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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 742873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34867786

RESUMO

Objective: As there is significant heterogeneity in the weight loss response to pharmacotherapy, one of the most important clinical questions in obesity medicine is how to predict an individual's response to pharmacotherapy. The present study examines patterns of weight loss among overweight and obese women who demonstrated early robust response to twice daily exenatide treatment compared to those treated with hypocaloric diet and matched placebo injections. Methods: We randomized 182 women (BMI 25-48 kg/m2) to treatment with exenatide alone or matched placebo injections plus hypocaloric diet. In both treatment groups, women who demonstrated ≥ 5% weight loss at 12 weeks were characterized as high responders and those who lost ≥10% of body weight were classified as super responders. Our primary outcome was long-term change in body weight among early high responders to either treatment. An exploratory metabolomic analysis was also performed. Results: We observed individual variability in weight loss with both exenatide and hypocaloric diet plus placebo injections. There was a trend toward a higher percentage of subjects who achieved ≥ 5% weight loss with exenatide compared to diet (56% of those treated with exenatide, 76% of those treated with diet, p = 0.05) but no significant difference in those who achieved ≥ 10% weight loss (23% of individuals treated with exenatide and 36% of those treated with diet, p = 0.55). In both treatment groups, higher weight loss at 3 months of treatment predicted super responder status (diet p=0.0098, exenatide p=0.0080). Both treatment groups also demonstrated similar peak weight loss during the study period. We observed lower cysteine concentrations in the exenatide responder group (0.81 vs 0.48 p < 0.0001) and a trend toward higher levels of serotonin, aminoisobutyric acid, anandamide, and sarcosine in the exenatide super responder group. Conclusion: In a population of early high responders, longer term weight loss with exenatide treatment is similar to that achieved with a hypocaloric diet. Clinical Trial Registration: www.clinicaltrialsgov, identifier NCT01590433.

2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851361

RESUMO

Importance: African American individuals have disproportionate rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) but lower levels of coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical CHD, than non-Hispanic White individuals. African American individuals may have distinct metabolite profiles associated with incident CHD risk compared with non-Hispanic White individuals, and examination of these differences could highlight important processes that differ between them. Objectives: To identify novel biomarkers of incident CHD and CAC among African American individuals and to replicate incident CHD findings in a multiethnic cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: This analysis targeted plasma metabolomic profiling of 2346 participants in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), a prospective population-based cohort study that included 5306 African American participants who were examined at baseline (2000-2004) and 2 follow-up visits. Replication of CHD-associated metabolites was sought among 1588 multiethnic participants from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), a prospective population-based multiethnic cohort study of 161 808 postmenopausal women who were examined at baseline (1991-1995) and ongoing follow-up visits. Regression analyses were performed for each metabolite to examine the associations with incident CHD and CAC scores. Data were collected from the WHI between 1994 and 2009 and from the JHS between 2000 and 2015. All data were analyzed from November 2020 to August 2021. Exposures: Plasma metabolites. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident CHD was defined as definite or probable myocardial infarction or definite fatal CHD in both the JHS and WHI cohorts. In the JHS cohort, silent myocardial infarction between examinations (as determined by electrocardiography) and coronary revascularization were included in the incident CHD analysis. Coronary artery calcium was measured using a 16-channel computed tomographic system and reported as an Agatston score. Results: Among 2346 African American individuals in the JHS cohort, the mean (SD) age was 56 (13) years, and 1468 individuals (62.6%) were female. Among 1588 postmenopausal women in the WHI cohort, the mean (SD) age was 67 (7) years; 217 individuals (13.7%) self-identified as African American, 1219 (76.8%) as non-Hispanic White, and 152 (9.6%) as other races or ethnicities. In the fully adjusted model including 1876 individuals, 46 of 303 targeted metabolites were associated with incident CHD (false discovery rate q <0.100). Data for 32 of the 46 metabolites were available in the WHI cohort, and 13 incident CHD-associated metabolites from the JHS cohort were replicated in the WHI cohort. A total of 1439 participants from the JHS cohort with available CAC scores received metabolomic profiling. Nine metabolites were associated with CAC scores. Minimal overlap was found between the results from the incident CHD and CAC analyses, with only 3 metabolites shared between the 2 analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study identified metabolites that were associated with incident CHD among African American individuals, including 13 incident CHD-associated metabolites that were replicated in a multiethnic population and 9 novel metabolites that included N-acylamides, leucine, and lipid species. These findings may help to elucidate common and distinct metabolic processes that may be associated with CHD among individuals with different self-identified race.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23314, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857871

