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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(1): 26-30, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990445

RESUMO

COVID-19 vaccines are recommended during pregnancy to prevent severe maternal morbidity and adverse birth outcomes; however, vaccination coverage among pregnant women has been low (1). Concerns among pregnant women regarding vaccine safety are a persistent barrier to vaccine acceptance during pregnancy. Previous studies of maternal COVID-19 vaccination and birth outcomes have been limited by small sample size (2) or lack of an unvaccinated comparison group (3). In this retrospective cohort study of live births from eight Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) health care organizations, risks for preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestation) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) at birth (birthweight <10th percentile for gestational age) after COVID-19 vaccination (receipt of ≥1 COVID-19 vaccine doses) during pregnancy were evaluated. Risks for preterm and SGA at birth among vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant women were compared, accounting for time-dependent vaccine exposures and propensity to be vaccinated. Single-gestation pregnancies with estimated start or last menstrual period during May 17-October 24, 2020, were eligible for inclusion. Among 46,079 pregnant women with live births and gestational age available, 10,064 (21.8%) received ≥1 COVID-19 vaccine doses during pregnancy and during December 15, 2020-July 22, 2021; nearly all (9,892; 98.3%) were vaccinated during the second or third trimester. COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy was not associated with preterm birth (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.82-1.01). Among 40,627 live births with birthweight available, COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy was not associated with SGA at birth (aHR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.87-1.03). Results consistently showed no increased risk when stratified by mRNA COVID-19 vaccine dose, or by second or third trimester vaccination, compared with risk among unvaccinated pregnant women. Because of the small number of first-trimester exposures, aHRs for first-trimester vaccination could not be calculated. These data add to the evidence supporting the safety of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy. To reduce the risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness, CDC recommends COVID-19 vaccination for women who are pregnant, recently pregnant (including those who are lactating), who are trying to become pregnant now, or who might become pregnant in the future (4).

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in transgender and gender diverse (TGD) persons, especially those receiving gender affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) is an area of clinical and research importance. METHODS: We used data from an electronic health record-based cohort study of persons 18 years and older enrolled in three integrated health care systems. The cohort included 2869 transfeminine members matched to 28,300 cisgender women and 28,258 cisgender men on age, race/ethnicity, calendar year, and site, and 2133 transmasculine members matched to 20,997 cisgender women and 20,964 cisgender men. Cohort ascertainment spanned 9 years from 2006 through 2014 and follow up extended through 2016. Data on T2DM incidence and prevalence were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models, respectively. All analyses controlled for body mass index. RESULTS: Both prevalent and incident T2DM was more common in the transfeminine cohort relative to cisgender female referents with odds ratio and hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) estimates of 1.3 (1.1-1.5) and 1.4 (1.1-1.8), respectively. No significant differences in prevalence or incidence of T2DM were observed across the remaining comparison groups, both overall and in TGD persons with evidence of GAHT receipt. CONCLUSION: Although transfeminine people may be at higher risk for T2DM compared to cisgender females the corresponding difference relative to cisgender males is not discernable. Moreover, there is little evidence that T2DM occurrence in either transfeminine or transmasculine persons is attributable to GAHT use.

4.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-5, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510997

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Post-partum depression (PPD) affects up to 19.1% of pregnancies and is associated with increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, inflammation, and reductions in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Previous work by our team suggests that environmental toxins such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) enhance placental inflammation and reduce BDNF production. Nearly, 100% of studied women in California have some level of exposure to these compounds due to extensive use of the flame retardants. High levels of exposure to PBDEs has been linked to increased risk of adverse pregnancy complications associated with placental inflammation such as preterm birth and gestational diabetes but their effects on risk of PPD is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine if PPD is associated with higher levels of PBDE-47, the most common PBDE congener in maternal plasma. METHODS: PBDE-47 was quantified in first trimester plasma samples collected from a cohort of 367 asymptomatic pregnant women that were routinely screened for depressive symptoms for 1 year post-partum. Data were analyzed using general linear models and multivariable logistic regression to determine if higher levels of PBDE-47 in the first trimester are associated with development of PPD. RESULTS: Women who developed PPD (n = 22) had significantly higher PBDE-47 levels in their plasma (p=.031) relative to those in which PPD was not diagnosed. Logistic regression analysis suggested that each two-fold increase in PBDE-47 concentrations increased the risk of PPD by 22% (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.47). Groups were similar regarding PTB rate, race-ethnicity, parity, child's sex, maternal pre-pregnancy obesity status, maternal age, family income, and study center. Results remained significant after adjustment for these possible confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PBDE-47 exposure in the first trimester is associated with increased risk of PPD.

