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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the feasibility and clinical result of selective embolization of hepatoduodenal or paratracheal lymphatics in Fontan patients with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) or plastic bronchitis (PB). METHODS: Dilated lymph vessels in periportal (PLE) or paratracheal (PB) position were percutaneously punctured with a 22G Chiba needle. Intralymphatic position was confirmed by water soluble contrast injection with drainage to hepatoduodenal or tracheal fistulae. After flushing with 10% glucose solution, occlusion of hepatoduodenal or paratreacheal lymphatics was effected by injection of 1-4 cc mixture 4/1 of Lipiodol/n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA; Histoacryl). RESULTS: Seven patients with proven PLE were treated with periportal lymphatic embolization 10.7 (range: 6.6-13.5) years after the Fontan operation. The Fontan operation was performed at a median age of 3.7 (range: 2.9-5.7) years and PLE started a median of 3.1 (range: 0.9-4.7) years later. Five patients required a second procedure 2-8 months later. Complications were limited (spillage of glue in portal branch, transient cholangitis, and caustic duodenal bleeding). Six of seven patients reported significant improvement in quality of life and normalization of albumin levels after limited follow-up (p < .01). One patient (Fontan at 2.9 years; age 16.4 years) had PB for 2 years. Selective transthoracic cone-beam-directed puncture of left and right paratracheal lymphatics with n-BCA embolization of distal lymphatic fistulae resulted in lasting absence of tracheal casts (11 months). CONCLUSIONS: Embolization of periportal/peritracheal lymphatics is a promising technique in Fontan patients with PLE/PB. Larger series are required to determine incidence and reasons of success/failure, with long-term results and effects on liver function.

2.
Lung ; 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473795
3.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 94(5): 722-726, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Suprasystemic pressure waves can damage the coronary arteries resulting in myocardial ischemia and excess early mortality. We aimed to reduce the coronary pressure wave through the sinusoids by abolishing RV volume with percutaneous devices. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four patients with PA-IVS and coronary sinusoids from the hypertensive rudimentary RV were evaluated at a median age 26.6 months (range: 2.7-51.7). Right ventricle coronary dependent flow to the left ventricular myocardium was excluded. All four patients had dual perfusion with competitive flow from the RV through the sinusoids to the coronary arteries. Devices used were: Amplatzer vascular plug II of 10-16 mm; 27 coils (diameter 5-15 mm) in the oldest patient. Right ventricular angiography after cavity obliteration showed no more significant coronary perfusion through the sinusoids. There were no complications or deaths. Only minor and transient changes in the levels of troponin were observed. Coronary angiography at pre-Fontan evaluation showed no progress of coronary abnormalities in two patients. CONCLUSION: In selected patients with functionally single left ventricle, obliteration of the hypertensive RV cavity by percutaneous devices is safe and abolishes the systolic pressure wave in coronary sinusoids. When performed early, this may halt coronary damage and avoid excess mortality.

4.
Circulation ; : CIR0000000000000696, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256636

RESUMO

It has been 50 years since Francis Fontan pioneered the operation that today bears his name. Initially designed for patients with tricuspid atresia, this procedure is now offered for a vast array of congenital cardiac lesions when a circulation with 2 ventricles cannot be achieved. As a result of technical advances and improvements in patient selection and perioperative management, survival has steadily increased, and it is estimated that patients operated on today may hope for a 30-year survival of >80%. Up to 70 000 patients may be alive worldwide today with Fontan circulation, and this population is expected to double in the next 20 years. In the absence of a subpulmonary ventricle, Fontan circulation is characterized by chronically elevated systemic venous pressures and decreased cardiac output. The addition of this acquired abnormal circulation to innate abnormalities associated with single-ventricle congenital heart disease exposes these patients to a variety of complications. Circulatory failure, ventricular dysfunction, atrioventricular valve regurgitation, arrhythmia, protein-losing enteropathy, and plastic bronchitis are potential complications of the Fontan circulation. Abnormalities in body composition, bone structure, and growth have been detected. Liver fibrosis and renal dysfunction are common and may progress over time. Cognitive, neuropsychological, and behavioral deficits are highly prevalent. As a testimony to the success of the current strategy of care, the proportion of adults with Fontan circulation is increasing. Healthcare providers are ill-prepared to tackle these challenges, as well as specific needs such as contraception and pregnancy in female patients. The role of therapies such as cardiovascular drugs to prevent and treat complications, heart transplantation, and mechanical circulatory support remains undetermined. There is a clear need for consensus on how best to follow up patients with Fontan circulation and to treat their complications. This American Heart Association statement summarizes the current state of knowledge on the Fontan circulation and its consequences. A proposed surveillance testing toolkit provides recommendations for a range of acceptable approaches to follow-up care for the patient with Fontan circulation. Gaps in knowledge and areas for future focus of investigation are highlighted, with the objective of laying the groundwork for creating a normal quality and duration of life for these unique individuals.

