated overexpression line (35S::JAR1) revealed that constitutively increased JA-Ile production in 35S::JAR1 alters plant development, resulting in stunted growth and delayed flowering. Under drought-stress conditions, 35S::JAR1 plants showed reduced wilting and recovered better from desiccation than the wild type. By contrast, jar1-11 plants with a strong reduction in JA-Ile content were hypersensitive to drought. RNA-sequencing analysis and hormonal profiling of plants under normal and drought conditions provided insights into the molecular reprogramming caused by the alteration in JA-Ile content. Especially 35S::JAR1 plants displayed changes in expression of developmental genes related to growth and flowering. Further transcriptional differences pertained to drought-related adaptive systems, including stomatal density and aperture, but also reactive oxygen species production and detoxification. Analysis of wild type and jar1-11 plants carrying the roGFP-Orp1 sensor support a role of JA-Ile in the alleviation of methyl viologen-induced H2 O2 production. Our data substantiate a role of JA-Ile in abiotic stress response and suggest that JAR1-mediated increase in JA-Ile content primes Arabidopsis towards improved drought stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Isoleucina/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo
7.
New Phytol ; 235(6): 2378-2392, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717563

RESUMO

Plants face attackers aboveground and belowground. Insect root herbivores can lead to severe crop losses, yet the underlying transcriptomic responses have rarely been studied. We studied the dynamics of the transcriptomic response of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) primary roots to feeding damage by cabbage root fly larvae (Delia radicum), alone or in combination with aboveground herbivory by cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae) or diamondback moth caterpillars (Plutella xylostella). This was supplemented with analyses of phytohormones and the main classes of secondary metabolites; aromatic, indole and aliphatic glucosinolates. Root herbivory leads to major transcriptomic rearrangement that is modulated by aboveground feeding caterpillars, but not aphids, through priming soon after root feeding starts. The root herbivore downregulates aliphatic glucosinolates. Knocking out aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis with CRISPR-Cas9 results in enhanced performance of the specialist root herbivore, indicating that the herbivore downregulates an effective defence. This study advances our understanding of how plants cope with root herbivory and highlights several novel aspects of insect-plant interactions for future research. Further, our findings may help breeders develop a sustainable solution to a devastating root pest.


Assuntos
Brassica , Mariposas , Animais , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/genética
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10343, 2022 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725775

RESUMO

Herbivorous insects often possess the ability to detoxify chemical defenses from their host plants. The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), which feeds principally on maize, detoxifies the maize benzoxazinoid 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) by stereoselective re-glucosylation using a UDP-glucosyltransferase, SfUGT33F28. SfUGT33F28 activity is induced by feeding on a DIMBOA-containing diet, but how this induction is regulated is unknown. In the present work, we describe the alternative splicing of the SfUGT33F28 transcript. Variant transcripts are differentially expressed in response to DIMBOA, and this transcriptional response is mediated by an insect aryl hydrocarbon receptor. These variants have large deletions leading to the production of truncated proteins that have no intrinsic UGT activity with DIMBOA but interact with the full-length enzyme to raise or lower its activity. Therefore, the formation of SfUGT33F28 splice variants induces DIMBOA-conjugating UGT activity when DIMBOA is present in the insect diet and represses activity in the absence of this plant defense compound.


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas , Glucosiltransferases , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Benzoxazinas/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Catálise , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Difosfato de Uridina/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
9.
Plant Cell Environ ; 45(9): 2841-2855, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35611630