5.
Contraception ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of ectopic pregnancy (EP) associated with prescription contraceptive use. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study of women aged 15 to 44 years at Kaiser Permanente Northern and Southern California during 2010 to 2019. We identified EPs and prescription contraceptive use from diagnosis, procedural, and medication codes, and natural language processing of clinical notes from electronic health records. Contraceptive use categories included combined hormonal contraceptives, intrauterine devices, depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), progestin-only pills (POPs), implants, no method after recent discontinuation of a prescription contraceptive in the last 12 months, and no method after discontinuation of a prescription contraceptive more than 12 months ago or no use of prescription contraceptives during the study period. Contraceptive use was updated as women started, stopped, or changed methods. An EP was attributed to a contraceptive method if it occurred 14 days after starting and up to 42 days after stopping a method. Age-adjusted EP incidence and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated per 10,000 woman-years overall and by contraceptive category. RESULTS: There were 11,436 EPs among 3,204,118 women with 11,909,842 woman-years of follow-up for an overall EP incidence of 9.5 per 10,000 woman-years (95%CI 9.3-9.6). The majority of EPs (9662; 84.5%) occurred during no prescription contraceptive use. EP incidence was lowest during DMPA (1.8 per 10,000 woman-years [95%CI 1.2-2.5]) or implant (2.0 per 10,000 woman-years [95%CI 1.2-3.3]) use, and higher during POP use at 15.2 (95%CI 12.2-19.6); however, incidence was highest after recent discontinuation of a prescription contraceptive (20.6 per 10,000 woman-years [95%CI 19.7-21.4]). CONCLUSIONS: EP incidence is lower with prescription contraceptive use than with nonuse. IMPLICATIONS: All prescription contraceptives, including POPs are protective of EP.

6.
Environ Int ; 158: 106888, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological findings are inconsistent regarding the associations between air pollution exposure during pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Several limitations exist in previous studies, including potential outcome and exposure misclassification, unassessed confounding, and lack of simultaneous consideration of air pollution mixtures and particulate matter (PM) constituents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between GDM and maternal residential exposure to air pollution, and the joint effect of the mixture of air pollutants and PM constituents. METHODS: Detailed clinical data were obtained for 395,927 pregnancies in southern California (2008-2018) from Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) electronic health records. GDM diagnosis was based on KPSC laboratory tests. Monthly average concentrations of fine particulate matter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5), <10 µm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were estimated using kriging interpolation of Environmental Protection Agency's routine monitoring station data, while PM2.5 constituents (i.e., sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic matter and black carbon) were estimated using a fine-resolution geoscience-derived model. A multilevel logistic regression was used to fit single-pollutant models; quantile g-computation approach was applied to estimate the joint effect of air pollution and PM component mixtures. Main analyses adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, median family household income, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking during pregnancy, insurance type, season of conception and year of delivery. RESULTS: The incidence of GDM was 10.9% in the study population. In single-pollutant models, we observed an increased odds for GDM associated with exposures to PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and PM2.5 constituents. The association was strongest for NO2 [adjusted odds ratio (OR) per interquartile range: 1.176, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.147-1.205)]. In multi-pollutant models, increased ORs for GDM in association with one quartile increase in air pollution mixtures were found for both kriging-based regional air pollutants (NO2, PM2.5, and PM10, OR = 1.095, 95% CI: 1.082-1.108) and PM2.5 constituents (i.e., sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic matter and black carbon, OR = 1.258, 95% CI: 1.206-1.314); NO2 (78%) and black carbon (48%) contributed the most to the overall mixture effects among all krigged air pollutants and all PM2.5 constituents, respectively. The risk of GDM associated with air pollution exposure were significantly higher among Hispanic mothers, and overweight/obese mothers. CONCLUSION: This study found that exposure to a mixture of ambient PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and PM2.5 chemical constituents was associated with an increased risk of GDM. NO2 and black carbon PM2.5 contributed most to GDM risk.

