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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878114

RESUMO

Recent evidence has shown that graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, the barrier that reduces cancer therapy efficacy. Here, we tested three alternative GQDs' surface chemistries on two neural lineages (glioblastoma cells and mouse cortical neurons). We showed that surface chemistry modulates GQDs' biocompatibility. When used in combination with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin, GDQs exerted a synergistic effect on tumor cells, but not on neurons. This appears to be mediated by the modification of membrane permeability induced by the surface of GQDs. Our findings highlight that GQDs can be adopted as a suitable delivery and therapeutic strategy for the treatment of glioblastoma, by both directly destabilizing the cell membrane and indirectly increasing the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840097

RESUMO

We describe a 46,XX girl with Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS), showing both kidney disease and genital abnormalities, in whom a misdiagnosis of hyperandrogenism was made. A 15 year-old girl was affected by neonatal nephrotic syndrome, progressing to end stage kidney failure. Hair loss and voice deepening were noted during puberty. Pelvic ultrasound and MRI showed utero-tubaric agenesis, vaginal atresia and urogenital sinus, with inguinal gonads. Gonadotrophin and estradiol levels were normal, but testosterone levels increased up to 285 ng/dL at Tanner stage 3. She underwent prophylactic gonadectomy and histopathology reported fibrotic ovarian cortex containing numerous follicles in different maturation stages and rudimental remnants of Fallopian tubes. No features of gonadoblastoma were detected. Unexpectedly, testosterone levels were found elevated 4 months after gonadectomy (157 ng/dL). Recent medical history revealed a chronic assumption of a high daily dose of biotin, as a therapeutic support for hair loss. Laboratory immunoassay instruments used streptavidin-biotin interaction to detect hormones and, in competitive immunoassays, high concentrations of biotin can result in false high results. Total testosterone, measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), was found within reference intervals. Similar testosterone levels were detected repeating the immunoassay two weeks after biotin uptake interruption. Discordance between clinical presentation and biochemical results in patients taking biotin, should rise the suspicion of erroneous results. Improved communication among patients, health care providers, and laboratory professionals is required concerning the likelihood of biotin interference with immunoassays.

3.
Dis Markers ; 2020: 8848225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670436

RESUMO

Background: Urolithiasis is the process of stone formation in the urinary tract. Its etiology is only partly known, and efficient therapeutic approaches are currently lacking. Metabolomics is increasingly used in biomarkers discovery for its ability to identify mediators of relevant (patho)physiological processes. Amino acids may be involved in kidney stone formation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of an amino acid signature in stone former urine through a targeted metabolomic approach. Methods: A panel of 35 amino acids and derivatives was assessed in urines from 15 stone former patients and 12 healthy subjects by UPLC-MS. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was used to define amino acid profiles of cases and controls. Results and Discussion. Our approach led to the definition of a specific amino acid fingerprint in people with kidney stones. A urinary amino acid profile of stone formers was characterized by lower levels of α-aminobutyric acid, asparagine, ethanolamine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, serine, tryptophan, and valine. Metabolomic analysis may lend insights into the pathophysiology of urolithiasis and allow tracking this prevalent condition over time.

4.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(8)2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707988

RESUMO

Global pandemic management represents a serious issue for health systems. In some cases, repurposing of existing medications might help find compounds that have the unexpected potential to combat microorganisms. In the same way, changing cell-drug interaction by nanotechnology could represent an innovative strategy to fight infectious diseases. Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most alarming worldwide infectious diseases and there is an urgent need for new drugs and treatments, particularly for the emergence and spread of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains. New nanotechnologies based on carbon nanomaterials are now being considered to improve anti-TB treatments, and graphene oxide (GO) showed interesting properties as an anti-TB drug. GO, which preferentially accumulates in the lungs and is degraded by macrophagic peroxidases, can trap Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mtb in a dose-dependent manner, reducing the entry of bacilli into macrophages. In this paper, combinations of isoniazid (INH), amikacin (AMK) and linezolid (LZD) and GO anti-mycobacterial properties were evaluated against Mtb H37Rv by using a checkerboard assay or an in vitro infection model. Different GO effects have been observed when incubated with INH, AMK or LZD. Whereas the INH and AMK anti-mycobacterial activities were blocked by GO co-administration, the LZD bactericidal effect increased in combination with GO. GO-LZD significantly reduced extracellular mycobacteria during infection and was able to kill internalized bacilli. GO-LZD co-administration is potentially a new promising anti-TB treatment at the forefront in fighting emerging antibiotic-resistant Mtb strains where LZD administration is suggested. This innovative pharmacological approach may lead to reduced treatment periods and decreased adverse effects. More importantly, we demonstrate how nanomaterials-drugs combinations can represent a possible strategy to quickly design drugs for pandemics treatment.