5.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(7): 907-913, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease severity and functional indices are widely used for risk stratification of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). The predictive value of these classification systems for assessing long-term mortality is unknown. We aimed to determine and compare the predictive value of disease severity and functional indices for 15-year mortality in adults with CHD. METHODS: Between 2000 and 2002, we categorized 629 patients with CHD (median age, 24 years; 60% were men) on 5 indices: disease complexity scores based on criteria of Task Force 1 of the 32nd Bethesda Conference; Disease Severity Index; New York Heart Association functional class; Ability Index; and Congenital Heart Disease Functional Index (CHDFI). Harrell's concordance statistics index (C-index) was calculated for each classification system through Cox hazard regression analysis to evaluate their performance on predicting all-cause and cardiac mortality over the subsequent 15 years. RESULTS: Over the 15-year follow-up period, 40 patients died, resulting in a mortality rate of 4.56 per 1000 person-years. The CHDFI showed the highest discrimination ability for all-cause mortality (C-index = 0.74; P < 0.001) and cardiac mortality (C-index = 0.76; P < 0.001). The C-index for the other classifications ranged from 0.58 to 0.71 for all-cause mortality and 0.55 to 0.67 for cardiac mortality. The CHDFI showed statistical superiority toward the Disease Severity Index (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the Task Force 1 of the 32nd Bethesda Conference, New York Heart Association functional class, Ability Index, and CHDFI could aid in predicting long-term mortality. The CHDFI demonstrated the highest discrimination ability and emphasizes the importance to integrate both anatomic and physiological variables to predict long-term mortality.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(9): e012008, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041880

RESUMO

Background Patients with a Fontan circulation achieve lower peak heart rates ( HR ) during exercise. Whether this impaired chronotropic response reflects pathology of the sinoatrial node or is a consequence of altered cardiac hemodynamics is uncertain. We evaluated the adequacy of HR acceleration throughout exercise relative to metabolic demand and cardiac output in patients with a Fontan circulation relative to healthy controls. Methods and Results Thirty subjects (20 healthy controls and 10 Fontan patients) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with simultaneous invasive pressure recording via a pulmonary and radial artery catheter during supine bicycle exercise to near maximal exertion. Adequacy of cardiac index, stroke volume, and HR reserve was assessed by determining the exercise-induced increase (∆) in cardiac index, stroke volume, and HR relative to the increase in oxygen consumption ( VO 2). HR reserve was lower in Fontan patients compared with controls (71±21 versus 92±15 bpm; P=0.001). In contrast, increases in HR relative to workload and VO 2 were higher than in controls. The change in cardiac index relative to the change in VO 2 (∆cardiac index/∆ VO 2) was similar between groups, but Fontan patients had increased ∆ HR /∆ VO 2 and reduced ∆ stroke volume/∆ VO 2 compared with controls. There was an early and marked reduction in stroke volume during exercise in Fontan patients corresponding with a plateau in cardiac output at a low peak HR . Conclusions In Fontan patients, the chronotropic response is appropriate relative to exercise intensity, implying normal sinoatrial function. However, premature reductions in ventricular filling and stroke volume cause an early plateau in cardiac output beyond which further increases in HR would be physiologically implausible. Thus, abnormal cardiac filling rather than sinoatrial node dysfunction explains the diminished HR reserve in Fontan patients.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 40(27): 2255-2264, 2019 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005985