7.
Dermatol Surg ; 47(10): 1379-1383, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermatologists have the opportunity to provide medically necessary procedures, including laser hair removal, to transgender patients for gender affirmation. Further research is required to better assess the unique dermatologic needs of this population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of dermatologic procedures among transgender people in the context of gender-affirming treatment. METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined survey responses from 696 transgender persons enrolled in the Study of Transition, Outcomes, and Gender cohort. Prevalence of self-reported dermatologic procedures was examined and compared across participant subgroups. RESULTS: Electrolysis was the most commonly reported procedure (32.9%). Transfeminine patients were more likely to use dermatologic procedures compared with transmasculine patients. Only 19 participants (2.8%) reported the use of dermal filler injections. CONCLUSION: Differences in utilization of dermatologic procedures were noted in transgender populations. Motivations, barriers, and optimal timing for gender-affirming dermatologic procedures among transgender persons should be examined in future studies.

8.
J Sex Med ; 18(9): 1662-1675, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of gender affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) on clinical laboratory parameters, including levels of liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), is an area of uncertainty in transgender health. AIM: We sought to estimate the distribution parameters of liver enzyme levels among transmasculine (TM) and transfeminine (TF) persons receiving GAHT relative to the corresponding measures in cisgender reference groups, and to evaluate longitudinal changes in these laboratory measures following GAHT initiation. METHODS: The data for this longitudinal study included 624 TF and 438 transmasculine (TM) people as well as 4,090 cisgender males and 4,797 cisgender females enrolled in 3 integrated health systems. Time under observation was divided into 2 intervals: from the first blood test to the date of the first filled GAHT prescription and from GAHT initiation to the most recent ALT or AST measurement. Linear mixed models were used to compare changes in log-transformed ALT and AST values among transgender cohort members before and after GAHT initiation, and relative to the reference groups. The results were expressed as relative differences (in %) and the ratios of these differences (ratios-of-ratios) along with the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). OUTCOMES: Changes in ALT and AST levels among transgender people over time and relative to the corresponding changes in cisgender referents. RESULTS: Among TM study participants, the post GAHT ratios-of-ratios for AST were 1.61 (95% CI: 1.13, 2.31) and 1.57 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.31) relative to cisgender males and females respectively. For ALT, the corresponding comparisons yielded the ratios-of-ratios (95% CIs) of 2.06 (1.67, 2.54) and 1.90 (1.50, 2.40). No statistically significant changes were observed among TF participants. Other factors associated with higher liver enzyme levels included alcohol use/abuse and obesity. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: TM persons may experience modest increases in ALT and AST concentrations following testosterone initiation; however, clinical significance of the observed association remains unclear and requires further investigation. By contrast, feminizing GAHT is unlikely to induce appreciable changes in liver enzyme levels. STRENGTH AND LIMITATIONS: The strengths of this study are the longitudinal design and the ability to assemble an unselected cohort nested within large health systems. The main limitations include the lack of information on hormone levels and the inability to take into account GAHT doses and routes of administration. CONCLUSION: The influence of long-term GAHT on ALT and AST levels appears modest and not likely to reflect clinically meaningful changes in liver function. Hashemi L, Zhang Q, Getahun D, et al. Longitudinal Changes in Liver Enzyme Levels Among Transgender People Receiving Gender Affirming Hormone Therapy. J Sex Med 2021;18:1662-1675.


Assuntos
Pessoas Transgênero , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Fígado , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testosterona/uso terapêutico
9.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is a widely used treatment option for obesity that often provides long-term weight control and health benefits. Although a growing number of women are becoming pregnant after bariatric surgery, only a few population-based studies have assessed the impact thereof on perinatal outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between bariatric surgery and adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnant women and to examine whether the risk for adverse perinatal outcomes is modified by the postsurgery weight, gestational weight gain, type of bariatric surgery, timing of pregnancy after bariatric surgery, and maternal comorbidities. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was performed with the use of the Bariatric Surgery Registry and hospital inpatient and outpatient physician encounter records. The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth and Tenth Revision codes from hospitalizations during pregnancy and infant birth records were used to ascertain the outcomes of interest. Women eligible for BS who delivered at ≥20 weeks of gestation (n=20,213) at Kaiser Permanente Southern California hospitals (January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2018) were included in the study. Adjusted odds ratios were derived from logistic regression models with inverse probability of treatment weighting to adjust for confounding using propensity scores. RESULTS: Bariatric surgery was associated with a reduction in the risks for gestational diabetes (adjusted odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.69; P<.001), preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.61; P<.001), chorioamnionitis (adjusted odds ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.63; P<.001), cesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-0.72; P<.001), large for gestational age neonate (adjusted odds ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.29; P<.001), macrosomia (adjusted odds ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.30; P<.001), and neonatal intensive care unit admission (adjusted odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.81; P<.001). However, bariatric surgery was also associated with a significantly increased risk for small for gestational age neonates (adjusted odds ratio, 2.46; 95% confidence interval, 2.16-2.79; P<.001). The risk for the adverse outcomes is independent of the time interval between the surgery and subsequent pregnancy. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that there are many pregnancy outcome benefits for women with severe obesity who undergo bariatric surgery; however, women who have undergone bariatric surgery before pregnancy should be monitored closely to reduce the risk for small for gestational age neonates and postpartum hemorrhage.