5.
Geroscience ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488674

RESUMO

Physical frailty and sarcopenia (PF&S) is a prototypical geriatric condition characterized by reduced physical function and low muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to provide an initial selection of biomarkers for PF&S using a novel multivariate analytic strategy. Two-hundred community-dwellers, 100 with PF&S and 100 non-physically frail, non-sarcopenic (nonPF&S) controls aged 70 and older were enrolled as part of the BIOmarkers associated with Sarcopenia and Physical frailty in EldeRly pErsons (BIOSPHERE) study. A panel of 74 serum analytes involved in inflammation, muscle growth and remodeling, neuromuscular junction damage, and amino acid metabolism was assayed. Biomarker selection was accomplished through sequential and orthogonalized covariance selection (SO-CovSel) analysis. Separate SO-CovSel models were constructed for the whole study population and for the two genders. The model with the best prediction ability obtained with the smallest number of variables was built using seven biomolecules. This model allowed correct classification of 80.6 ± 5.3% PF&S participants and 79.9 ± 5.1% nonPF&S controls. The PF&S biomarker profile was characterized by higher serum levels of asparagine, aspartic acid, and citrulline. Higher serum concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor BB, heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72), myeloperoxidase, and α-aminobutyric acid defined the profile of nonPF&S participants. Gender-specific SO-CovSel models identified a "core" biomarker profile of PF&S, characterized by higher serum levels of aspartic acid and Hsp72 and lower concentrations of macrophage inflammatory protein 1ß, with peculiar signatures in men and women.SO-CovSel analysis allowed identifying a set of potential biomarkers for PF&S. The adoption of such an innovative multivariate approach could help address the complex pathophysiology of PF&S, translate biomarker discovery from bench to bedside, and unveil novel targets for interventions.

6.
Geroscience ; 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458283

RESUMO

Dopaminergic nigrostriatal denervation and widespread intracellular α-synuclein accumulation are neuropathologic hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). A constellation of peripheral processes, including metabolic and inflammatory changes, are thought to contribute to neurodegeneration. In the present study, we sought to obtain insight into the multifaceted pathophysiology of PD through the application of a multi-marker discovery approach. Fifty older adults aged 70+, 20 with PD and 30 age-matched controls were enrolled as part of the EXosomes in PArkiNson Disease (EXPAND) study. A panel of 68 circulating mediators of inflammation, neurogenesis and neural plasticity, and amino acid metabolism was assayed. Biomarker selection was accomplished through sequential and orthogonalized covariance selection (SO-CovSel), a multi-platform regression method developed to handle highly correlated variables organized in multi-block datasets. The SO-CovSel model with the best prediction ability using the smallest number of variables was built with seven biomolecules. The model allowed correct classification of 94.2 ± 3.1% participants with PD and 100% controls. The biomarker profile of older adults with PD was defined by higher circulating levels of interleukin (IL) 8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1ß, phosphoethanolamine, and proline, and by lower concentrations of citrulline, IL9, and MIP-1α. Our innovative approach allowed identifying and evaluating the classification performance of a set of potential biomarkers for PD in older adults. Future studies are warranted to establish whether these biomolecules could serve as biomarkers for PD as well as unveil new targets for interventions.

7.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940925

RESUMO

Diabetes and frailty are highly prevalent conditions that impact the health status of older adults. Perturbations in protein/amino acid metabolism are associated with both functional impairment and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the present study, we compared the concentrations of a panel of circulating 37 amino acids and derivatives between frail/pre-frail older adults with T2DM and robust non-diabetic controls. Sixty-six functionally impaired older persons aged 70+ with T2DM and 30 age and sex-matched controls were included in the analysis. We applied a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA)-based analytical strategy to characterize the metabotype of study participants. The optimal complexity of the PLS-DA model was found to be two latent variables. The proportion of correct classification was 94.1 ± 1.9% for frail/pre-frail persons with T2DM and 100% for control participants. Functionally impaired older persons with T2DM showed higher levels of 3-methyl histidine, alanine, arginine, glutamic acid, ethanolamine sarcosine, and tryptophan. Control participants had higher levels of ornithine and taurine. These findings indicate that a specific profile of amino acids and derivatives characterizes pre-frail/frail older persons with T2DM. The dissection of these pathways may provide novel insights into the metabolic perturbations involved in the disabling cascade in older persons with T2DM.

