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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668703

RESUMO

NTNG2 encodes netrin-G2, a membrane-anchored protein implicated in the molecular organization of neuronal circuitry and synaptic organization and diversification in vertebrates. In this study, through a combination of exome sequencing and autozygosity mapping, we have identified 16 individuals (from seven unrelated families) with ultra-rare homozygous missense variants in NTNG2; these individuals present with shared features of a neurodevelopmental disorder consisting of global developmental delay, severe to profound intellectual disability, muscle weakness and abnormal tone, autistic features, behavioral abnormalities, and variable dysmorphisms. The variants disrupt highly conserved residues across the protein. Functional experiments, including in silico analysis of the protein structure, in vitro assessment of cell surface expression, and in vitro knockdown, revealed potential mechanisms of pathogenicity of the variants, including loss of protein function and decreased neurite outgrowth. Our data indicate that appropriate expression of NTNG2 plays an important role in neurotypical development.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2056-2066, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407851

RESUMO

Co-occurrence of primordial dwarfism and microcephaly together with particular skeletal findings are seen in a wide range of Mendelian syndromes including microcephaly micromelia syndrome (MMS, OMIM 251230), microcephaly, short stature, and limb abnormalities (MISSLA, OMIM 617604), and microcephalic primordial dwarfisms (MPDs). Genes associated with these syndromes encode proteins that have crucial roles in DNA replication or in other critical steps of the cell cycle that link DNA replication to cell division. We identified four unrelated families with five affected individuals having biallelic or de novo variants in DONSON presenting with a core phenotype of severe short stature (z score < -3 SD), additional skeletal abnormalities, and microcephaly. Two apparently unrelated families with identical homozygous c.631C > T p.(Arg211Cys) variant had clinical features typical of Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS), while two siblings with compound heterozygous c.346delG p.(Asp116Ile*62) and c.1349A > G p.(Lys450Arg) variants presented with Seckel-like phenotype. We also identified a de novo c.683G > T p.(Trp228Leu) variant in DONSON in a patient with prominent micrognathia, short stature and hypoplastic femur and tibia, clinically diagnosed with Femoral-Facial syndrome (FFS, OMIM 134780). Biallelic variants in DONSON have been recently described in individuals with microcephalic dwarfism. These studies also demonstrated that DONSON has an essential conserved role in the cell cycle. Here we describe novel biallelic and de novo variants that are associated with MGS, Seckel-like phenotype and FFS, the last of which has not been associated with any disease gene to date.

3.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(8): 1395-1406, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the molecular and clinical phenotypic basis of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies caused by rare biallelic variants in CACNA2D2. METHODS: Two affected individuals from a family with clinical features of early onset epileptic encephalopathy were recruited for exome sequencing at the Centers for Mendelian Genomics to identify their molecular diagnosis. GeneMatcher facilitated identification of a second family with a shared candidate disease gene identified through clinical gene panel-based testing. RESULTS: Rare biallelic CACNA2D2 variants have been previously reported in three families with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, and one family with congenital ataxia. We identified three individuals in two unrelated families with novel homozygous rare variants in CACNA2D2 with clinical features of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and cerebellar atrophy. Family 1 includes two affected siblings with a likely damaging homozygous rare missense variant c.1778G>C; p.(Arg593Pro) in CACNA2D2. Family 2 includes a proband with a homozygous rare nonsense variant c.485_486del; p.(Tyr162Ter) in CACNA2D2. We compared clinical and molecular findings from all nine individuals reported to date and note that cerebellar atrophy is shared among all. INTERPRETATION: Our study supports the candidacy of CACNA2D2 as a disease gene associated with a phenotypic spectrum of neurological disease that include features of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, ataxia, and cerebellar atrophy. Age at presentation may affect apparent penetrance of neurogenetic trait manifestations and of a particular clinical neurological endophenotype, for example, seizures or ataxia.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 132-150, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230720