RESUMO

Despite good adherence to supervised endurance exercise training (EET), some individuals experience no or little improvement in peripheral insulin sensitivity. The genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are currently not understood. By investigating genome-wide variants associated with baseline and exercise-induced changes (∆) in insulin sensitivity index (Si) in healthy volunteers, we have identified novel candidate genes whose mouse knockouts phenotypes were consistent with a causative effect on Si. An integrative analysis of functional genomic and transcriptomic profiles suggests genetic variants have an aggregate effect on baseline Si and ∆Si, focused around cholinergic signalling, including downstream calcium and chemokine signalling. The identification of calcium regulated MEF2A transcription factor as the most statistically significant candidate driving the transcriptional signature associated to ∆Si further strengthens the relevance of calcium signalling in EET mediated Si response.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779656

RESUMO

Background: Frailty is associated with a higher risk for adverse outcomes after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for severe aortic valve stenosis, but whether or not frail patients derive differential benefit from transcatheter (TAVR) vs. surgical (SAVR) AVR is uncertain. Methods: We linked adults ≥ 65 years old in the US CoreValve High Risk (HiR) or Surgical or Transcatheter Aortic-Valve Replacement in Intermediate Risk Patients (SURTAVI) trial to Medicare claims, 2/2/2011-9/30/2015. Two frailty measures, a deficit-based (DFI) and phenotype-based (PFI) frailty index, were generated. The treatment effect of TAVR vs. SAVR was evaluated within frailty index (FI) tertiles for the primary endpoint of death and non-death secondary outcomes, using multivariable Cox regression. Results: Of 1,442 (linkage rate = 60.0%) individuals included, 741 (51.4%) individuals received TAVR and 701 (48.6%) received SAVR (mean age 81.8 ± 6.1 years, 44.0% female). Though 1-year death rates in the highest FI tertiles (DFI 36.7%, PFI 33.8%) were 2-3-fold higher than the lowest tertiles (DFI 13.4%, HR 3.02, 95% CI 2.26-4.02, p < 0.001; PFI 17.9%; HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.58-2.67, p < 0.001), there were no significant differences in the relative or absolute treatment effect of SAVR vs. TAVR across FI tertiles for all death, non-death, and functional outcomes (all interaction p-values > 0.05). Results remained consistent across individual trials, frailty definitions, and when considering the non-linked trial data. Conclusions: Two different frailty indices based on Fried and Rockwood definitions identified individuals at higher risk of death and functional impairment but no differential benefit from TAVR vs. SAVR.

5.
Circulation ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814699

RESUMO

Background: Plasma proteins are critical mediators of cardiovascular processes and are the targets of many drugs. Previous efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of the plasma proteome have been limited by a focus on individuals of European descent and leveraged genotyping arrays and imputation. Here we describe whole genome sequence analysis of the plasma proteome in individuals with greater African ancestry, increasing our power to identify novel genetic determinants. Methods: Proteomic profiling of 1,301 proteins was performed in 1852 Black adults from the Jackson Heart Study using aptamer-based proteomics (SomaScan®). Whole genome sequencing association analysis was ascertained for all variants with minor allele count ≥ 5. Results were validated using an alternative, antibody-based, proteomic platform (Olink®) as well as replicated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the HERITAGE Family Study. Results: We identify 569 genetic associations between 479 proteins and 438 unique genetic regions at a Bonferroni-adjusted significance level of 3.8 × 10-11. These associations include 114 novel locus-protein relationships and an additional 217 novel sentinel variant-protein relationships. Novel cardiovascular findings include new protein associations at the APOE gene locus including ZAP70 (sentinel single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs7412-T, ß = 0.61±0.05, p-value = 3.27 × 10-30) and MMP-3 (ß = -0.60±0.05, p = 1.67 × 10-32), as well as a completely novel pleiotropic locus at the HPX gene, associated with nine proteins. Further, the associations suggest new mechanisms of genetically mediated cardiovascular disease linked to African ancestry; we identify a novel association between variants linked to APOL1 associated chronic kidney and heart disease and the protein CKAP2 (rs73885319-G, ß = 0.34±0.04, p = 1.34 × 10-17) as well as an association between ATTR amyloidosis and RBP4 levels in community dwelling individuals without heart failure. Conclusions: Taken together, these results provide evidence for the functional importance of variants in non-European populations, and suggest new biological mechanisms for ancestry-specific determinants of lipids, coagulation and myocardial function.