10.
Obstet Gynecol ; 138(1): 42-50, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate maternal and fetal outcomes among women with a single elevated blood pressure before 20 weeks of gestation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women who delivered at Kaiser Permanente Southern California hospitals between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2019. Participants were divided into two groups: normotensive (all systolic blood pressures lower than 130 mm Hg and diastolic pressures lower than 80 mm Hg) compared with single elevated blood pressure (single systolic pressure 130 mm Hg or higher, diastolic pressure 80 mm Hg or higher, or both). Women with chronic hypertension were excluded. Maternal comorbidities and maternal and neonatal outcomes were extracted from electronic health records using International Classification of Diseases codes. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) derived from logistic regression were used to describe the magnitude of association. RESULTS: Of 303,689 women who delivered during the study period, 23% had a single elevated blood pressure. Rates of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy differed between the two groups (10.6% for single elevated blood pressure, 4.5% for normotensive group; aOR 2.06, 95% CI 2.00-2.13), as did iatrogenic preterm delivery (3.7% vs 2.7%, respectively; aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.21-1.33). DISCUSSION: Women with a single elevated blood pressure before 20 weeks of gestation are at increased risk for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and iatrogenic preterm delivery.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Am J Perinatol ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to examine the association between neonatal sepsis and autism risk among children and whether the risk varied with the timing of exposure, child's sex, and race/ethnicity. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records (EHR) extracted from Kaiser Permanente Southern California Health Care System. Mother-child dyads were constructed by linking records of children born to member mothers and continuing to receive care through the system during the follow-up period with those of their biological mothers (n = 469,789). Clinical health records were used to define neonatal sepsis. Diagnosis of autism was made by medical specialists. Potential confounders included maternal sociodemographic factors, obstetrical history, child's age, sex, race/ethnicity, and maternal and child medical history. Incident rates and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were used to estimate the associations. RESULTS: Compared with children without the diagnosis of autism, children with the condition were more likely to be from Asian/Pacific Islander descent and male sex. Exposed children showed higher rates of autism as compared with unexposed children (3.43 vs. 1.73 per 1,000 person-years, aHR: 1.67-95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39-2.00). Both preterm (aHR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.09-1.98) and term (aHR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.29-2.06) births were associated with increased risk for autism. Although the magnitude of the HRs and incidence ratios for neonatal sepsis to increase autism risk varied between race ethnicities, neonatal sepsis was associated with significantly increased likelihood of autism diagnosis for all race-ethic groups except for Asian/Pacific Islanders. Although neonatal sepsis was associated with significantly increased autism risk for both boys and girls, incident rates and HR point estimates suggested that the effect may be stronger in girls. CONCLUSION: Neonatal sepsis is associated with increased risk of autism diagnosis in preterm- and term-born children. The association was significant for both girls and boys and all race ethnicities except for Asian-Pacific Islanders. KEY POINTS: · Neonatal sepsis is associated with increased risk of autism diagnosis.. · The association was significant in preterm- and term-born children.. · The association was significant for all race/ethnicities except for Asian-Pacific Islanders..