RESUMO

Plants developing into the flowering stage undergo major physiological changes. Because flowers are reproductive tissues and resource sinks, strategies to defend them may differ from those for leaves. Thus, this study investigates the defences of flowering plants by assessing processes that sustain resistance (constitutive and induced) and tolerance to attack. We exposed the annual plant Brassica nigra to three distinct floral attackers (caterpillar, aphid and bacterial pathogen) and measured whole-plant responses at 4, 8 and 12 days after the attack. We simultaneously analysed profiles of primary and secondary metabolites in leaves and inflorescences and measured dry biomass of roots, leaves and inflorescences as proxies of resource allocation and regrowth. Regardless of treatments, inflorescences contained 1.2 to 4 times higher concentrations of primary metabolites than leaves, and up to 7 times higher concentrations of glucosinolates, which highlights the plant's high investment of resources into inflorescences. No induction of glucosinolates was detected in inflorescences, but the attack transiently affected the total concentration of soluble sugars in both leaves and inflorescences. We conclude that B. nigra evolved high constitutive rather than inducible resistance to protect their flowers; plants additionally compensated for damage by attackers via the regrowth of reproductive parts. This strategy may be typical of annual plants.


Assuntos
Flores , Glucosinolatos , Flores/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Inflorescência , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Plant Cell ; 34(8): 2925-2947, 2022 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532172

RESUMO

Salicinoids are salicyl alcohol-containing phenolic glycosides with strong antiherbivore effects found only in poplars and willows. Their biosynthesis is poorly understood, but recently a UDP-dependent glycosyltransferase, UGT71L1, was shown to be required for salicinoid biosynthesis in poplar tissue cultures. UGT71L1 specifically glycosylates salicyl benzoate, a proposed salicinoid intermediate. Here, we analyzed transgenic CRISPR/Cas9-generated UGT71L1 knockout plants. Metabolomic analyses revealed substantial reductions in the major salicinoids, confirming the central role of the enzyme in salicinoid biosynthesis. Correspondingly, UGT71L1 knockouts were preferred to wild-type by white-marked tussock moth (Orgyia leucostigma) larvae in bioassays. Greenhouse-grown knockout plants showed substantial growth alterations, with decreased internode length and smaller serrated leaves. Reinserting a functional UGT71L1 gene in a transgenic rescue experiment demonstrated that these effects were due only to the loss of UGT71L1. The knockouts contained elevated salicylate (SA) and jasmonate (JA) concentrations, and also had enhanced expression of SA- and JA-related genes. SA is predicted to be released by UGT71L1 disruption, if salicyl salicylate is a pathway intermediate and UGT71L1 substrate. This idea was supported by showing that salicyl salicylate can be glucosylated by recombinant UGT71L1, providing a potential link of salicinoid metabolism to SA and growth impacts. Connecting this pathway with growth could imply that salicinoids are under additional evolutionary constraints beyond selective pressure by herbivores.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Populus , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia
11.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 892907, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35599904

RESUMO

Terpenes and phenolics are important constitutive and inducible conifer defenses against bark beetles and their associated fungi. In this study, the inducible defenses of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees with different histories of attack by the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus were tested by inoculation with the I. typographus-associated fungus Endoconidiophora polonica. We compared trees that had been under previous attack with those under current attack and those that had no record of attack. After fungal inoculation, the concentrations of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes in bark increased 3- to 9-fold. For the phenolics, the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and gallocatechin, increased significantly by 2- and 5-fold, respectively, while other flavonoids and stilbenes did not. The magnitudes of these inductions were not influenced by prior bark beetle attack history for all the major compounds and compound classes measured. Before fungal inoculation, the total amounts of monoterpenes, diterpenes, and phenolics (constitutive defenses) were greater in trees that had been previously attacked compared to those under current attack, possibly a result of previous induction. The transcript levels of many genes involved in terpene formation (isoprenyl diphosphate synthases and terpene synthases) and phenolic formation (chalcone synthases) were significantly enhanced by fungal inoculation suggesting de novo biosynthesis. Similar inductions were found for the enzymatic activity of isoprenyl diphosphate synthases and the concentration of their prenyl diphosphate products after fungal inoculation. Quantification of defense hormones revealed a significant induction of the jasmonate pathway, but not the salicylic acid pathway after fungal inoculation. Our data highlight the coordinated induction of terpenes and phenolics in spruce upon infection by E. polonica, a fungal associate of the bark beetle I. typographus, but provide no evidence for the priming of these defense responses by prior beetle attack.