RESUMO

Arthrogryposis is a clinical finding that is present either as a feature of a neuromuscular condition or as part of a systemic disease in over 400 Mendelian conditions. The underlying molecular etiology remains largely unknown because of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. We applied exome sequencing (ES) in a cohort of 89 families with the clinical sign of arthrogryposis. Additional molecular techniques including array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) were performed on individuals who were found to have pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) and mosaicism, respectively. A molecular diagnosis was established in 65.2% (58/89) of families. Eleven out of 58 families (19.0%) showed evidence for potential involvement of pathogenic variation at more than one locus, probably driven by absence of heterozygosity (AOH) burden due to identity-by-descent (IBD). RYR3, MYOM2, ERGIC1, SPTBN4, and ABCA7 represent genes, identified in two or more families, for which mutations are probably causative for arthrogryposis. We also provide evidence for the involvement of CNVs in the etiology of arthrogryposis and for the idea that both mono-allelic and bi-allelic variants in the same gene cause either similar or distinct syndromes. We were able to identify the molecular etiology in nine out of 20 families who underwent reanalysis. In summary, our data from family-based ES further delineate the molecular etiology of arthrogryposis, yielded several candidate disease-associated genes, and provide evidence for mutational burden in a biological pathway or network. Our study also highlights the importance of reanalysis of individuals with unsolved diagnoses in conjunction with sequencing extended family members.

5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(8): 3049-3067, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042289

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) encompasses a spectrum of premature menopause, including both primary and secondary amenorrhea. For 75% to 90% of individuals with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism presenting as POI, the molecular etiology is unknown. Common etiologies include chromosomal abnormalities, environmental factors, and congenital disorders affecting ovarian development and function, as well as syndromic and nonsyndromic single gene disorders suggesting POI represents a complex trait. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the contribution of known disease genes to POI and identify molecular etiologies and biological underpinnings of POI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We applied exome sequencing (ES) and family-based genomics to 42 affected female individuals from 36 unrelated Turkish families, including 31 with reported parental consanguinity. RESULTS: This analysis identified likely damaging, potentially contributing variants and molecular diagnoses in 16 families (44%), including 11 families with likely damaging variants in known genes and five families with predicted deleterious variants in disease genes (IGSF10, MND1, MRPS22, and SOHLH1) not previously associated with POI. Of the 16 families, 2 (13%) had evidence for potentially pathogenic variants at more than one locus. Absence of heterozygosity consistent with identity-by-descent mediated recessive disease burden contributes to molecular diagnosis in 15 of 16 (94%) families. GeneMatcher allowed identification of additional families from diverse genetic backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: ES analysis of a POI cohort further characterized locus heterogeneity, reaffirmed the association of genes integral to meiotic recombination, demonstrated the likely contribution of genes involved in hypothalamic development, and documented multilocus pathogenic variation suggesting the potential for oligogenic inheritance contributing to the development of POI.

6.
Metab Brain Dis ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499066

RESUMO

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is caused by deficiency of 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase. Pathophysiology of brain damage is poorly understood. In recent years, it was proposed that oxidative stress was elevated and led to brain injury. Aim of this study is to evaluate thiol/disulphide homeostasis as an indicator of oxidative stress in L2HGA patients who have been receiving antioxidant treatment. Sixteen L2HGA patients and 16 healthy individuals were included in the study. All the L2HGA patients were regularly followed up and presented neurological dysfunction at different grades. Fourteen patients had been receiving antioxidant treatment. Serum native thiol (-SH), total thiol (-SH + -S-S-) and disulphide (-S-S) levels were measured. Disulphide/native thiol, disulphide/total thiol and native thiol/total thiol ratios were calculated from these values. No significant difference was observed in -SH, -SH + -S-S-, -S-S levels between two groups. In addition to that, no increase of disulphide/native thiol and disulphide/total thiol ratios was detected. Thiol/disulphide homeostasis parameters were also compared between patients who had been receiving and not receiving antioxidant therapy; and between different types of antioxidant therapy and the results did not point to any significant difference. This is the first study that evaluates dynamic thiol/disulphide homeostasis as an indicator of oxidative stress in L2HGA and it has one of the largest sample sizes among previous studies. In our study we suggest that antioxidant therapy should be effective in preventing oxidative stress in L2HGA patients, which has been reported in previous studies and should be a part of standard therapy.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471718