8.
Exp Gerontol ; 129: 110782, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751663

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a leading cause of disability globally. Frailty is a high-impact geriatric condition that increases the risk of negative health outcomes and imposes remarkable health and social burden. Both frailty and T2DM show multifaceted pathophysiology, phenotypic heterogeneity, and fluctuating manifestations that challenge their management, especially when the two conditions co-occur. Muscle wasting and its correlates (e.g., metabolic perturbations and functional decline) that underlie frailty may exacerbates clinical manifestations of T2DM in older people, resulting in worse prognosis. The intrinsic complexity of frailty and T2DM has hampered the identification of clinically meaningful biomarkers to track the clinical progression of the two conditions over time and to monitor the efficacy of pharmacological and lifestyle interventions. Here, we propose an innovative approach for biomarker identification that couples multi-platform analytical determinations with chemometric modeling strategies. This novel multi-marker discovery process is described in the context of the "Metabolic biomarkers of frailty in older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus" (MetaboFrail) study that aimed at identifying metabolic biomarkers of frailty in functionally limited older persons with T2DM.

9.
Exp Gerontol ; 128: 110766, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder in old age. Neurotoxicity of dopaminergic neurons triggered by aggregation of misfolded α-synuclein is a major pathogenic trait of PD. However, growing evidence indicates that peripheral processes, including metabolic changes, may precede and contribute to neurodegeneration. The present study was undertaken to identify a metabolic signature of PD through the quantification of serum amino acids and derivatives. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Twenty older adults with PD (11 men and 9 women; mean age 73.1 ±â€¯10.2 years) and 30 age-matched controls (14 men and 16 women; mean age 74.6 ±â€¯4.3 years) were enrolled. A panel of 37 serum amino acids and derivatives was assessed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Partial least squares - discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) followed by double cross-validation was used to characterize the relationship between amino acid profiles and PD. RESULTS: The optimal complexity of the PLS-DA model was found to be three latent variables. The proportion of correct classifications was 99.3 ±â€¯2.5% for participants with PD and 94.7 ±â€¯3.0% for non-PD controls. Higher levels of ß-amino butyric acid, cystine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, and proline defined the circulating amino acid profile of older people with PD. Controls were characterized by higher concentrations of 3-methyl-histidine, citrulline, and serine. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate the existence of a distinct metabotype in older persons with PD. Future studies will have to establish whether changes in amino acid metabolism are involved in the pathogenesis of PD. This knowledge may be harnessed to identify novel disease biomarkers as well as new targets for interventions.

10.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 55(3): 205-208, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of infrared spectroscopy and morphological analysis significantly improves the urinary stone analysis. In addition to common urinary stones, it is not unusual to encounter spurious or factitious stones that, if not appropriately identified, can lead to errors in the diagnosis. In this study, we show the importance of Infrared Spectroscopy and the morphological analysis, for determining the presence of drugs crystals or atypical components in the calculi. METHODS: 1041 urinary stones were analyzed by morphocostitutional analysis, in addition the rare stones were analyzed by chemical spot test analysis. RESULTS: Among 1041 calculi analyzed, 1018 had a known composition, 23 samples were stones with rare composition or fake urinary stones. CONCLUSIONS: Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), allows to identify, theoretically, any substance, including drug-containing calculi or calculi with unusual composition and identify false stones. This is mandatory to treat patients affected by urolithiasis with a personalized clinical approach.