6.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; : CIRCGEN121003421, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: suPAR (Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) has emerged as an important biomarker of coagulation, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The contribution of suPAR to CVD risk and its genetic influence in the Black population have not been evaluated. METHODS: We measured suPAR in 3492 Blacks from the prospective, community-based JHS (Jackson Heart Study). Cross-sectional associations of suPAR with lifestyle and CVD risk factors were assessed, whole-genome sequence data were used to evaluate genetic associations of suPAR, and relationships of suPAR with incident CVD outcomes and overall mortality were estimated over follow-up. RESULTS: In Cox models adjusted for traditional CVD risk factors, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and CRP (C-reactive protein), each 1-SD higher suPAR was associated with a 21% to 31% increased risk of incident coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and mortality. In the genome-wide association study, 2 missense (rs399145 encoding p.Thr86Ala, rs4760 encoding p.Phe272Leu) and 2 noncoding regulatory variants (rs73935023 within an enhancer element and rs4251805 within the promoter) of PLAUR on chromosome 19 were each independently associated with suPAR and together explained 14% of suPAR phenotypic variation. The allele frequencies of each of the four suPAR-associated genetic variants differ considerably across African and European populations. We further show that PLAUR rs73935023 can alter transcriptional activity in vitro. We did not find any association between genetically determined suPAR and CVD in JHS or a larger electronic medical record-based analyses of Blacks or Whites. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the importance of ancestry-differentiated genetic variation on suPAR levels and indicate suPAR is a CVD biomarker in Black adults.

7.
J Hepatol ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Identifying fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is essential to predict liver-related outcomes and guide treatment decisions. A protein-based signature of fibrosis could serve as a valuable, non-invasive diagnostic tool. This study sought to identify circulating proteins associated with fibrosis in NAFLD. METHODS: We used aptamer-based proteomics to measure 4,783 proteins in 2 cohorts (Cohort A and B). Targeted, quantitative assays coupling aptamer-based protein pull down and mass spectrometry (SPMS) validated the profiling results in a bariatric and NAFLD cohort (Cohort C and D, respectively). Generalized linear modeling-logistic regression assessed the ability of candidate proteins to classify fibrosis. RESULTS: From the multiplex profiling, 16 proteins differed significantly by fibrosis in cohorts A (n = 62) and B (n = 98). Quantitative and robust SPMS assays were developed for 8 proteins and validated in Cohorts C (n = 71) and D (n = 84). The A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs like 2 (ADAMTSL2) protein accurately distinguished non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with fibrosis stage 0-1 (F0-1) from at-risk NASH with fibrosis stage 2-4, with AUROCs of 0.83 and 0.86 in Cohorts C and D, respectively, and from NASH with significant fibrosis (F2-3), with AUROCs of 0.80 and 0.83 in Cohorts C and D, respectively. An 8-protein panel distinguished NAFL/NASH F0-1 from at-risk NASH (AUROCs 0.90 and 0.87 in Cohort C and D, respectively) and NASH F2-3 (AUROCs 0.89 and 0.83 in Cohorts C and D, respectively). The 8-protein panel and ADAMTSL2 protein had superior performance to the NAFLD fibrosis score and fibrosis-4 score. CONCLUSION: The ADAMTSL2 protein and an 8-protein soluble biomarker panel are highly associated with at-risk NASH and significant fibrosis; they exhibited superior diagnostic performance compared to standard of care fibrosis scores. LAY SUMMARY: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common causes of liver disease worldwide. Diagnosing NAFLD and identifying fibrosis (scarring of the liver) currently requires a liver biopsy. Our study identified novel proteins found in the blood which may identify fibrosis without the need for a liver biopsy.