RESUMO

AIMS: The post-approval MELODY Registry aimed to obtain multicentre registry data after transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation (TPVI) with the Melody™ valve (Medtronic plc.) in a large-scale cohort of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective analysis of multicentre registry data after TPVI with the Melody™ valve. Eight hundred and forty-five patients (mean age: 21.0 ± 11.1 years) underwent TPVI in 42 centres between December 2006 and September 2013 and were followed-up for a median of 5.9 years (range: 0-11.0 years). The composite endpoint of TPVI-related events during follow-up (i.e. death, reoperation, or reintervention >48 h after TPVI) showed an incidence rate of 4.2% per person per year [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.7-4.9]. Transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation infective endocarditis (I.E.) showed an incidence rate of 2.3% per person per year (95% CI 1.9-2.8) and resulted in significant morbidity and in nine deaths. In multivariable Cox proportional hazard models, the invasively measured residual right ventricle (RV)-to-pulmonary artery (PA) pressure gradient (per 5 mmHg) was associated with the risk of the composite endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.21, 95% CI 1.12-1.30; P < 0.0001) and the risk of TPVI I.E. (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.32; P = 0.002). Major procedural complications (death, surgical, or interventional treatment requirement) occurred in 0.5%, 1.2%, and 2.0%, respectively. Acutely, the RV-to-PA pressure gradient and the percentage of patients with pulmonary regurgitation grade >2 improved significantly from 36 [interquartile range (IQR) 24-47] to 12 (IQR 7-17) mmHg and 47 to 1%, respectively (P < 0.001 for each). CONCLUSION: The post-approval MELODY Registry confirms the efficacy of TPVI with the Melody™ valve in a large-scale cohort of CHD patients. The residual invasively measured RV-to-PA pressure gradient may serve as a target for further improvement in the composite endpoint and TPVI I.E. However, TPVI I.E. remains a significant concern causing significant morbidity and mortality.

9.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 29(1): 15-21, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients with a single ventricle survive thanks to the Fontan palliation. Nevertheless, there is a growing number of Fontan patients with progressive heart failure. To validate therapeutic options in these patients, we developed a chronic Fontan large animal model. METHODS: A Fontan circulation was surgically created in 15 sheep. The superior vena cava was anastomosed end-to-side to the pulmonary artery. The inferior vena cava was connected to the pulmonary artery by an ePTFE conduit, and the inferior vena cava-right atrium junction was ligated. RESULTS: Total cavopulmonary connection was successfully performed in all 15 animals. After creation of the Fontan circulation, central venous pressure increased from 4 [interquartile range (IQR) 3-6] mmHg to 16 (IQR 14-17) mmHg, mean arterial blood pressure decreased from 68 (IQR 54-75) mmHg to 52 (IQR 50-61) mmHg and cardiac output decreased from 5.1 (IQR 4.6-6.8) l/min to 1.7 (IQR 1.3-2.7) l/min. Five animals were electively sacrificed after a follow-up period of 21 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that it is feasible to create a chronic animal model with unsupported Fontan circulation. This animal model not only opens perspectives to investigate the pathophysiology of the failing Fontan circulation, but also provides the possibility to study therapeutic options such as the effect of mechanical circulatory support in the failing Fontan physiology.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(2): 148-157, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic and pulmonary valves have been used to treat stenosis or regurgitation after prior surgical tricuspid valve (TV) replacement or repair. Little is known about intermediate-term valve-related outcomes after transcatheter tricuspid valve replacement (TTVR), including valve function, thrombus, and endocarditis. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to evaluate mid-term outcomes in a large cohort of patients who underwent TTVR after surgical TV repair or replacement, with a focus on valve-related outcomes. METHODS: Patients who underwent TTVR after prior surgical TV replacement or repair were collected through an international registry. Time-related outcomes were modeled and risk factors assessed. RESULTS: Data were collected for 306 patients who underwent TTVR from 2008 through 2017 at 80 centers; 52 patients (17%) had a prior history of endocarditis. Patients were followed for a median of 15.9 months after implantation (0.1 to 90 months), with 64% of patients estimated to be alive without TV reintervention or a valve-related event at 3 years. The cumulative 3-year incidence of death, reintervention, and valve-related adverse outcomes (endocarditis, thrombosis, or significant dysfunction) were 17%, 12%, and 8%, respectively. Endocarditis was diagnosed in 8 patients 2 to 29 months after TTVR, for an annualized incidence rate of 1.5% per patient-year (95% confidence interval: 0.45% to 2.5%). An additional 8 patients were diagnosed with clinically relevant valve thrombosis, 3 in the short term, 2 within 2 months, and 3 beyond 6 months. Only 2 of these 8 patients received anticoagulant therapy before thrombus detection (p = 0.13 vs. patients without thrombus). Prior endocarditis was not a risk factor for reintervention, endocarditis, or valve thrombosis, and there was no difference in valve-related outcomes according to TTVR valve type. CONCLUSIONS: TV dysfunction, endocarditis, and leaflet thrombosis were uncommon after TTVR. Patients with prior endocarditis were not at higher risk for endocarditis or other adverse outcomes after TTVR, and endocarditis occurred with similar frequency in different valve types. Though rare, leaflet thrombosis is an important adverse outcome, and further study is necessary to determine the appropriate level of prophylactic therapy after TTVR.