Assuntos
Cálculos Urinários/química , Cálculos Urinários/ultraestrutura , Cristalização , Humanos , Microscopia , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
11.
Exp Gerontol ; 126: 110692, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421185

RESUMO

Frailty encompasses several domains (i.e., metabolic, physical, cognitive). The multisystem derangements underlying frailty pathophysiology, its phenotypic heterogeneity, and the fluctuations of individuals across severity states have hampered a comprehensive appraisal of the condition. Circulating biomarkers emerged as an alleged tool for capturing this complexity and, as proxies for organismal metabolic changes, may hold the advantages of: 1) supporting diagnosis, 2) tracking the progression, 3) assisting healthcare professionals in clinical and therapeutic decision-making, and 4) verifying the efficacy of an intervention before measurable clinical manifestations occur. Among available analytical tools, metabolomics are able to identify and quantify the (ideally) whole repertoire of small molecules in biological matrices (i.e., cells, tissues, and biological fluids). Results of metabolomics analysis may define the final output of genome-environment interactions at the individual level. This entire collection of metabolites is called "metabolome" and is highly dynamic. Here, we discuss how monitoring the dynamics of metabolic profiles may provide a read-out of the environmental and clinical disturbances affecting cell homeostasis in frailty-associated conditions.

12.
J Nephrol ; 32(4): 589-594, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165423

RESUMO

Kidney stone disease is associated with cardiovascular outcomes; it is unclear whether stone composition is associated with differential cardiovascular risk. To analyze such association, we performed a cross-sectional study in which data were collected for patients who underwent at least one stone composition analysis from January 01 2015 to May 30 2018. The original dataset was linked with the imaging database to identify those patients with at least one abdominal CT scan examination during the period of interest. In total, 180 patients were included. The outcome of interest was the presence of any abdominal aortic calcifications (AAC) computed from CT scans. There were 108 (60.0%) patients with AAC. Calcium phosphate content was associated directly with eGFR, inversely with age, and was higher among females. Uric acid content was associated directly with age and inversely with eGFR, was higher among males, patients with diabetes and high blood pressure. After adjustment for age and gender, there was a significant association between calcium phosphate content and AAC (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.00, 1.56, p = 0.045). No interaction by gender was found between calcium phosphate content and AAC (p = 0.84). In conclusion, we demonstrated a significant direct association of AAC and the amount of calcium phosphate was found, suggesting an increased cardiovascular risk. Our study suggests that some subtypes of kidney stone disease deserve a closer cardiovascular risk assessment.

13.
Exp Gerontol ; 122: 129-138, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The construct of physical frailty and sarcopenia (PF&S) identifies an age-related pre-disability condition defined by reduced physical performance and low muscle mass. Whether PF&S is characterized by perturbations of the cytokine network is presently unclear. Furthermore, the existence of gender-specific inflammatory profiles of PF&S is unknown. This study was designed to explore the association between a large panel of inflammatory biomolecules and PF&S in older adults through a multivariate statistical approach. Gender-specific inflammatory patterns were also explored. METHODS: One-hundred community-dwellers aged 70 years and older with PF&S and 100 non-sarcopenic, non-frail controls (nonPF&S) were enrolled. A panel of 30 circulating inflammatory biomarkers was assayed. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was employed to explore the relationship between inflammatory molecules and PF&S. Separate PLS-DA models were built for the whole sample and the two genders. Double cross-validation procedures were used to validate the predictive ability of PLS-DA models. RESULTS: The optimal complexity of the PLS-DA model built on the whole sample was found to be four latent variables. The proportion of correct classification was 75.6 ±â€¯1.3% (82.3 ±â€¯1.6% for enrollees with PF&S and 68.7 ±â€¯2.5% for nonPF&S controls). The inflammatory profile of people with PF&S was defined by higher levels of P-selectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interferon γ-induced protein 10. NonPF&S participants were characterized by higher levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin (IL) 8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1-α, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB. Gender-specific PLS-DA allowed identifying a "core" inflammatory signature of PF&S, composed by higher levels of CRP, and lower concentrations of MPO, IL8, MCP-1, and PDGF-BB, with peculiar patterns of relationships for men and women. CONCLUSIONS: A core inflammatory profile was identified in people with PF&S with a gender-specific signature. The dissection of the PF&S "cytokinome" will provide novel insights into the role played by inflammation in the disabling cascade and allow designing personalized treatment strategies.

14.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 10(4): 644-649, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996811

RESUMO

Autoreactive T cells specific to human collagen type II have a crucial role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the context of MHC class II allele HLA-DRB1-*04. The protein-protein interactions between the T cell receptor (TCR) and the type II collagen bound to the allele MHC of class II may thus represent the target for the development of new drugs against RA. In this study, a structure-based pharmacophore model for potential small molecule inhibitors was developed from protein-protein interface structure. The 3D model obtained was used for a virtual screening workflow, which resulted in three hits for experimental follow up. Three compounds have been identified that interfere with the TCR/collagenII-MHCII (K i values below 10 µM) and open up new possibilities in the treatment of RA.