8.
JCI Insight ; 6(20)2021 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506304

RESUMO

Endothelial dysfunction accompanies the microvascular thrombosis commonly observed in severe COVID-19. Constitutively, the endothelial surface is anticoagulant, a property maintained at least in part via signaling through the Tie2 receptor. During inflammation, the Tie2 antagonist angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2) is released from endothelial cells and inhibits Tie2, promoting a prothrombotic phenotypic shift. We sought to assess whether severe COVID-19 is associated with procoagulant endothelial dysfunction and alterations in the Tie2/angiopoietin axis. Primary HUVECs treated with plasma from patients with severe COVID-19 upregulated the expression of thromboinflammatory genes, inhibited the expression of antithrombotic genes, and promoted coagulation on the endothelial surface. Pharmacologic activation of Tie2 with the small molecule AKB-9778 reversed the prothrombotic state induced by COVID-19 plasma in primary endothelial cells. Lung autopsies from patients with COVID-19 demonstrated a prothrombotic endothelial signature. Assessment of circulating endothelial markers in a cohort of 98 patients with mild, moderate, or severe COVID-19 revealed endothelial dysfunction indicative of a prothrombotic state. Angpt-2 concentrations rose with increasing disease severity, and the highest levels were associated with worse survival. These data highlight the disruption of Tie2/angiopoietin signaling and procoagulant changes in endothelial cells in severe COVID-19. Our findings provide rationale for current trials of Tie2-activating therapy with AKB-9778 in COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Receptor TIE-2/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiopoietina-2/metabolismo , Compostos de Anilina , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pulmão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor TIE-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Transdução de Sinais , Ácidos Sulfônicos , Doenças Vasculares/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(19): e022150, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585597

RESUMO

Background In aortic valve disease, the relationship between claims-based frailty indices (CFIs) and validated measures of frailty constructed from in-person assessments is unclear but may be relevant for retrospective ascertainment of frailty status when otherwise unmeasured. Methods and Results We linked adults aged ≥65 years in the US CoreValve Studies (linkage rate, 67%; mean age, 82.7±6.2 years, 43.1% women), to Medicare inpatient claims, 2011 to 2015. The Johns Hopkins CFI, validated on the basis of the Fried index, was generated for each study participant, and the association between CFI tertile and trial outcomes was evaluated as part of the EXTEND-FRAILTY substudy. Among 2357 participants (64.9% frail), higher CFI tertile was associated with greater impairments in nutrition, disability, cognition, and self-rated health. The primary outcome of all-cause mortality at 1 year occurred in 19.3%, 23.1%, and 31.3% of those in tertiles 1 to 3, respectively (tertile 2 versus 1: hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.98-1.51; P=0.07; tertile 3 versus 1: hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.41-2.12; P<0.001). Secondary outcomes (bleeding, major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, and hospitalization) were more frequent with increasing CFI tertile and persisted despite adjustment for age, sex, New York Heart Association class, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk score. Conclusions In linked Medicare and CoreValve study data, a CFI based on the Fried index consistently identified individuals with worse impairments in frailty, disability, cognitive dysfunction, and nutrition and a higher risk of death, hospitalization, bleeding, and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, independent of age and risk category. While not a surrogate for validated metrics of frailty using in-person assessments, use of this CFI to ascertain frailty status among patients with aortic valve disease may be valid and prognostically relevant information when otherwise not measured.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15652, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341450