12.
Ther Adv Drug Saf ; 12: 20420986211021233, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178302

RESUMO

Background: Identifying pregnancy episodes and accurately estimating their beginning and end dates are imperative for observational maternal vaccine safety studies using electronic health record (EHR) data. Methods: We modified the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) Pregnancy Episode Algorithm (PEA) to include both the International Classification of Disease, ninth revision (ICD-9 system) and ICD-10 diagnosis codes, incorporated additional gestational age data, and validated this enhanced algorithm with manual medical record review. We also developed the new Dynamic Pregnancy Algorithm (DPA) to identify pregnancy episodes in real time. Results: Around 75% of the pregnancy episodes identified by the enhanced VSD PEA were live births, 12% were spontaneous abortions (SABs), 10% were induced abortions (IABs), and 0.4% were stillbirths (SBs). Gestational age was identified for 99% of live births, 89% of SBs, 69% of SABs, and 42% of IABs. Agreement between the PEA-assigned and abstractor-identified pregnancy outcome and outcome date was 100% for live births, but was lower for pregnancy losses. When gestational age was available in the medical record, the agreement was higher for live births (97%), but lower for pregnancy losses (75%). The DPA demonstrated strong concordance with the PEA and identified pregnancy episodes ⩾6 months prior to the outcome date for 89% of live births. Conclusion: The enhanced VSD PEA is a useful tool for identifying pregnancy episodes in EHR databases. The DPA improves the timeliness of pregnancy identification and can be used for near real-time maternal vaccine safety studies. Plain Language Summary: Improving identification of pregnancies in the Vaccine Safety Datalink electronic medical record databases to allow for better and faster monitoring of vaccination safety during pregnancy Introduction: It is important to monitor of the safety of vaccines after they have been approved and licensed by the Food and Drug Administration, especially among women vaccinated during pregnancy. The Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) monitors vaccine safety through observational studies within large databases of electronic medical records. Since 2012, VSD researchers have used an algorithm called the Pregnancy Episode Algorithm (PEA) to identify the medical records of women who have been pregnant. Researchers then use these medical records to study whether receiving a particular vaccine is linked to any negative outcomes for the woman or her child.Methods: The goal of this study was to update and enhance the PEA to include the full set of medical record diagnostic codes [both from the older International Classification of Disease, ninth revision (ICD-9 system) and the newer ICD-10 system] and to incorporate additional sources of data about gestational age. To ensure the validity of the PEA following these enhancements, we manually reviewed medical records and compared the results with the algorithm. We also developed a new algorithm, the Dynamic Pregnancy Algorithm (DPA), to identify women earlier in pregnancy, allowing us to conduct more timely vaccine safety assessments.Results: The new version of the PEA identified 2,485,410 pregnancies in the VSD database. The enhanced algorithm more precisely estimated the beginning of pregnancies, especially those that did not result in live births, due to the new sources of gestational age data.Conclusion: Our new algorithm, the DPA, was successful at identifying pregnancies earlier in gestation than the PEA. The enhanced PEA and the new DPA will allow us to better evaluate the safety of current and future vaccinations administered during or around the time of pregnancy.

13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(24): 895-899, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138834