15.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887978

RESUMO

Physical frailty and sarcopenia (PF&S) share multisystem derangements, including variations in circulating amino acids and chronic low-grade inflammation. Gut microbiota balances inflammatory responses in several conditions and according to nutritional status. Therefore, an altered gut-muscle crosstalk has been hypothesized in PF&S. We analyzed the gut microbial taxa, systemic inflammation, and metabolic characteristics of older adults with and without PF&S. An innovative multi-marker analytical approach was applied to explore the classification performance of potential biomarkers for PF&S. Thirty-five community dwellers aged 70+, 18 with PF&S, and 17 nonPF&S controls were enrolled. Sequential and Orthogonalized Covariance Selection (SO-CovSel), a multi-platform regression method developed to handle highly correlated variables, was applied. The SO-CovSel model with the best prediction ability using the smallest number of variables was built using seven mediators. The model correctly classified 91.7% participants with PF&S and 87.5% nonPF&S controls. Compared with the latter group, PF&S participants showed higher serum concentrations of aspartic acid, lower circulating levels of concentrations of threonine and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, increased abundance of Oscillospira and Ruminococcus microbial taxa, and decreased abundance of Barnesiellaceae and Christensenellaceae. Future investigations are warranted to determine whether these biomediators are involved in PF&S pathophysiology and may, therefore, provide new targets for interventions.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Sarcopenia , Idoso , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/complicações , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/metabolismo
16.
Nutrients ; 10(11)2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404172

RESUMO

Physical frailty and sarcopenia (PF&S) are hallmarks of aging that share a common pathogenic background. Perturbations in protein/amino acid metabolism may play a role in the development of PF&S. In this initial report, 68 community-dwellers aged 70 years and older, 38 with PF&S and 30 non-sarcopenic, non-frail controls (nonPF&S), were enrolled as part as the "BIOmarkers associated with Sarcopenia and Physical frailty in EldeRly pErsons" (BIOSPHERE) study. A panel of 37 serum amino acids and derivatives was assayed by UPLC-MS. Partial Least Squares⁻Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was used to characterize the amino acid profile of PF&S. The optimal complexity of the PLS-DA model was found to be three latent variables. The proportion of correct classification was 76.6 ± 3.9% (75.1 ± 4.6% for enrollees with PF&S; 78.5 ± 6.0% for nonPF&S). Older adults with PF&S were characterized by higher levels of asparagine, aspartic acid, citrulline, ethanolamine, glutamic acid, sarcosine, and taurine. The profile of nonPF&S participants was defined by higher concentrations of α-aminobutyric acid and methionine. Distinct profiles of circulating amino acids and derivatives characterize older people with PF&S. The dissection of these patterns may provide novel insights into the role played by protein/amino acid perturbations in the disabling cascade and possible new targets for interventions.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/sangue , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/sangue , Sarcopenia/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular
17.
BMC Urol ; 18(1): 101, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that, compared with non-stone formers, stone formers have a higher papillary density measured with computer tomography (CT) scan. The effect of increased hydration on such papillary density in idiopathic calcium stone formers is not known. METHODS: Patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones undergoing endourological procedures for renal stones at our Institution from June 2013 to June 2014 were considered eligible for enrolment. Enrolled patients underwent a baseline unenhanced CT scan before the urological procedure; after endoscopic removal of their stones, the patients were instructed to drink at least 2 L/day of a hypotonic, oligomineral water low in sodium and minerals (fixed residue at 180 °C < 200 mg/L) for at least 12 months. Finally, the patients underwent a follow-up unenhanced CT scan during hydration regimen. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were prospectively enrolled and underwent baseline and follow-up CT scans. At baseline, mean papillary density was 43.2 ± 6.6 Hounsfield Units (HU) (43.2 ± 6.7 for the left kidney and 42.8 ± 7.1 HU for the right kidney). At follow-up and after at least 12 months of hydration regimen, mean papillary density was significantly reduced at 35.4 ± 4.2 HU (35.8 ± 5.0 for the left kidney and 35.1 ± 4.2 HU for the right kidney); the mean difference between baseline and follow-up was - 7.8 HU (95% confidence interval - 10.6 to - 5.1 HU, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Increased fluid intake in patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones was associated with a significant reduction in renal papillary density. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03343743 , 15/11/2017 (Retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Oxalato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Hidratação/tendências , Cálculos Renais/metabolismo , Cálculos Renais/terapia , Medula Renal/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Oxalato de Cálcio/antagonistas & inibidores , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hidratação/métodos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/tendências , Adulto Jovem
18.
Molecules ; 23(10)2018 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347792