RESUMO

Dysfunction of motile monocilia, altering the leftward flow at the embryonic node essential for determination of left-right body asymmetry, is a major cause of laterality defects. Laterality defects are also often associated with reduced mucociliary clearance caused by defective multiple motile cilia of the airway and are responsible for destructive airway disease. Outer dynein arms (ODAs) are essential for ciliary beat generation, and human respiratory cilia contain different ODA heavy chains (HCs): the panaxonemally distributed γ-HC DNAH5, proximally located ß-HC DNAH11 (defining ODA type 1), and the distally localized ß-HC DNAH9 (defining ODA type 2). Here we report loss-of-function mutations in DNAH9 in five independent families causing situs abnormalities associated with subtle respiratory ciliary dysfunction. Consistent with the observed subtle respiratory phenotype, high-speed video microscopy demonstrates distally impaired ciliary bending in DNAH9 mutant respiratory cilia. DNAH9-deficient cilia also lack other ODA components such as DNAH5, DNAI1, and DNAI2 from the distal axonemal compartment, demonstrating an essential role of DNAH9 for distal axonemal assembly of ODAs type 2. Yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses indicate interaction of DNAH9 with the ODA components DNAH5 and DNAI2 as well as the ODA-docking complex component CCDC114. We further show that during ciliogenesis of respiratory cilia, first proximally located DNAH11 and then distally located DNAH9 is assembled in the axoneme. We propose that the ß-HC paralogs DNAH9 and DNAH11 achieved specific functional roles for the distinct axonemal compartments during evolution with human DNAH9 function matching that of ancient ß-HCs such as that of the unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

8.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 5(10): 1277-1285, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349862

RESUMO

De novo variants in DDX3X account for 1-3% of unexplained intellectual disability (ID) cases and are amongst the most common causes of ID especially in females. Forty-seven patients (44 females, 3 males) have been described. We identified 31 additional individuals carrying 29 unique DDX3X variants, including 30 postnatal individuals with complex clinical presentations of developmental delay or ID, and one fetus with abnormal ultrasound findings. Rare or novel phenotypes observed include respiratory problems, congenital heart disease, skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA depletion, and late-onset neurologic decline. Our findings expand the spectrum of DNA variants and phenotypes associated with DDX3X disorders.

10.
PLoS Genet ; 14(8): e1007602, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148830

RESUMO

The clinical spectrum of ciliopathies affecting motile cilia spans impaired mucociliary clearance in the respiratory system, laterality defects including heart malformations, infertility and hydrocephalus. Using linkage analysis and whole exome sequencing, we identified two recessive loss-of-function MNS1 mutations in five individuals from four consanguineous families: 1) a homozygous nonsense mutation p.Arg242* in four males with laterality defects and infertility and 2) a homozygous nonsense mutation p.Gln203* in one female with laterality defects and recurrent respiratory infections additionally carrying homozygous mutations in DNAH5. Consistent with the laterality defects observed in these individuals, we found Mns1 to be expressed in mouse embryonic ventral node. Immunofluorescence analysis further revealed that MNS1 localizes to the axonemes of respiratory cilia as well as sperm flagella in human. In-depth ultrastructural analyses confirmed a subtle outer dynein arm (ODA) defect in the axonemes of respiratory epithelial cells resembling findings reported in Mns1-deficient mice. Ultrastructural analyses in the female carrying combined mutations in MNS1 and DNAH5 indicated a role for MNS1 in the process of ODA docking (ODA-DC) in the distal respiratory axonemes. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation and yeast two hybrid analyses demonstrated that MNS1 dimerizes and interacts with the ODA docking complex component CCDC114. Overall, we demonstrate that MNS1 deficiency in humans causes laterality defects (situs inversus) and likely male infertility and that MNS1 plays a role in the ODA-DC assembly.