11.
J Vis Exp ; (143)2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663688

RESUMO

Various valved conduits and stent-mounted valves are used for right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) valve replacement in patients with congenital heart disease. When using prosthetic materials however, these grafts are susceptible to bacterial infections and various host responses. Identification of bacterial and host factors that play a vital role in endovascular adherence of microorganisms is of importance to better understand the pathophysiology of the onset of infections such as infective endocarditis (IE) and to develop preventive strategies. Therefore, the development of competent models to investigate bacterial adhesion under physiological shear conditions is necessary. Here, we describe the use of a newly designed in vitro perfusion chamber based on parallel plates that allows the study of bacterial adherence to different components of graft tissues such as exposed extracellular matrix, endothelial cells and inert areas. This method combined with colony-forming unit (CFU) counting is adequate to evaluate the propensity of graft materials towards bacterial adhesion under flow. Further on, the flow chamber system might be used to investigate the role of blood components in bacterial adhesion under shear conditions. We demonstrated that the source of tissue, their surface morphology and bacterial species specificity are not the major determining factors in bacterial adherence to graft tissues by using our in-house designed in vitro perfusion model.

12.
Circ Res ; 124(4): 553-563, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582441

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Familial recurrence studies provide strong evidence for a genetic component to the predisposition to sporadic, nonsyndromic Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), the most common cyanotic congenital heart disease phenotype. Rare genetic variants have been identified as important contributors to the risk of congenital heart disease, but relatively small numbers of TOF cases have been studied to date. OBJECTIVE: We used whole exome sequencing to assess the prevalence of unique, deleterious variants in the largest cohort of nonsyndromic TOF patients reported to date. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight hundred twenty-nine TOF patients underwent whole exome sequencing. The presence of unique, deleterious variants was determined; defined by their absence in the Genome Aggregation Database and a scaled combined annotation-dependent depletion score of ≥20. The clustering of variants in 2 genes, NOTCH1 and FLT4, surpassed thresholds for genome-wide significance (assigned as P<5×10-8) after correction for multiple comparisons. NOTCH1 was most frequently found to harbor unique, deleterious variants. Thirty-one changes were observed in 37 probands (4.5%; 95% CI, 3.2%-6.1%) and included 7 loss-of-function variants 22 missense variants and 2 in-frame indels. Sanger sequencing of the unaffected parents of 7 cases identified 5 de novo variants. Three NOTCH1 variants (p.G200R, p.C607Y, and p.N1875S) were subjected to functional evaluation, and 2 showed a reduction in Jagged1-induced NOTCH signaling. FLT4 variants were found in 2.4% (95% CI, 1.6%-3.8%) of TOF patients, with 21 patients harboring 22 unique, deleterious variants. The variants identified were distinct to those that cause the congenital lymphoedema syndrome Milroy disease. In addition to NOTCH1, FLT4 and the well-established TOF gene, TBX1, we identified potential association with variants in several other candidates, including RYR1, ZFPM1, CAMTA2, DLX6, and PCM1. CONCLUSIONS: The NOTCH1 locus is the most frequent site of genetic variants predisposing to nonsyndromic TOF, followed by FLT4. Together, variants in these genes are found in almost 7% of TOF patients.