RESUMO

Inflammation increases the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Delineating specific inflammatory pathways and biomarkers of their activity could identify the mechanistic underpinnings of the increased risk. Plasma levels of kynurenine, a metabolite involved in inflammation, associates with cardiometabolic disease risk. We used genetic approaches to identify inflammatory mechanisms associated with kynurenine variability and their relationship to cardiometabolic disease. We identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with plasma kynurenine, including a missense-variant (rs3184504) in the inflammatory gene SH2B3/LNK. We examined the association between rs3184504 and plasma kynurenine in independent human samples, and measured kynurenine levels in SH2B3-knock-out mice and during human LPS-evoked endotoxemia. We conducted phenome scanning to identify clinical phenotypes associated with each kynurenine-related SNP and with a kynurenine polygenic score using the UK-Biobank (n = 456,422), BioVU (n = 62,303), and Electronic Medical Records and Genetics (n = 32,324) databases. The SH2B3 missense variant associated with plasma kynurenine levels and SH2B3-/- mice had significant tissue-specific differences in kynurenine levels.LPS, an acute inflammatory stimulus, increased plasma kynurenine in humans. Mendelian randomization showed increased waist-circumference, a marker of central obesity, associated with increased kynurenine, and increased kynurenine associated with C-reactive protein (CRP). We found 30 diagnoses associated (FDR q < 0.05) with the SH2B3 variant, but not with SNPs mapping to genes known to regulate tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism. Plasma kynurenine may be a biomarker of acute and chronic inflammation involving the SH2B3 pathways. Its regulation lies upstream of CRP, suggesting that kynurenine may be a biomarker of one inflammatory mechanism contributing to increased cardiometabolic disease risk.


Assuntos
Cinurenina , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa , Inflamação , Masculino , Camundongos , Triptofano/metabolismo
12.
Gut ; 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tryptophan can be catabolised to various metabolites through host kynurenine and microbial indole pathways. We aimed to examine relationships of host and microbial tryptophan metabolites with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), host genetics, diet and gut microbiota. METHOD: We analysed associations between circulating levels of 11 tryptophan metabolites and incident T2D in 9180 participants of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds from five cohorts. We examined host genome-wide variants, dietary intake and gut microbiome associated with these metabolites. RESULTS: Tryptophan, four kynurenine-pathway metabolites (kynurenine, kynurenate, xanthurenate and quinolinate) and indolelactate were positively associated with T2D risk, while indolepropionate was inversely associated with T2D risk. We identified multiple host genetic variants, dietary factors, gut bacteria and their potential interplay associated with these T2D-relaetd metabolites. Intakes of fibre-rich foods, but not protein/tryptophan-rich foods, were the dietary factors most strongly associated with tryptophan metabolites. The fibre-indolepropionate association was partially explained by indolepropionate-associated gut bacteria, mostly fibre-using Firmicutes. We identified a novel association between a host functional LCT variant (determining lactase persistence) and serum indolepropionate, which might be related to a host gene-diet interaction on gut Bifidobacterium, a probiotic bacterium significantly associated with indolepropionate independent of other fibre-related bacteria. Higher milk intake was associated with higher levels of gut Bifidobacterium and serum indolepropionate only among genetically lactase non-persistent individuals. CONCLUSION: Higher milk intake among lactase non-persistent individuals, and higher fibre intake were associated with a favourable profile of circulating tryptophan metabolites for T2D, potentially through the host-microbial cross-talk shifting tryptophan metabolism toward gut microbial indolepropionate production.