11.
Exp Dermatol ; 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952037

RESUMO

In ATP6V0A2-related cutis laxa, the skin phenotype varies from a wrinkly skin to prominent cutis laxa and typically associates with skeletal and neurological manifestations. The phenotype remains incompletely characterized, especially in adult patients. Glycosylation defects and reduced acidification of secretory vesicles contribute to the pathogenesis, but the consequences at the clinical level remain to be determined. Moreover, the morphology of the elastic fibres has not been studied in ATP6V0A2-related cutis laxa, nor its relation with potential clinical risks. We report on the extreme variability in ATP6V0A2-related cutis laxa in 10 novel patients, expand the phenotype with emphysema and von Willebrand disease and hypothesize on the pathogenesis that might link both with deficiency of glycosylation and with elastic fibre anomalies. Our data will affect clinical management of patients with ATP6V0A2-related cutis laxa.

12.
Genet Med ; 20(10): 1236-1245, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323665

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We delineate the clinical spectrum and describe the histology in arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS), a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by tortuosity of the large and medium-sized arteries, caused by mutations in SLC2A10. METHODS: We retrospectively characterized 40 novel ATS families (50 patients) and reviewed the 52 previously reported patients. We performed histology and electron microscopy (EM) on skin and vascular biopsies and evaluated TGF-ß signaling with immunohistochemistry for pSMAD2 and CTGF. RESULTS: Stenoses, tortuosity, and aneurysm formation are widespread occurrences. Severe but rare vascular complications include early and aggressive aortic root aneurysms, neonatal intracranial bleeding, ischemic stroke, and gastric perforation. Thus far, no reports unequivocally document vascular dissections or ruptures. Of note, diaphragmatic hernia and infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) are frequently observed. Skin and vascular biopsies show fragmented elastic fibers (EF) and increased collagen deposition. EM of skin EF shows a fragmented elastin core and a peripheral mantle of microfibrils of random directionality. Skin and end-stage diseased vascular tissue do not indicate increased TGF-ß signaling. CONCLUSION: Our findings warrant attention for IRDS and diaphragmatic hernia, close monitoring of the aortic root early in life, and extensive vascular imaging afterwards. EM on skin biopsies shows disease-specific abnormalities.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 27-43, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29276006

RESUMO

Locus heterogeneity characterizes a variety of skeletal dysplasias often due to interacting or overlapping signaling pathways. Robinow syndrome is a skeletal disorder historically refractory to molecular diagnosis, potentially stemming from substantial genetic heterogeneity. All current known pathogenic variants reside in genes within the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway including ROR2, WNT5A, and more recently, DVL1 and DVL3. However, ∼70% of autosomal-dominant Robinow syndrome cases remain molecularly unsolved. To investigate this missing heritability, we recruited 21 families with at least one family member clinically diagnosed with Robinow or Robinow-like phenotypes and performed genetic and genomic studies. In total, four families with variants in FZD2 were identified as well as three individuals from two families with biallelic variants in NXN that co-segregate with the phenotype. Importantly, both FZD2 and NXN are relevant protein partners in the WNT5A interactome, supporting their role in skeletal development. In addition to confirming that clustered -1 frameshifting variants in DVL1 and DVL3 are the main contributors to dominant Robinow syndrome, we also found likely pathogenic variants in candidate genes GPC4 and RAC3, both linked to the Wnt signaling pathway. These data support an initial hypothesis that Robinow syndrome results from perturbation of the Wnt/PCP pathway, suggest specific relevant domains of the proteins involved, and reveal key contributors in this signaling cascade during human embryonic development. Contrary to the view that non-allelic genetic heterogeneity hampers gene discovery, this study demonstrates the utility of rare disease genomic studies to parse gene function in human developmental pathways.

15.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 26(3): 142-147, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28383366

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant cutis laxa (ADCL, OMIM #123700) is a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by loose, redundant skin folds that may be apparent form birth or appear later in life. Most severely affected areas are the neck, axillar regions, trunk, and groin. Typically, patients present with characteristic facial features including a premature aged appearance, long philtrum, a high forehead, large ears, and a beaked nose. Cardiovascular and pulmonary complications include bicuspid aortic valves, aortic root dilatation, and emphysema. Sporadically, these complications have been documented to cause premature death. Several rare findings including urogenital anomalies and gastroesophageal problems can be also occur. Most patients harbor a frameshift mutation in one of the five last exons of the ELN gene (ADCL1, OMIM #123700), whereas one patient was described to have a tandem duplication in the FBLN5 gene (ADCL2, OMIM #614434). Here, we present a female ADCL patient, from a consanguineous family, with a novel mutation in ELN and review 39 previously reported ADCL patients. All patients have various skin findings, whereas cardiovascular, pulmonary findings, and multiple hernia were present in 61, 28, and 38% of patients, respectively. Strabismus, urogenital anomalies, gastroesophageal problems, and scoliosis may rarely be present. A clear definition of the ADCL syndrome can enable more accurate genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Cútis Laxa/genética , Elastina/genética , Pré-Escolar , Cútis Laxa/metabolismo , Éxons , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Humanos , Linhagem
16.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 30(8): 938-941, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27193571