RESUMO

Determination of urinary lactulose/mannitol is one of the most used tests to evaluate intestinal barrier function. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry guarantees high levels of selectivity and reproducibility. In this paper we report an upgrade of the previous published liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method, introducing more reliable internal standards and ultra-performance liquid chromatography with ethylene bridged hybrid amide columns. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography provided an efficient chromatographic separation of the two sugars in 5 min, compared to 15 min using the previous method. The limit of quantification was 10 µg/mL for mannitol and 2.5 µg/mL for lactulose, and the assay was linear up to 1000 µg/mL for mannitol and 1000 µg/mL for lactulose. The within-run precision and accuracy ranged from 0.7 to 2.9% and 97.2 to 101.2%, respectively. The between-run precision and accuracy ranged from 1.9 to 4.7% and 94.8 to 97.5%, respectively. Recovery was higher than 90.2% for both lactulose and mannitol, and the matrix effect for both lactulose and mannitol was lower than 15%. With this new method we have a real improvement in terms of accuracy and reproducibility, ensuring results in shorter time. The changes to the previous protocol make this method excellent for routine purposes.


Assuntos
Absorção Intestinal/fisiologia , Lactulose/isolamento & purificação , Manitol/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Lactulose/urina , Manitol/urina , Permeabilidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
19.
Clin Chim Acta ; 482: 8-13, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574006

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Loss-of-function mutations in cytochrome P450 family 24 subfamily A member 1 (CYP24A1) gene are associated with Idiopathic Infantile Hypercalcemia (IIH) and adult kidney stone disease. The enzyme deficiency leads to an impaired vitamin D catabolism pathway, resulting in a syndrome characterized by recurrent hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and suppressed parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. In these patients, the genetic evaluation of CYP24A1 is an important diagnostic tool, allowing the definitive diagnosis of IIH. METHODS: A rapid CYP24A1 gene testing based on High Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) was designed in order to detect the CYP24A1 c.428_430delAAG (p.Glu143del), a recurrent IIH-associated variant. RESULTS: HRMA method was able to identify c.428_430delAAG genotypes evaluating melting curve shape and melting temperature (Tm). Heterozygous samples exhibited a typical melting profile while homozygous samples showed a specific Tm shift. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence about application of HRMA in unambiguous genotyping of the CYP24A1 c.428_430delAAG variant, making this method useful in clinical molecular diagnostics. This approach opens the way to a helpful molecular analysis of CYP24A1 gene in IIH diagnosis, to an improved pharmacological treatment strategy and to a reduced risk of recurrent stones and worsening nephrocalcinosis.


Assuntos
Hipercalcemia/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipercalciúria , Cálculos Renais , Nefrocalcinose , Temperatura de Transição , Vitamina D/metabolismo
20.
Urolithiasis ; 45(3): 291-294, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27639704

RESUMO

Mutations of the CYP24A1 gene, encoding for the enzyme 25(OH)D-24-hydroxylase, can cause hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. We report the case of a 22-year-old male patient with recurrent nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, hypercalcemia with low parathyroid hormone levels, hypercalciuria and low bone mass. Gene sequencing showed that the patient had compound heterozygous mutations including a novel genotype of the CYP24A1 gene. Genetic CYP24A1 testing and biochemical analyses were offered to other family members; the father was heterozygous for the same novel genotype and was also affected with recurrent nephrolithiasis.


Assuntos
Hipercalcemia/genética , Hipercalciúria/genética , Nefrocalcinose/genética , Nefrolitíase/genética , Osteoporose/genética , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/genética , Adulto , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/sangue , Hipercalcemia/urina , Hipercalciúria/sangue , Hipercalciúria/urina , Rim/metabolismo , Cálculos Renais/química , Masculino , Mutação , Nefrocalcinose/sangue , Nefrocalcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Nefrocalcinose/urina , Nefrolitíase/sangue , Nefrolitíase/diagnóstico por imagem , Nefrolitíase/urina , Osteoporose/sangue , Osteoporose/urina , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Linhagem , Recidiva , Eliminação Renal , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
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