12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(15): e2100361119, 2022 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394876

RESUMO

As a midsized gene family conserved more by lineage than function, the typical plant terpene synthases (TPSs) could be a valuable tool to examine plant evolution. TPSs are pivotal in biosynthesis of gibberellins and related phytohormones as well as in formation of the extensive arsenal of specialized plant metabolites mediating ecological interactions whose production is often lineage specific. Yet the origin and early evolution of the TPS family is not well understood. Systematic analysis of an array of transcriptomes and sequenced genomes indicated that the TPS family originated after the divergence of land plants from charophytic algae. Phylogenetic and biochemical analyses support the hypothesis that the ancestral TPS gene encoded a bifunctional class I and II diterpene synthase producing the ent-kaurene required for phytohormone production in all extant lineages of land plants. Moreover, the ancestral TPS gene likely underwent duplication at least twice early in land plant evolution. Together these two gave rise to three TPS lineages leading to the extant TPS-c, TPS-e/f, and the remaining TPS (h/d/a/b/g) subfamilies, with the latter dedicated to secondary rather than primary metabolism while the former two contain those genes involved in ent-kaurene production. Nevertheless, parallel evolution from the ent-kaurene­producing class I and class II diterpene synthases has led to roles for TPS-e/f and -c subfamily members in secondary metabolism as well. These results clarify TPS evolutionary history and provide context for the role of these genes in producing the vast diversity of terpenoid natural products observed today in various land plant lineages.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases , Embriófitas , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas , Alquil e Aril Transferases/classificação , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Embriófitas/enzimologia , Embriófitas/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Terpenos/metabolismo
13.
New Phytol ; 235(2): 701-717, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489087

RESUMO

Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) often play distinct roles in plant defence against pathogens. Research from Arabidopsis thaliana has established that SA- and JA-mediated defences are more effective against biotrophs and necrotrophs, respectively. These two hormones often interact antagonistically in response to particular attackers, with the induction of one leading to suppression of the other. Here, we report a contrasting pattern in the woody perennial Populus: positive SA-JA interplay. Using genetically engineered high SA lines of black poplar and wild-type lines after exogenous hormone application, we quantified SA and JA metabolites, signalling gene transcripts, antifungal flavonoids and resistance to rust (Melampsora larici-populina). Salicylic acid and JA metabolites were induced concurrently upon rust infection in poplar genotypes with varying resistance levels. Analysis of SA-hyperaccumulating transgenic poplar lines showed increased jasmonate levels, elevated flavonoid content and enhanced rust resistance, but no discernible reduction in growth. Exogenous application of either SA or JA triggered the accumulation of the other hormone. Expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, frequently used as markers for SA signalling, was not correlated with SA content, but rather activated in proportion to pathogen infection. We conclude that SA and JA pathways interact positively in poplar resulting in the accumulation of flavonoid phytoalexins.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Populus , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Flavonoides , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hormônios , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Populus/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409197

RESUMO

White spruce (Picea glauca) emits monoterpenes that function as defensive signals and weapons after herbivore attack. We assessed the effects of drought and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment, used as a proxy for herbivory, on monoterpenes and other isoprenoids in P. glauca. The emission of monoterpenes was significantly increased after MeJA treatment compared to the control, but drought suppressed the MeJA-induced increase. The composition of the emitted blend was altered strongly by stress, with drought increasing the proportion of oxygenated compounds and MeJA increasing the proportion of induced compounds such as linalool and (E)-ß-ocimene. In contrast, no treatment had any significant effect on the levels of stored monoterpenes and diterpenes. Among other MEP pathway-derived isoprenoids, MeJA treatment decreased chlorophyll levels by 40%, but had no effect on carotenoids, while drought stress had no impact on either of these pigment classes. Of the three described spruce genes encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) catalyzing the first step of the MEP pathway, the expression of only one, DXS2B, was affected by our treatments, being increased by MeJA and decreased by drought. These findings show the sensitivity of monoterpene emission to biotic and abiotic stress regimes, and the mediation of the response by DXS genes.