RESUMO

COVID-19 vaccines are critical for ending the COVID-19 pandemic; however, current data about vaccination coverage and safety in pregnant women are limited. Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe illness and death from COVID-19 compared with nonpregnant women of reproductive age, and are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth (1-4). Pregnant women are eligible for and can receive any of the three COVID-19 vaccines available in the United States via Emergency Use Authorization.* Data from Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD), a collaboration between CDC and multiple integrated health systems, were analyzed to assess receipt of ≥1 dose (first or second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines or a single dose of the Janssen [Johnson & Johnson] vaccine) of any COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy, receipt of first dose of a 2-dose COVID-19 vaccine (initiation), or completion of a 1- or 2-dose COVID-19 vaccination series. During December 14, 2020-May 8, 2021, a total of 135,968 pregnant women were identified, 22,197 (16.3%) of whom had received ≥1 dose of a vaccine during pregnancy. Among these 135,968 women, 7,154 (5.3%) had initiated and 15,043 (11.1%) had completed vaccination during pregnancy. Receipt of ≥1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy was highest among women aged 35-49 years (22.7%) and lowest among those aged 18-24 years (5.5%), and higher among non-Hispanic Asian (Asian) (24.7%) and non-Hispanic White (White) women (19.7%) than among Hispanic (11.9%) and non-Hispanic Black (Black) women (6.0%). Vaccination coverage increased among all racial and ethnic groups over the analytic period, likely because of increased eligibility for vaccination† and increased availability of vaccine over time. These findings indicate the need for improved outreach to and engagement with pregnant women, especially those from racial and ethnic minority groups who might be at higher risk for severe health outcomes because of COVID-19 (4). In addition, providing accurate and timely information about COVID-19 vaccination to health care providers, pregnant women, and women of reproductive age can improve vaccine confidence and coverage by ensuring optimal shared clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Gestantes , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Gestantes/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pediatrics ; 148(1)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The progression of gender-expansive behavior to gender dysphoria and to gender-affirming hormonal treatment (GAHT) in children and adolescents is poorly understood. METHODS: A cohort of 958 gender-diverse (GD) children and adolescents who did not have a gender dysphoria-related diagnosis (GDRD) or GAHT at index were identified. Rates of first GDRD and first GAHT prescription were compared across demographic groups. RESULTS: Overall, 29% of participants received a GDRD and 25% were prescribed GAHT during the average follow-up of 3.5 years (maximum 9 years). Compared with youth assigned male sex at birth, those assigned female sex at birth were more likely to receive a diagnosis and initiate GAHT with hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) estimates of 1.3 (1.0-1.7), and 2.5 (1.8-3.3), respectively. A progression to diagnosis was more common among those aged ≥15 years at initial presentation compared with those aged 10 to 14 years and those aged 3 to 9 years (37% vs 28% vs 16%, respectively). By using the youngest group as a reference, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for a GDRD were 2.0 (1.3-3.0) for age 10 to 14 years and 2.7 (1.8-3.9) for age ≥15 years. Racial and ethnic minorities were less likely to receive a diagnosis or be prescribed GAHT. CONCLUSIONS: This study characterized the progression of GD behavior in children and adolescents. Less than one-third of GD youth receive an eventual GDRD, and approximately one-quarter receive GAHT. Female sex at birth, older age of initial GD presentation to medical care, and non-Hispanic white race and ethnicity increased the likelihood of receiving diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Disforia de Gênero/diagnóstico , Disforia de Gênero/terapia , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Criança , Feminino , Disforia de Gênero/etnologia , Hormônios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Puberdade , Fatores Raciais , Procedimentos de Readequação Sexual
15.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 106(6): 649-656, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the difference in rate of weight gain from birth to 5 years based on exposure to maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of 13 804 infants. SETTING: Two perinatal centres and a primary paediatric care network in Philadelphia. PARTICIPANTS: Term infants born 2007-2012, followed longitudinally from birth to 5 years of age. EXPOSURES: GBS IAP defined as penicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, clindamycin or vancomycin administered ≥4 hours prior to delivery to the mother. Reference infants were defined as born to mothers without (vaginal delivery) or with other (caesarean delivery) intrapartum antibiotic exposure. OUTCOMES: Difference in rate of weight change from birth to 5 years was assessed using longitudinal rate regression. Analysis was a priori stratified by delivery mode and adjusted for relevant covariates. RESULTS: GBS IAP was administered to mothers of 2444/13 804 (17.7%) children. GBS IAP-exposed children had a significantly elevated rate of weight gain in the first 5 years among vaginally-born (adjusted rate difference 1.44% (95% CI 0.3% to 2.6%)) and caesarean-born (3.52% (95% CI 1.9% to 5.2%)) children. At 5 years, the rate differences equated to an additional 0.24 kg among vaginally-born children and 0.60 kg among caesarean-born children. CONCLUSION: GBS-specific IAP was associated with a modest increase in rate of early childhood weight gain. GBS IAP is an effective intervention to prevent perinatal GBS disease-associated morbidity and mortality. However, these findings highlight the need to better understand effects of intrapartum antibiotic exposure on childhood growth and support efforts to develop alternate prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Parto Obstétrico , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Obesidade Pediátrica , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/classificação , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/microbiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Endocr Pract ; 27(5): 390-395, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine temporal changes in the number and demographic composition of transgender/gender non-binary (TGNB) population using data from integrated health care systems. METHODS: Electronic health records from Kaiser Permanente health plans in Georgia and Northern and Southern California were used to identify TGNB individuals, who sought care from January 2006 to December 2014, and the data were analyzed by year, site, age, and sex assigned at birth. RESULTS: In 2006, the number of TGNB people (and corresponding 95% CI) per 100 000 population were 3.5 (1.9, 6.3) in Georgia, 5.5 (4.8, 6.4) in Southern California, and 17 (16, 19) in Northern California. In 2014, these frequencies increased to 38 (32, 45), 44 (42, 46), and 75 (72, 78) per 100 000 population, respectively. When analyzed by age, the most rapid increase was observed among persons 18 to 25 years old, and this increase accelerated after 2010. The ratio of transmasculine to transfeminine persons also changed from 1:1.7 in 2006 to 1:1 in 2014 overall and from 1:1 in 2006 to 1.8:1 in 2014 among persons <18 years of age. CONCLUSION: This analysis confirms previous observations that the proportion of TGNB people is growing, especially among young adults. The composition of the TGNB population is also changing from predominantly transfeminine to roughly 1:1 overall and to predominantly transmasculine in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Pessoas Transgênero , Transexualidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Demografia , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e213808, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787907

