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1.
Allergol Select ; 6: 61-97, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35274076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The persistently high prevalence of allergic diseases in Western industrial nations and the limited possibilities of causal therapy make evidence-based recommendations for primary prevention necessary. METHODS: The recommendations of the S3 guideline Allergy Prevention, published in its last version in 2014, were revised and consulted on the basis of a current systematic literature search. The evidence search was conducted for the period 06/2013 - 11/2020 in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE, as well as in the reference lists of current reviews and through references from experts. The literature found was screened in two filtering processes, first by title and abstract, and the remaining papers were screened in the full text for relevance. The studies included after this were sorted by level of evidence, and the study quality was indicated in terms of potential bias (low/high). The revised recommendations were formally agreed and consented upon with the participation of representatives of the relevant professional societies and (self-help) organizations (nominal group process). Of 5,681 hits, 286 studies were included and assessed. RESULTS: Recommendations on maternal nutrition during pregnancy and breastfeeding as well as on infant nutrition in the first months of life again play an important role in the updated guideline: Many of the previous recommendations were confirmed by the current data. It was specified that breastfeeding should be exclusive for the first 4 - 6 months after birth, if possible, and that breastfeeding should continue with the introduction of complementary foods. A new recommendation is that supplementary feeding of cow's milk-based formula should be avoided in the first days of life if the mother wishes to breastfeed. Furthermore, it was determined that the evidence for a clear recommendation for hydrolyzed infant formula in non-breastfed infants at risk is currently no longer sufficient. It is therefore currently recommended to check whether an infant formula with proven efficacy in allergy prevention studies is available until the introduction of complementary feeding. Finally, based on the EAACI guideline, recommendations were made for the prevention of chicken egg allergy by introducing and regularly giving thoroughly heated (e.g., baked or hard-boiled) but not "raw" chicken egg (also no scrambled egg) with the complementary food. The recommendation to introduce peanut in complementary feeding was formulated cautiously for the German-speaking countries: In families who usually consume peanut, the regular administration of peanut-containing foods in age-appropriate form (e.g., peanut butter) with the complementary diet can be considered for the primary prevention of peanut allergy in infants with atopic dermatitis (AD). Before introduction, a clinically relevant peanut allergy must be ruled out, especially in infants with moderate to severe AD. There is still insufficient evidence for an allergy-preventive efficacy of prebiotics or probiotics, vitamin D, or other vitamins in the form of supplements so that recommendations against their supplementation were adopted for the first time in the current guideline. Biodiversity plays an important role in the development of immunological tolerance to environmental and food allergens: there is clear evidence that growing up on a farm is associated with a lower risk of developing asthma and allergic diseases. This is associated with early non-specific immune stimulation due to, among other things, the greater microbial biodiversity of house dust in this habitat. This aspect is also reflected in the recommendations on animal husbandry, on which a differentiated statement was made: In families without a recognizable increased allergy risk, pet keeping with cats or dogs should not generally be restricted. Families with an increased allergy risk or with children with already existing AD should not acquire a new cat - in contrast, however, dog ownership should not be discouraged. Interventions to reduce exposure to dust mite allergens in the home, such as the use of mite allergen-proof mattress covers ("encasings"), should be restricted to patients with already proven specific sensitization against house dust mite allergen. Children born by caesarean section have a slightly increased risk of asthma - this should be taken into account when advising on mode of delivery outside of emergency situations. Recent work also supports the recommendations on air pollutants: Active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke increase the risk of allergies, especially asthma, and should therefore be avoided. Exposure to nitrogen oxides, ozone, and small particles (PM 2.5) is associated with an increased risk, especially for asthma. Therefore, exposure to emissions of nitrogen oxides, ozone, and small particles (PM 2.5) should be kept low. The authors of this guideline are unanimously in favor of enacting appropriate regulations to minimize these air pollutants. There is no evidence that vaccinations increase the risk of allergies, but conversely there is evidence that vaccinations can reduce the risk of allergies. All children, including children at risk, should be vaccinated according to the current recommendations of the national public health institutes, also for reasons of allergy prevention. CONCLUSION: The consensus of recommendations in this guideline is based on an extensive evidence base. The update of the guideline enables evidence-based and up-to-date recommendations for the prevention of allergic diseases including asthma and atopic dermatitis.