13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(3): 893-906, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choline is an essential nutrient; however, the associations of choline and its related metabolites with cardiometabolic risk remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of circulating choline, betaine, carnitine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) with cardiometabolic biomarkers and their potential dietary and nondietary determinants. METHODS: The cross-sectional analyses included 32,853 participants from 17 studies, who were free of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease. In each study, metabolites and biomarkers were log-transformed and standardized by means and SDs, and linear regression coefficients (ß) and 95% CIs were estimated with adjustments for potential confounders. Study-specific results were combined by random-effects meta-analyses. A false discovery rate <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: We observed moderate positive associations of circulating choline, carnitine, and DMG with creatinine [ß (95% CI): 0.136 (0.084, 0.188), 0.106 (0.045, 0.168), and 0.128 (0.087, 0.169), respectively, for each SD increase in biomarkers on the log scale], carnitine with triglycerides (ß = 0.076; 95% CI: 0.042, 0.109), homocysteine (ß = 0.064; 95% CI: 0.033, 0.095), and LDL cholesterol (ß = 0.055; 95% CI: 0.013, 0.096), DMG with homocysteine (ß = 0.068; 95% CI: 0.023, 0.114), insulin (ß = 0.068; 95% CI: 0.043, 0.093), and IL-6 (ß = 0.060; 95% CI: 0.027, 0.094), but moderate inverse associations of betaine with triglycerides (ß = -0.146; 95% CI: -0.188, -0.104), insulin (ß = -0.106; 95% CI: -0.130, -0.082), homocysteine (ß = -0.097; 95% CI: -0.149, -0.045), and total cholesterol (ß = -0.074; 95% CI: -0.102, -0.047). In the whole pooled population, no dietary factor was associated with circulating choline; red meat intake was associated with circulating carnitine [ß = 0.092 (0.042, 0.142) for a 1 serving/d increase], whereas plant protein was associated with circulating betaine [ß = 0.249 (0.110, 0.388) for a 5% energy increase]. Demographics, lifestyle, and metabolic disease history showed differential associations with these metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating choline, carnitine, and DMG were associated with unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profiles, whereas circulating betaine was associated with a favorable cardiometabolic risk profile. Future prospective studies are needed to examine the associations of these metabolites with incident cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Betaína/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Carnitina/sangue , Colina/sangue , Sarcosina/análogos & derivados , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Humanos , Sarcosina/sangue
14.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(3): e003191, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased left ventricular (LV) mass is associated with adverse cardiovascular events including heart failure (HF). Both increased LV mass and HF disproportionately affect Black individuals. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we undertook a proteomic screen in a Black cohort and compared the findings to results from a White cohort. METHODS: We measured 1305 plasma proteins using the SomaScan platform in 1772 Black participants (mean age, 56 years; 62% women) in JHS (Jackson Heart Study) with LV mass assessed by 2-dimensional echocardiography. Incident HF was assessed in 1600 participants. We then compared protein associations in JHS to those observed in White participants from FHS (Framingham Heart Study; mean age, 54 years; 56% women). RESULTS: In JHS, there were 110 proteins associated with LV mass and 13 proteins associated with incident HF hospitalization with false discovery rate <5% after multivariable adjustment. Several proteins showed expected associations with both LV mass and HF, including NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; ß=0.04; P=2×10-8; hazard ratio, 1.48; P=0.0001). The strongest association with LV mass was novel: LKHA4 (leukotriene-A4 hydrolase; ß=0.05; P=5×10-15). This association was confirmed on an alternate proteomics platform and further supported by related metabolomic data. Fractalkine/CX3CL1 (C-X3-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1) showed a novel association with incident HF (hazard ratio, 1.32; P=0.0002). While established biomarkers such as cystatin C and NT-proBNP showed consistent associations in Black and White individuals, LKHA4 and fractalkine were significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several novel biological pathways specific to Black adults hypothesized to contribute to the pathophysiologic cascade of LV hypertrophy and incident HF including LKHA4 and fractalkine.

15.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0240764, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043632

RESUMO

Obesity is an epidemic internationally. While weight loss interventions are efficacious, they are compounded by heterogeneity with regards to clinically relevant metabolic responses. Thus, we sought to identify metabolic biomarkers that are associated with beneficial metabolic changes to weight loss and which distinguish individuals with obesity who would most benefit from a given type of intervention. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based profiling was used to measure 765 metabolites in baseline plasma from three different weight loss studies: WLM (behavioral intervention, N = 443), STRRIDE-PD (exercise intervention, N = 163), and CBD (surgical cohort, N = 125). The primary outcome was percent change in insulin resistance (as measured by the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance [%ΔHOMA-IR]) over the intervention. Overall, 92 individual metabolites were associated with %ΔHOMA-IR after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Concordantly, the most significant metabolites were triacylglycerols (TAGs; p = 2.3e-5) and diacylglycerols (DAGs; p = 1.6e-4), with higher baseline TAG and DAG levels associated with a greater improvement in insulin resistance with weight loss. In tests of heterogeneity, 50 metabolites changed differently between weight loss interventions; we found amino acids, peptides, and their analogues to be most significant (4.7e-3) in this category. Our results highlight novel metabolic pathways associated with heterogeneity in response to weight loss interventions, and related biomarkers which could be used in future studies of personalized approaches to weight loss interventions.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Metabolômica , Obesidade/sangue , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diglicerídeos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/cirurgia , Obesidade/terapia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
medRxiv ; 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031665