RESUMO

Importance: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. The impact of applying recent guideline definitions for nonpregnant adults to pregnant women is unclear. Objective: To determine whether reclassification of hypertensive status using the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline definition better identifies women at risk for preeclampsia or eclampsia and adverse fetal/neonatal events compared with the current American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) definition of hypertension. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used electronic medical record data of women who delivered singleton infants between 2009 and 2014 at a large US regional health system. Data analysis was performed from July 2020 to September 2020. Exposure: Application of ACC/AHA and ACOG guidelines for the definition of chronic and gestational hypertension. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary maternal end point was the development of preeclampsia or eclampsia, and the primary fetal/neonatal end point was a composite of preterm birth, small for gestational age, and neonatal intensive care unit admission within 28 days of delivery. Net reclassification indices were calculated to examine how well the lower ACC/AHA diagnostic threshold reclassifies outcomes of pregnancy compared with the current ACOG definition of hypertension. Results: Applying the ACC/AHA criteria to 137 389 pregnancies of women (mean [SD] age at time of delivery, 30.1 [5.8] years) resulted in a 14.3% prevalence of chronic hypertension (19 621 pregnancies) and a 13.8% prevalence of gestational hypertension (18 998 pregnancies). A 17.8% absolute increase was found in the overall prevalence of hypertension from 10.3% to 28.1%. The 2.1% of women who were reclassified with chronic rather than gestational hypertension had the highest risk of developing preeclampsia compared with women without hypertension by either criterion (adjusted risk ratio, 13.58; 95% CI, 12.49-14.77). Overall, the use of the ACC/AHA criteria to diagnose hypertension resulted in a 20.8% improvement in the appropriate identification of future preeclampsia, but only a 3.8% improvement of appropriate fetal/neonatal risk classification. Conclusions and Relevance: Using the lower diagnostic threshold for hypertension recommended in the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline increased the prevalence of chronic and gestational hypertension, markedly improved the appropriate identification of women who would go on to develop preeclampsia, and was associated with the identification of adverse fetal/neonatal risk.


Assuntos
American Heart Association , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Cardiologia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(5): 857-866, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, >45,000 adolescent and young adult (AYA) women are diagnosed with cancer annually. Reproductive issues are critically important to AYA cancer survivors, but insufficient information is available to address their concerns. The AYA Horizon Study was initiated to contribute high-quality, contemporary evidence on reproductive outcomes for female cancer survivors in the United States. METHODS: The study cohort includes women diagnosed with lymphoma, breast, melanoma, thyroid, or gynecologic cancer (the five most common cancers among women ages 15-39 years) at three study sites: the state of North Carolina and the Kaiser Permanente health systems in Northern and Southern California. Detailed information on cancer treatment, fertility procedures, and pregnancy (e.g., miscarriage, live birth) and birth (e.g., birth weight, gestational length) outcomes are leveraged from state cancer registries, health system databases and administrative insurance claims, national data on assisted reproductive technology procedures, vital records, and survey data. RESULTS: We identified a cohort of 11,072 female AYA cancer survivors that includes >1,200 African American women, >1,400 Asian women, >1,600 Medicaid enrollees, and >2,500 Hispanic women using existing data sources. Active response to the survey component was low overall (N = 1,679), and notably lower among minority groups compared with non-Hispanic white women. CONCLUSIONS: Passive data collection through linkage reduces participant burden and prevents systematic cohort attrition or potential selection biases that can occur with active participation requirements. IMPACT: The AYA Horizon study will inform survivorship planning as fertility and parenthood gain increasing recognition as key aspects of high-quality cancer care.