2.
Allergo J Int ; 30(8): 261-269, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603938

RESUMO

Peanuts are Leguminosae, commonly known as the legume or pea family, and peanut allergy is among the most common food allergies and the most common cause of fatal food reactions and anaphylaxis. The prevalence of peanut allergy increased 3.5-fold over the past two decades reaching 1.4-2% in Europe and the United States. The reasons for this increase in prevalence are likely multifaceted. Sensitization via the skin appears to be associated with the development of peanut allergy and atopic eczema in infancy is associated with a high risk of developing peanut allergy. Until recently, the only possible management strategy for peanut allergy was strict allergen avoidance and emergency treatment including adrenaline auto-injector in cases of accidental exposure and reaction. This paper discusses the various factors that impact the risks of peanut allergy and the burden of self-management on peanut-allergic children and their caregivers.

3.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-17, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607495

RESUMO

Higher incidences of asthma during thunderstorms can pose a serious health risk. In this study, we estimate the thunderstorm asthma risk using statistical methods, with special focus on Bavaria, Southern Germany. In this approach, a dataset of asthma-related emergency cases for the study region is combined with meteorological variables and aeroallergen data to identify statistical relationships between the occurrence of asthma (predictand) and different environmental parameters (set of predictors). On the one hand, the results provide evidence for a weak but significant relationship between atmospheric stability indices and asthma emergencies in the region, but also show that currently thunderstorm asthma is not a major concern in Bavaria due to overall low incidences. As thunderstorm asthma can have severe consequences for allergic patients, the presented approach can be important for the development of emergency strategies in regions affected by thunderstorm asthma and under present and future climate change conditions.

4.
Allergo J Int ; 30(2): 51-55, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643776

RESUMO

Two employees of the National Health Service (NHS) in England developed severe allergic reactions following administration of BNT162b2 vaccine against COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). The British SmPC for the BNT162b2 vaccine already includes reference to a contraindication for use in individuals who have had an allergic reaction to the vaccine or any of its components. As a precautionary measure, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) has issued interim guidance to the NHS not to vaccinate in principle in "patients with severe allergies". Allergic reactions to vaccines are very rare, but vaccine components are known to cause allergic reactions. BNT162b2 is a vaccine based on an mRNA embedded in lipid nanoparticles and blended with other substances to enable its transport into the cells. In the pivotal phase III clinical trial, the BNT162b2 vaccine was generally well tolerated, but this large clinical trial, used to support vaccine approval by the MHRA and US Food and Drug Administration, excluded individuals with a "history of a severe adverse reaction related to the vaccine and/or a severe allergic reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis) to a component of the study medication". Vaccines are recognized as one of the most effective public health interventions. This repeated administration of a foreign protein (antigen) necessitates a careful allergological history before each application and diagnostic clarification and a risk-benefit assessment before each injection. Severe allergic reactions to vaccines are rare but can be life-threatening, and it is prudent to raise awareness of this hazard among vaccination teams and to take adequate precautions while more experience is gained with this new vaccine.