RESUMO

Profound endothelial dysfunction accompanies the microvascular thrombosis commonly observed in severe COVID-19. In the quiescent state, the endothelial surface is anticoagulant, a property maintained at least in part via constitutive signaling through the Tie2 receptor. During inflammation, the Tie2 antagonist angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2) is released from activated endothelial cells and inhibits Tie2, promoting a prothrombotic phenotypic shift. We sought to assess whether severe COVID-19 is associated with procoagulant dysfunction of the endothelium and alterations in the Tie2-angiopoietin axis. Primary human endothelial cells treated with plasma from patients with severe COVID-19 upregulated the expression of thromboinflammatory genes, inhibited expression of antithrombotic genes, and promoted coagulation on the endothelial surface. Pharmacologic activation of Tie2 with the small molecule AKB-9778 reversed the prothrombotic state induced by COVID-19 plasma in primary endothelial cells. On lung autopsy specimens from COVID-19 patients, we found a prothrombotic endothelial signature as evidenced by increased von Willebrand Factor and loss of anticoagulant proteins. Assessment of circulating endothelial markers in a cohort of 98 patients with mild, moderate, or severe COVID-19 revealed profound endothelial dysfunction indicative of a prothrombotic state. Angpt-2 concentrations rose with increasing disease severity and highest levels were associated with worse survival. These data highlight the disruption of Tie2-angiopoietin signaling and procoagulant changes in endothelial cells in severe COVID-19. Moreover, our findings provide novel rationale for current trials of Tie2 activating therapy with AKB-9778 in severe COVID-19 disease.

17.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(5): 100287, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969320

RESUMO

Mechanisms underlying severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease remain poorly understood. We analyze several thousand plasma proteins longitudinally in 306 COVID-19 patients and 78 symptomatic controls, uncovering immune and non-immune proteins linked to COVID-19. Deconvolution of our plasma proteome data using published scRNA-seq datasets reveals contributions from circulating immune and tissue cells. Sixteen percent of patients display reduced inflammation yet comparably poor outcomes. Comparison of patients who died to severely ill survivors identifies dynamic immune-cell-derived and tissue-associated proteins associated with survival, including exocrine pancreatic proteases. Using derived tissue-specific and cell-type-specific intracellular death signatures, cellular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression, and our data, we infer whether organ damage resulted from direct or indirect effects of infection. We propose a model in which interactions among myeloid, epithelial, and T cells drive tissue damage. These datasets provide important insights and a rich resource for analysis of mechanisms of severe COVID-19 disease.

18.
Nat Metab ; 3(6): 786-797, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045743

RESUMO

Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is a direct measure of human cardiorespiratory fitness and is associated with health. However, the molecular determinants of interindividual differences in baseline (intrinsic) VO2max, and of increases of VO2max in response to exercise training (ΔVO2max), are largely unknown. Here, we measure ~5,000 plasma proteins using an affinity-based platform in over 650 sedentary adults before and after a 20-week endurance-exercise intervention and identify 147 proteins and 102 proteins whose plasma levels are associated with baseline VO2max and ΔVO2max, respectively. Addition of a protein biomarker score derived from these proteins to a score based on clinical traits improves the prediction of an individual's ΔVO2max. We validate findings in a separate exercise cohort, further link 21 proteins to incident all-cause mortality in a community-based cohort and reproduce the specificity of ~75% of our key findings using antibody-based assays. Taken together, our data shed light on biological pathways relevant to cardiorespiratory fitness and highlight the potential additive value of protein biomarkers in identifying exercise responsiveness in humans.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Proteoma , Proteômica , Biomarcadores , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Consumo de Oxigênio , Proteômica/métodos
19.
J Virol ; 95(14): e0040421, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893169