13.
Cardiol Young ; : 1-2, 2018 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526710

RESUMO

A 5-year-old girl presented with chronic fatigue and extreme exercise intolerance. After countless doctor visits, investigations, and hospital admissions, striking desaturation during exercise test pointed to a cardiovascular problem. Desaturation as a result of right-to-left shunting through a patent foramen ovale during upright exercise was hypothesised. A cardiac catheterisation confirmed the presence of an unusually cranially located patent foramen ovale; the defect was subsequently closed. Physical re-evaluation 6 weeks later showed spectacular physical and mental improvement and stabile saturation during exercise.

14.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge associated with high morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the microbial profile and clinical manifestation of IE in children. METHODS: A retrospective study examining pediatric IE cases treated between 2000 and 2017 at the Department of Pediatric Cardiology, KU Leuven, was conducted. Clinical presentation, treatment, complications, outcome of IE, underlying microorganisms and congenital heart defects were reviewed. RESULTS: 53 patients were diagnosed with IE. Overall, 19 patients (36%) required cardiac surgery. 7 patients (13%) died. 87% of patients had an underlying congenital cardiac defect. 18 (34%) children presented with prosthetic graft IE. A causative organism was found in 49 (92%) cases: viridans group streptococci were identified in 17 (32%), S. aureus in 13 (25%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) in 11 (20%) children. Community acquired (CA) IE increased significantly from 8 (33%) cases in 2000 - 2007 to 20 (74%) cases in 2008 - 2017 (p<0.01). Even with viridans streptococci being significantly more prevalent in the CA group (p<0.01), we did not observe an increase of streptococcal IE from 2008 - 2017. 17 (32%) patients presented with HA IE during the first year of life with 14 (82%) children after surgery and a prevalence of CNS (53%). CONCLUSION: The incidence of pediatric IE was similar over the investigated time period with a shift towards CA IE. Streptococci and staphylococci accounted for the majority of cases in both periods. Awareness of IE and its prevention is crucial in patients after implantation of prosthetic grafts.

16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291340

RESUMO

Deletions on chromosome 15q14 are a known chromosomal cause of cleft palate, typically co-occurring with intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. The identification of patients with loss-of-function variants in MEIS2, a gene within this deletion, suggests that these features are attributed to haploinsufficiency of MEIS2. To further delineate the phenotypic spectrum of the MEIS2-related syndrome, we collected 23 previously unreported patients with either a de novo sequence variant in MEIS2 (9 patients), or a 15q14 microdeletion affecting MEIS2 (14 patients). All but one de novo MEIS2 variant were identified by whole-exome sequencing. One variant was found by targeted sequencing of MEIS2 in a girl with a clinical suspicion of this syndrome. In addition to the triad of palatal defects, heart defects, and developmental delay, heterozygous loss of MEIS2 results in recurrent facial features, including thin and arched eyebrows, short alae nasi, and thin vermillion. Genotype-phenotype comparison between patients with 15q14 deletions and patients with sequence variants or intragenic deletions within MEIS2, showed a higher prevalence of moderate-to-severe intellectual disability in the former group, advocating for an independent locus for psychomotor development neighboring MEIS2.

17.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(8): e006453, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR) has good clinical and hemodynamic outcomes in treating dysfunctional bioprosthetic valves (BPV) in the pulmonary position. Valve-in-valve therapy can further decrease the inner diameter (ID), potentially resulting in patient-prosthesis mismatch in patients with smaller BPVs. METHODS AND RESULTS: To evaluate feasibility and outcomes of intentional BPV fracture to enlarge the pulmonary valve orifice with TPVR, 37 patients from 13 centers who underwent TPVR with intended BPV fracture were evaluated. A control cohort (n=70) who underwent valve-in-valve TPVR without attempted fracture was evaluated. BPV was successfully fractured in 28 patients and stretched in 5 while fracture was unsuccessful in 4. A Melody valve was implanted in 25 patients with fractured/stretched frame and a Sapien (XT 3) valve in 8. Among patients whose BPV was fractured/stretched, the final ID was a median of 2 mm larger (0-6.5 mm) than the valve's true ID. The narrowest diameter after TPVR in controls was a median of 2 mm smaller ( P<0.001) than true ID. Right ventricular outflow tract gradient decreased from median 40 to 8 mm Hg in the fracture group. Cases with fracture/stretching were matched 1:1 (weight, true ID) to controls. Post-TPVR peak gradient was lower but not significant (8.3±5.2 versus 11.8±9.2 mm Hg; P=0.070). There were no fracture-related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary experience shows intentional fracture of BPV frame can be useful for achieving larger ID and better hemodynamics after valve-in-valve TPVR.