Assuntos
Picea , Acetatos/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Picea/genética , Terpenos/farmacologia
15.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164272

RESUMO

O-Methylated benzoxazinoids (BXs) and flavonoids are widespread defenses against herbivores and pathogens in the grasses (Poaceae). Recently, two flavonoid O-methyltransferases (FOMTs), ZmFOMT2 and ZmFOMT3, have been reported to produce phytoalexins in maize (Zea mays). ZmFOMT2 and ZmFOMT3 are closely related to the BX O-methyltransferases (OMTs) ZmBX10-12 and ZmBX14, suggesting a common evolutionary origin in the Poaceae. Here, we studied the evolution and enzymatic requirements of flavonoid and BX O-methylation activities in more detail. Using BLAST searches and phylogenetic analyses, we identified enzymes homologous to ZmFOMT2 and ZmFOMT3, ZmBX10-12, and ZmBX14 in several grasses, with the most closely related candidates found almost exclusively in species of the Panicoideae subfamily. Biochemical characterization of candidate enzymes from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), sugar cane (Saccharum spp.), and teosinte (Zea nicaraguensis) revealed either flavonoid 5-O-methylation activity or DIMBOA-Glc 4-O-methylation activity. However, DIMBOA-Glc 4-OMTs from maize and teosinte also accepted flavonols as substrates and converted them to 3-O-methylated derivatives, suggesting an evolutionary relationship between these two activities. Homology modeling, sequence comparisons, and site-directed mutagenesis led to the identification of active site residues crucial for FOMT and BX OMT activity. However, the full conversion of ZmFOMT2 activity into BX OMT activity by switching these residues was not successful. Only trace O-methylation of BXs was observed, indicating that amino acids outside the active site cavity are also involved in determining the different substrate specificities. Altogether, the results of our study suggest that BX OMTs have evolved from the ubiquitous FOMTs in the PACMAD clade of the grasses through a complex series of amino acid changes.


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Metilação , Metiltransferases/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Poaceae/genética , Especificidade por Substrato
17.
Curr Biol ; 32(4): 861-869.e8, 2022 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016007

RESUMO

In nature, plant-insect interactions occur in complex settings involving multiple trophic levels, often with multiple species at each level.1 Herbivore attack of a host plant typically dramatically alters the plant's odor emission in terms of concentration and composition.2,3 Therefore, a well-adapted herbivore should be able to predict whether a plant is still suitable as a host by judging these changes in the emitted bouquet. Although studies have demonstrated that oviposition preferences of successive insects were affected by previous infestations,4,5 the underlying molecular and olfactory mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we report that tobacco hawkmoths (Manduca sexta) preferentially oviposit on Jimson weed (Datura wrightii) that is already infested by a specialist, the three-lined potato beetle (Lema daturaphila). Interestingly, the moths' offspring do not benefit directly, as larvae develop more slowly when feeding together with Lema beetles. However, one of M. sexta's main enemies, the parasitoid wasp Cotesia congregata, prefers the headspace of M. sexta-infested plants to that of plants infested by both herbivores. Hence, we conclude that female M. sexta ignore the interspecific competition with beetles and oviposit deliberately on beetle-infested plants to provide their offspring with an enemy-reduced space, thus providing a trade-off that generates a net benefit to the survival and fitness of the subsequent generation. We identify that α-copaene, emitted by beetle-infested Datura, plays a role in this preference. By performing heterologous expression and single-sensillum recordings, we show that odorant receptor (Or35) is involved in α-copaene detection.