RESUMO

Cystic hygroma (CH) is a vascular-lymphatic malformation and can occur either as an isolated finding or as a part of a syndrome. The incidence of CH is about 1:1000-1:6000 births. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of CH is usually obtained in the first trimester, and the lesion can appear in septated or non-septated forms. Increased nuchal translucency and CH have been associated with a wide range of structural and genetic abnormalities. Most of CHs are associated with a number of chromosomal abnormalities especially Trisomy 21, 13, 18 and Turner syndrome. Besides, the associations between CH and non-chromosomal syndromes were also reported and Noonan Syndrome (NS) is one of the leading causes. Approximately 50% of NS cases are caused by mutations in the PTPN11 gene. A novel PTPN11 mutation defined in two separate fetuses with CH and associated with NS phenotype is being reported here.


Assuntos
Hidropisia Fetal/diagnóstico , Hidropisia Fetal/genética , Cariotipagem , Linfangioma Cístico/diagnóstico , Linfangioma Cístico/genética , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Aborto Eugênico , Aborto Espontâneo/genética , Adulto , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Linfangioma Cístico/complicações , Síndrome de Noonan/complicações , Síndrome de Noonan/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/genética , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/análise
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(3): 553-561, 2016 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26924530

RESUMO

Robinow syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by mesomelic limb shortening, genital hypoplasia, and distinctive facial features. Recent reports have identified, in individuals with dominant Robinow syndrome, a specific type of variant characterized by being uniformly located in the penultimate exon of DVL1 and resulting in a -1 frameshift allele with a premature termination codon that escapes nonsense-mediated decay. Here, we studied a cohort of individuals who had been clinically diagnosed with Robinow syndrome but who had not received a molecular diagnosis from variant studies of DVL1, WNT5A, and ROR2. Because of the uniform location of frameshift variants in DVL1-mediated Robinow syndrome and the functional redundancy of DVL1, DVL2, and DVL3, we elected to pursue direct Sanger sequencing of the penultimate exon of DVL1 and its paralogs DVL2 and DVL3 to search for potential disease-associated variants. Remarkably, targeted sequencing identified five unrelated individuals harboring heterozygous, de novo frameshift variants in DVL3, including two splice acceptor mutations and three 1 bp deletions. Similar to the variants observed in DVL1-mediated Robinow syndrome, all variants in DVL3 result in a -1 frameshift, indicating that these highly specific alterations might be a common cause of dominant Robinow syndrome. Here, we review the current knowledge of these peculiar variant alleles in DVL1- and DVL3-mediated Robinow syndrome and further elucidate the phenotypic features present in subjects with DVL1 and DVL3 frameshift mutations.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Nanismo/genética , Éxons , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Anormalidades Urogenitais/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Bases , Códon sem Sentido , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Proteínas Desgrenhadas , Nanismo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/diagnóstico , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Receptores Órfãos Semelhantes a Receptor Tirosina Quinase/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Deleção de Sequência , Anormalidades Urogenitais/diagnóstico , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Proteína Wnt-5a
18.
J Clin Invest ; 126(2): 762-78, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26752647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arthrogryposis, defined as congenital joint contractures in 2 or more body areas, is a clinical sign rather than a specific disease diagnosis. To date, more than 400 different disorders have been described that present with arthrogryposis, and variants of more than 220 genes have been associated with these disorders; however, the underlying molecular etiology remains unknown in the considerable majority of these cases. METHODS: We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) of 52 patients with clinical presentation of arthrogryposis from 48 different families. RESULTS: Affected individuals from 17 families (35.4%) had variants in known arthrogryposis-associated genes, including homozygous variants of cholinergic γ nicotinic receptor (CHRNG, 6 subjects) and endothelin converting enzyme-like 1 (ECEL1, 4 subjects). Deleterious variants in candidate arthrogryposis-causing genes (fibrillin 3 [FBN3], myosin IXA [MYO9A], and pleckstrin and Sec7 domain containing 3 [PSD3]) were identified in 3 families (6.2%). Moreover, in 8 families with a homozygous mutation in an arthrogryposis-associated gene, we identified a second locus with either a homozygous or compound heterozygous variant in a candidate gene (myosin binding protein C, fast type [MYBPC2] and vacuolar protein sorting 8 [VPS8], 2 families, 4.2%) or in another disease-associated genes (6 families, 12.5%), indicating a potential mutational burden contributing to disease expression. CONCLUSION: In 58.3% of families, the arthrogryposis manifestation could be explained by a molecular diagnosis; however, the molecular etiology in subjects from 20 families remained unsolved by WES. Only 5 of these 20 unrelated subjects had a clinical presentation consistent with amyoplasia; a phenotype not thought to be of genetic origin. Our results indicate that increased use of genome-wide technologies will provide opportunities to better understand genetic models for diseases and molecular mechanisms of genetically heterogeneous disorders, such as arthrogryposis. FUNDING: This work was supported in part by US National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) grant U54HG006542 to the Baylor-Hopkins Center for Mendelian Genomics, and US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) grant R01NS058529 to J.R. Lupski.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Exoma , Família , Artrogripose/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Turquia
19.
Neuron ; 88(3): 499-513, 2015 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26539891