18.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 28(8): 726-738, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30004615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In adults, xenon has only minimal hemodynamic side effects when compared with other anesthetics. Moreover, in preclinical experiments, xenon has been demonstrated to possess cardio- and neuroprotective properties. Altogether, the favorable hemodynamic profile combined with its potential for organ-protection could render xenon an attractive option for anesthesia in children with cardiovascular compromise. AIMS: The aim of this study was to explore safety and feasibility of sevoflurane-augmented xenon anesthesia in school-aged children and to assess early postoperative neurocognitive effects of xenon-sevoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia when compared to a control group that did not have anesthesia. METHODS: Forty children aged 4-12 years, suffering from congenital heart disease, undergoing diagnostic or interventional cardiac catheterization were randomized to either xenon-augmented sevoflurane anesthesia or sevoflurane alone. Safety was assessed by the incidence of intraprocedural hemodynamic instability and feasibility by anesthetic depth and respiratory profile. In addition, neurocognitive performance was assessed preoperatively, 2 hours after discharge from PACU and at 24 hours after anesthesia using the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks system. A healthy control group of 22 age- and gender-matched children not exposed to anesthesia underwent an identical neurocognitive test battery, at comparable time intervals. RESULTS: Overall hemodynamics did not differ between groups. Xenon-sevoflurane anesthesia resulted in decreased intraoperative ephedrine requirements (median [IQR]) (0.00 mg/kg [0.00-0.00] vs 0.00 mg/kg [0.00-0.01], P = 0.047). Only neurocognitive tests in the domain of alertness were significantly impaired 2 hours postoperatively in both anesthesia groups in comparison with the control group (alertness variability: P = 0.02, odds ratio 5.8), but recovered at 24 hours. For working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and motor coordination tasks, no significant interaction effects of anesthesia were found in the early postoperative period. CONCLUSION: In this pilot trial, xenon-augmented sevoflurane anesthesia in school-aged children was feasible, and associated with decreased ephedrine requirements. All children exposed to anesthesia showed impaired neurocognitive performance in the immediate postoperative period when compared to control children; however, without significant differences between both treatment groups.

19.
EuroIntervention ; 14(9): e988-e994, 2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957592

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of the study was to report up to 11 years of follow-up after Melody valve implantation in the pulmonary position. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a single-institution non-randomised prospective observational study of all Melody valves in the pulmonary position after discharge between 2006 and 2017 (n=188). Mean age was 19.4 years (SD 13.2). The indication was stenosis (45%), regurgitation (33%) and mixed (22%). Pre-stenting was performed in all except the initial four patients. In stenotic lesions the peak gradient was 36 mmHg PIG (SD 12.0) after 11 years and in regurgitant lesions the maximal regurgitation was 2/4. Stent fractures were observed in 8.6%; only one grade III fracture required redo PPVI. Surgical removal was carried out in seven (3.7%), redo PPVI in five (2.7%). Endocarditis was diagnosed in 19 (10.2%) patients at a median of 2.3 years (0.7-8.8) after Melody implantation. Three were surgically removed early because of persistent infection, 16 were sterilised; six required replacement (three surgical, three redo PPVI). There were no valve- or procedure-related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: The Melody valve shows a good preserved leaflet function up to 11 years after implantation. The main reason for graft failure was endocarditis, although in half of those patients no reintervention was needed. After pre-stenting, stent fractures led very exceptionally to reintervention.

20.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 69, 2018 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716638

RESUMO

Vitamin A intoxication is a rare cause of liver disease, but the risk increases in patients with underlying liver dysfunction. We present a patient with Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome who developed liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and very severe hepatopulmonary syndrome as a consequence of chronic vitamin A intoxication. She underwent successful liver transplantation with complete resolution of the pulmonary shunting.

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