6.
Clin Genet ; 99(6): 789-801, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598926

RESUMO

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) catalyze the first step of protein biosynthesis (canonical function) and have additional (non-canonical) functions outside of translation. Bi-allelic pathogenic variants in genes encoding ARSs are associated with various recessive mitochondrial and multisystem disorders. We describe here a multisystem clinical phenotype based on bi-allelic mutations in the two genes (FARSA, FARSB) encoding distinct subunits for tetrameric cytosolic phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (FARS1). Interstitial lung disease with cholesterol pneumonitis on histology emerged as an early characteristic feature and significantly determined disease burden. Additional clinical characteristics of the patients included neurological findings, liver dysfunction, and connective tissue, muscular and vascular abnormalities. Structural modeling of newly identified missense mutations in the alpha subunit of FARS1, FARSA, showed exclusive mapping to the enzyme's conserved catalytic domain. Patient-derived mutant cells displayed compromised aminoacylation activity in two cases, while remaining unaffected in another. Collectively, these findings expand current knowledge about the human ARS disease spectrum and support a loss of canonical and non-canonical function in FARS1-associated recessive disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth/genética , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/genética , Pulmão/patologia , Mutação/genética , Fenilalanina-tRNA Ligase/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genes Recessivos/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo
8.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 123(1): 70-80, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although 5-grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy has a good safety profile in controlled clinical trials, additional safety information among pediatric patients in a real-world setting would be useful. OBJECTIVE: To further document the safety of 5-grass tablet among children aged 5 to 9 years with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). METHODS: This multicenter, observational study included allergy immunotherapy-naïve 5- to 9-year-old children with grass pollen-induced ARC prescribed with 5-grass tablet daily (3-day dose escalation to 300 index of reactivity [IR]). Patients were followed up daily for safety and tolerability over the first 30 treatment days. Adverse events (AEs) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: Three hundred seven children (mean age, 7.1 years) were enrolled. Fifty-eight percent were confirmed as polysensitized, and 36% had mild-to-moderate asthma. Of 307 patients, 233 (76%) reported AEs, and 173/307 (56%) reported ADRs, most frequently mild application-site reactions (throat irritation, oral pruritus, oral paresthesia). Sixteen of 307 (5.2%) patients withdrew because of ADRs. In 143 of 173 (83%) patients, ADRs first occurred within 1 week of starting treatment. More than half of the ADRs lasted less than 2 days, and ADRs resolved spontaneously in 161 of 173 (93%) patients. Recurrences of ADRs were reported in 45 of 173 (26%) patients and were also mainly application-site reactions. No notable differences were found in ADRs related to whether patients had asthma at inclusion. Neither epinephrine use nor admission to intensive care unit was reported. CONCLUSION: The safety profile of 5-grass tablet in pediatric ARC patients aged 5 to 9 years was consistent with safety findings in older patients, most ADRs being at the application site and mild to moderate. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02295969; EUPAS registration number: 8104.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Conjuntivite Alérgica/imunologia , Poaceae/imunologia , Pólen/efeitos adversos , Pólen/imunologia , Comprimidos/efeitos adversos , Comprimidos/uso terapêutico , Administração Sublingual , Alérgenos/imunologia , Asma/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/imunologia , Imunoterapia Sublingual/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia Sublingual/métodos
9.
Allergol Select ; 3(1): 22-50, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of patients affected by allergies is increasing worldwide. The resulting allergic diseases are leading to significant costs for health care and social systems. Integrated care pathways are needed to enable comprehensive care within the national health systems. The ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) initiative develops internationally applicable guidelines for allergic respiratory diseases. METHODS: ARIA serves to improve the care of patients with allergies and chronic respiratory diseases. In collaboration with other international initiatives, national associations and patient organizations in the field of allergies and respiratory diseases, real-life integrated care pathways have been developed for a digitally assisted, integrative, individualized treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR) with comorbid asthma. In the present work, these integrated care pathways have been adapted to the German situation and health system. RESULTS: The present ICP (integrated care pathway) guideline covers key areas of the care of AR patients with and without asthma. It includes the views of patients and other healthcare providers. DISCUSSION: A comprehensive ICP guideline can reflect real-life care better than traditional guideline models.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26557252

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Continuous or episodic allergen exposure is a major risk factor of frequent symptoms and exacerbations for patients with allergic asthma. It has been shown that temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) significantly reduced allergen exposure and airway inflammation and improved quality of life of patients with poorly controlled allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effects of nighttime TLA when used during real-life conditions for 12 consecutive months in addition to the patients' regular medication. METHODS: This multicenter, pre- and postretrospective observational study included patients with inadequately controlled moderate-to-severe allergic asthma who received add-on treatment with TLA for 12 consecutive months. Data on medication use, asthma control, asthma symptoms, lung function, use of hospital resources, and exacerbations were collected after 4 and 12 months and compared with corresponding data collected retrospectively from medical records during the year prior to inclusion in the study. RESULTS: Data from 30 patients (mean age 28; range 8-70) completing 4 months and 27 patients completing 12 months of TLA use are presented. The mean number of exacerbations was reduced from 3.6 to 1.3 (p<0.0001), and the ratio of asthma-related emergency room visits or hospitalizations diminished from 72.4 to 23.3% (p=0.001) or from 44.8 to 20.0% (p<0.05), respectively, after 12 months of TLA use. The Asthma Control Test index increased from 14.1 to 18.5 (p<0.0001). After 4 months of TLA use, clear improvements can be shown for most variables in line with the data collected after 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of TLA to the patients' regular medication significantly reduced exacerbations, asthma symptoms, and the utilization of hospital resources. The data support that TLA may be an important new non-pharmacological approach in the management of poorly controlled allergic asthma.

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