RESUMO

Development of the human nervous system involves complex interactions among fundamental cellular processes and requires a multitude of genes, many of which remain to be associated with human disease. We applied whole exome sequencing to 128 mostly consanguineous families with neurogenetic disorders that often included brain malformations. Rare variant analyses for both single nucleotide variant (SNV) and copy number variant (CNV) alleles allowed for identification of 45 novel variants in 43 known disease genes, 41 candidate genes, and CNVs in 10 families, with an overall potential molecular cause identified in >85% of families studied. Among the candidate genes identified, we found PRUNE, VARS, and DHX37 in multiple families and homozygous loss-of-function variants in AGBL2, SLC18A2, SMARCA1, UBQLN1, and CPLX1. Neuroimaging and in silico analysis of functional and expression proximity between candidate and known disease genes allowed for further understanding of genetic networks underlying specific types of brain malformations.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(19): 5378-87, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26162852

RESUMO

POC1A encodes a WD repeat protein localizing to centrioles and spindle poles and is associated with short stature, onychodysplasia, facial dysmorphism and hypotrichosis (SOFT) syndrome. These main features are related to the defect in cell proliferation of chondrocytes in growth plate. In the current study, we aimed at identifying the molecular basis of two patients with primordial dwarfism (PD) in a single family through utilization of whole-exome sequencing. A novel homozygous p.T120A missense mutation was detected in POC1A in both patients, a known causative gene of SOFT syndrome, and confirmed using Sanger sequencing. To test the pathogenicity of the detected mutation, primary fibroblast cultures obtained from the patients and a control individual were used. For evaluating the global gene expression profile of cells carrying p.T120A mutation in POC1A, we performed the gene expression array and compared their expression profiles to those of control fibroblast cells. The gene expression array analysis showed that 4800 transcript probes were significantly deregulated in cells with p.T120A mutation in comparison to the control. GO term association results showed that deregulated genes are mostly involved in the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton. Furthermore, the p.T120A missense mutation in POC1A caused the formation of abnormal mitotic spindle structure, including supernumerary centrosomes, and changes in POC1A were accompanied by alterations in another centrosome-associated WD repeat protein p80-katanin. As a result, we identified a novel mutation in POC1A of patients with PD and showed that this mutation causes the formation of multiple numbers of centrioles and multipolar spindles with abnormal chromosome arrangement.


Assuntos
Centríolos/metabolismo , Nanismo/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Exoma , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Humanos , Masculino , Forbóis , Pele/citologia
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