19.
J Perinat Med ; 49(4): 439-447, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nearly 100% of North American women have detectable levels of flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in their plasma. These molecules have structural homology to thyroid hormones and may function as endocrine disruptors. Thyroid dysfunction has previously been associated with increased risk for preterm birth. Therefore, we conducted a multi-center, case-cohort study to evaluate if high plasma concentrations of a common PBDE congener in the first trimester increases the risk of preterm birth and its subtypes. METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited at the onset of initiation of prenatal care at Kaiser-Permanente Southern California (KPSC)-West Los Angeles and KPSC-San Diego medical centers. Plasma samples from women whose pregnancies ended preterm and random subset of those delivering at term were assayed for PBDE-47 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by immunoassay. Quartile cutoffs were calculated for the patients at term and used to determine if women with exposures in the 4th quartile are at increased risk for preterm birth using logistic regression. RESULTS: We found that high concentrations of PBDE-47 in the first trimester significantly increased the odds of both indicated (adjusted odds ratio, adjOR=2.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31, 4.21) and spontaneous (adjOR=1.76, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.03) preterm birth. Regardless of pregnancy outcome, TSH concentrations did not differ between women with high and low concentrations of PBDE-47. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that high plasma concentrations of PBDE-47 in the first trimester, increases the risk of indicated and spontaneous preterm birth.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Nascimento Prematuro , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide , Tireotropina/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/sangue , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/efeitos adversos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/efeitos adversos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/induzido quimicamente , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 224(6): 599.e1-599.e18, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrauterine devices are effective and safe, long-acting reversible contraceptives, but the risk of uterine perforation occurs with an estimated incidence of 1 to 2 per 1000 insertions. The European Active Surveillance Study for Intrauterine Devices, a European prospective observational study that enrolled 61,448 participants (2006-2012), found that women breastfeeding at the time of device insertion or with the device inserted at ≤36 weeks after delivery had a higher risk of uterine perforation. The Association of Uterine Perforation and Expulsion of Intrauterine Device (APEX-IUD) study was a Food and Drug Administration-mandated study designed to reflect current United States clinical practice. The aims of the APEX-IUD study were to evaluate the risk of intrauterine device-related uterine perforation and device expulsion among women who were breastfeeding or within 12 months after delivery at insertion. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the APEX-IUD study design, methodology, and analytical plan and present population characteristics, size of risk factor groups, and duration of follow-up. STUDY DESIGN: APEX-IUD study was a retrospective cohort study conducted in 4 organizations with access to electronic health records: Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Kaiser Permanente Washington, and Regenstrief Institute in Indiana. Variables were identified through structured data (eg, diagnostic, procedural, medication codes) and unstructured data (eg, clinical notes) via natural language processing. Outcomes include uterine perforation and device expulsion; potential risk factors were breastfeeding at insertion, postpartum timing of insertion, device type, and menorrhagia diagnosis in the year before insertion. Covariates include demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, and procedure-related variables, such as difficult insertion. The first potential date of inclusion for eligible women varies by research site (from January 1, 2001 to January 1, 2010). Follow-up begins at insertion and ends at first occurrence of an outcome of interest, a censoring event (device removal or reinsertion, pregnancy, hysterectomy, sterilization, device expiration, death, disenrollment, last clinical encounter), or end of the study period (June 30, 2018). Comparisons of levels of exposure variables were made using Cox regression models with confounding adjusted by propensity score weighting using overlap weights. RESULTS: The study population includes 326,658 women with at least 1 device insertion during the study period (Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 161,442; Kaiser Permanente Southern California, 123,214; Kaiser Permanente Washington, 20,526; Regenstrief Institute, 21,476). The median duration of continuous enrollment was 90 (site medians 74-177) months. The mean age was 32 years, and the population was racially and ethnically diverse across the 4 sites. The mean body mass index was 28.5 kg/m2, and of the women included in the study, 10.0% had menorrhagia ≤12 months before insertion, 5.3% had uterine fibroids, and 10% were recent smokers; furthermore, among these women, 79.4% had levonorgestrel-releasing devices, and 19.5% had copper devices. Across sites, 97,824 women had an intrauterine device insertion at ≤52 weeks after delivery, of which 94,817 women (97%) had breastfeeding status at insertion determined; in addition, 228,834 women had intrauterine device insertion at >52 weeks after delivery or no evidence of a delivery in their health record. CONCLUSION: Combining retrospective data from multiple sites allowed for a large and diverse study population. Collaboration with clinicians in the study design and validation of outcomes ensured that the APEX-IUD study results reflect current United States clinical practice. Results from this study will provide valuable information based on real-world evidence about risk factors for intrauterine devices perforation and expulsion for clinicians.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Dispositivos Intrauterinos/efeitos adversos , Período Pós-Parto , Perfuração Uterina/etiologia , Adulto , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Expulsão de Dispositivo Intrauterino , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Perfuração Uterina/epidemiologia
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