Assuntos
Besouros , Datura , Manduca , Mariposas , Animais , Datura/metabolismo , Feminino , Herbivoria , Insetos , Oviposição
18.
Plant Physiol ; 188(1): 167-190, 2022 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718797

RESUMO

Fungal infection of grasses, including rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), induces the formation and accumulation of flavonoid phytoalexins. In maize (Zea mays), however, investigators have emphasized benzoxazinoid and terpenoid phytoalexins, and comparatively little is known about flavonoid induction in response to pathogens. Here, we examined fungus-elicited flavonoid metabolism in maize and identified key biosynthetic enzymes involved in the formation of O-methylflavonoids. The predominant end products were identified as two tautomers of a 2-hydroxynaringenin-derived compound termed xilonenin, which significantly inhibited the growth of two maize pathogens, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. Among the biosynthetic enzymes identified were two O-methyltransferases (OMTs), flavonoid OMT 2 (FOMT2), and FOMT4, which demonstrated distinct regiospecificity on a broad spectrum of flavonoid classes. In addition, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) in the CYP93G subfamily was found to serve as a flavanone 2-hydroxylase providing the substrate for FOMT2-catalyzed formation of xilonenin. In summary, maize produces a diverse blend of O-methylflavonoids with antifungal activity upon attack by a broad range of fungi.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Zea mays/microbiologia
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(52)2021 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930840

RESUMO

Thymol and carvacrol are phenolic monoterpenes found in thyme, oregano, and several other species of the Lamiaceae. Long valued for their smell and taste, these substances also have antibacterial and anti-spasmolytic properties. They are also suggested to be precursors of thymohydroquinone and thymoquinone, monoterpenes with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor activities. Thymol and carvacrol biosynthesis has been proposed to proceed by the cyclization of geranyl diphosphate to γ-terpinene, followed by a series of oxidations via p-cymene. Here, we show that γ-terpinene is oxidized by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) of the CYP71D subfamily to produce unstable cyclohexadienol intermediates, which are then dehydrogenated by a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) to the corresponding ketones. The subsequent formation of the aromatic compounds occurs via keto-enol tautomerisms. Combining these enzymes with γ-terpinene in in vitro assays or in vivo in Nicotiana benthamiana yielded thymol and carvacrol as products. In the absence of the SDRs, only p-cymene was formed by rearrangement of the cyclohexadienol intermediates. The nature of these unstable intermediates was inferred from reactions with the γ-terpinene isomer limonene and by analogy to reactions catalyzed by related enzymes. We also identified and characterized two P450s of the CYP76S and CYP736A subfamilies that catalyze the hydroxylation of thymol and carvacrol to thymohydroquinone when heterologously expressed in yeast and N. benthamiana Our findings alter previous views of thymol and carvacrol formation, identify the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of these phenolic monoterpenes and thymohydroquinone in the Lamiaceae, and provide targets for metabolic engineering of high-value terpenes in plants.


Assuntos
Cimenos/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Lamiaceae/metabolismo , Redutases-Desidrogenases de Cadeia Curta/metabolismo , Timol/análogos & derivados , Timol/metabolismo , Cimenos/química , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Lamiaceae/enzimologia , Lamiaceae/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Redutases-Desidrogenases de Cadeia Curta/genética , Timol/química
20.
Beilstein J Org Chem ; 17: 1698-1711, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367348

RESUMO

Plant volatiles play a major role in plant-insect interactions as defense compounds or attractants for insect herbivores. Recent studies have shown that endophytic fungi are also able to produce volatiles and this raises the question of whether these fungal volatiles influence plant-insect interactions. Here, we qualitatively investigated the volatiles released from 13 endophytic fungal species isolated from leaves of mature black poplar (Populus nigra) trees. The volatile blends of these endophytes grown on agar medium consist of typical fungal compounds, including aliphatic alcohols, ketones and esters, the aromatic alcohol 2-phenylethanol and various sesquiterpenes. Some of the compounds were previously reported as constituents of the poplar volatile blend. For one endophyte, a species of Cladosporium, we isolated and characterized two sesquiterpene synthases that can produce a number of mono- and sesquiterpenes like (E)-ß-ocimene and (E)-ß-caryophyllene, compounds that are dominant components of the herbivore-induced volatile bouquet of black poplar trees. As several of the fungus-derived volatiles like 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and the sesquiterpene (E)-ß-caryophyllene, are known to play a role in direct and indirect plant defense, the emission of volatiles from endophytic microbial species should be considered in future studies investigating tree-insect interactions.

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