RESUMO

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern that overcome natural and vaccine-induced immunity threaten to exacerbate the COVID-19 pandemic. Increasing evidence suggests that neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses are a primary mechanism of protection against infection. However, little is known about the extent and mechanisms by which natural immunity acquired during the early COVID-19 pandemic confers cross-neutralization of emerging variants. In this study, we investigated cross-neutralization of the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 SARS-CoV-2 variants in a well-characterized cohort of early pandemic convalescent subjects. We observed modestly decreased cross-neutralization of B.1.1.7 but a substantial 4.8-fold reduction in cross-neutralization of B.1.351. Correlates of cross-neutralization included receptor binding domain (RBD) and N-terminal domain (NTD) binding antibodies, homologous NAb titers, and membrane-directed T cell responses. These data shed light on the cross-neutralization of emerging variants by early pandemic convalescent immune responses. IMPORTANCE Widespread immunity to SARS-CoV-2 will be necessary to end the COVID-19 pandemic. NAb responses are a critical component of immunity that can be stimulated by natural infection as well as vaccines. However, SARS-CoV-2 variants are emerging that contain mutations in the spike gene that promote evasion from NAb responses. These variants may therefore delay control of the COVID-19 pandemic. We studied whether NAb responses from early COVID-19 convalescent patients are effective against the two SARS-CoV-2 variants, B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. We observed that the B.1.351 variant demonstrates significantly reduced susceptibility to early pandemic NAb responses. We additionally characterized virological, immunological, and clinical features that correlate with cross-neutralization. These studies increase our understanding of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Reações Cruzadas , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(5): 1145-1156, 2021 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a diet-derived, gut microbial-host cometabolite, has been linked to cardiometabolic diseases. However, the relations remain unclear between diet, TMAO, and cardiometabolic health in general populations from different regions and ethnicities. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of circulating TMAO with dietary and cardiometabolic factors in a pooled analysis of 16 population-based studies from the United States, Europe, and Asia. METHODS: Included were 32,166 adults (16,269 white, 13,293 Asian, 1247 Hispanic/Latino, 1236 black, and 121 others) without cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic kidney disease, or inflammatory bowel disease. Linear regression coefficients (ß) were computed for standardized TMAO with harmonized variables. Study-specific results were combined by random-effects meta-analysis. A false discovery rate <0.10 was considered significant. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, circulating TMAO was associated with intakes of animal protein and saturated fat (ß = 0.124 and 0.058, respectively, for a 5% energy increase) and with shellfish, total fish, eggs, and red meat (ß = 0.370, 0.151, 0.081, and 0.056, respectively, for a 1 serving/d increase). Plant protein and nuts showed inverse associations (ß = -0.126 for a 5% energy increase from plant protein and -0.123 for a 1 serving/d increase of nuts). Although the animal protein-TMAO association was consistent across populations, fish and shellfish associations were stronger in Asians (ß = 0.285 and 0.578), and egg and red meat associations were more prominent in Americans (ß = 0.153 and 0.093). Besides, circulating TMAO was positively associated with creatinine (ß = 0.131 SD increase in log-TMAO), homocysteine (ß = 0.065), insulin (ß = 0.048), glycated hemoglobin (ß = 0.048), and glucose (ß = 0.023), whereas it was inversely associated with HDL cholesterol (ß = -0.047) and blood pressure (ß = -0.030). Each TMAO-biomarker association remained significant after further adjusting for creatinine and was robust in subgroup/sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In an international, consortium-based study, animal protein was consistently associated with increased circulating TMAO, whereas TMAO associations with fish, shellfish, eggs, and red meat varied among populations. The adverse associations of TMAO with certain cardiometabolic biomarkers, independent of renal function, warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Dieta , Metabolismo Energético , Metilaminas/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Saúde Global , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Oxidantes/sangue
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