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1.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2103331, 2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747140

RESUMO

Nutrients play critical roles in maintaining core physiological functions and in preventing diseases. Technologies for delivering these nutrients and for monitoring their concentrations can help to ensure proper nutritional balance. Eccrine sweat is a potentially attractive class of biofluid for monitoring purposes due to the ability to capture sweat easily and noninvasively from nearly any region of the body using skin-integrated microfluidic technologies. Here, a miniaturized system of this type is presented that allows simple, rapid colorimetric assessments of the concentrations of multiple essential nutrients in sweat, simultaneously and without any supporting electronics - vitamin C, calcium, zinc, and iron. A transdermal patch integrated directly with the microfluidics supports passive, sustained delivery of these species to the body throughout a period of wear. Comparisons of measurement results to those from traditional lab analysis methods demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this platform. On-body tests with human subjects reveal correlations between the time dynamics of concentrations of these nutrients in sweat and those of the corresponding concentrations in blood. Studies conducted before and after consuming certain foods and beverages highlight practical capabilities in monitoring nutritional balance, with strong potential to serve as a basis for guiding personalized dietary choices.

2.
Biophys J ; 120(21): 4777-4785, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555361

RESUMO

Studies of genetic disorders of sensorineural hearing loss have been instrumental in delineating mechanisms that underlie the remarkable sensitivity and selectivity that are hallmarks of mammalian hearing. For example, genetic modifications of TECTA and TECTB, which are principal proteins that comprise the tectorial membrane (TM), have been shown to alter auditory thresholds and frequency tuning in ways that can be understood in terms of changes in the mechanical properties of the TM. Here, we investigate effects of genetic modification targeting CEACAM16, a third important TM protein. Loss of CEACAM16 has been recently shown to lead to progressive reductions in sensitivity. Whereas age-related hearing losses have previously been linked to changes in sensory receptor cells, the role of the TM in progressive hearing loss is largely unknown. Here, we show that TM stiffness and viscosity are significantly reduced in adult mice that lack functional CEACAM16 relative to age-matched wild-type controls. By contrast, these same mechanical properties of TMs from juvenile mice that lack functional CEACAM16 are more similar to those of wild-type mice. Thus, changes in hearing phenotype align with changes in TM material properties and can be understood in terms of the same TM wave properties that were previously used to characterize modifications of TECTA and TECTB. These results demonstrate that CEACAM16 is essential for maintaining TM mechanical and wave properties, which in turn are necessary for sustaining the remarkable sensitivity and selectivity of mammalian hearing with increasing age.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva , Membrana Tectorial , Animais , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular , Audição , Camundongos , Viscosidade
3.
ACS Sens ; 6(8): 2787-2801, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351759

RESUMO

Skin-interfaced wearable systems with integrated colorimetric assays, microfluidic channels, and electrochemical sensors offer powerful capabilities for noninvasive, real-time sweat analysis. This Perspective details recent progress in the development and translation of novel wearable sensors for personalized assessment of sweat dynamics and biomarkers, with precise sampling and real-time analysis. Sensor accuracy, system ruggedness, and large-scale deployment in remote environments represent key opportunity areas, enabling broad deployment in the context of field studies, clinical trials, and recent commercialization. On-body measurements in these contexts show good agreement compared to conventional laboratory-based sweat analysis approaches. These device demonstrations highlight the utility of biochemical sensing platforms for personalized assessment of performance, wellness, and health across a broad range of applications.


Assuntos
Suor , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Microfluídica , Pele
4.
Fam Syst Health ; 39(1): 19-28, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014727

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Short message service (SMS) is a widely accepted telecommunications approach used to support health informatics, including behavioral interventions, data collection, and patient-provider communication. However, SMS delivery platforms are not standardized and platforms are typically commercial "off-the-shelf" or developed "in-house." As a consequence of platform variability, implementing SMS-based interventions may be challenging for both providers and patients. Off-the-shelf SMS delivery platforms may require minimal development or technical resources from providers, but users are often limited in their functionality. Conversely, platforms that are developed in-house are often specified for individual projects, requiring specialized development and technical expertise. Patients are on the receiving end of programming and technical specification challenges; message delays or lagged data affect quality of SMS communications. To date, little work has been done to develop a generalizable SMS platform that can be scaled across health initiatives. OBJECTIVE: We propose the Configurable Assessment Messaging Platform for Interventions (CAMPI) to mitigate challenges associated with SMS intervention implementation (e.g., programming, data collection, message delivery). METHOD: CAMPI aims to optimize health data captured from a multitude of sources and enhance patient-provider communication through a technology that is simple and familiar to patients. Using representative examples from three behavioral intervention case studies implemented among diverse populations (pregnant women, young sexual minority men, and parents with young children), we describe CAMPI capabilities and feasibility. CONCLUSION: As a generalizable SMS platform, CAMPI can be scaled to meet the priorities of various health initiatives, while reducing unnecessary resource utilization and burden on providers and patients. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Informática Médica/tendências , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/normas , Saúde da Família/tendências , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/instrumentação
5.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(587)2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790027

RESUMO

The concentration of chloride in sweat remains the most robust biomarker for confirmatory diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF), a common life-shortening genetic disorder. Early diagnosis via quantitative assessment of sweat chloride allows prompt initiation of care and is critically important to extend life expectancy and improve quality of life. The collection and analysis of sweat using conventional wrist-strapped devices and iontophoresis can be cumbersome, particularly for infants with fragile skin, who often have insufficient sweat production. Here, we introduce a soft, epidermal microfluidic device ("sweat sticker") designed for the simple and rapid collection and analysis of sweat. Intimate, conformal coupling with the skin supports nearly perfect efficiency in sweat collection without leakage. Real-time image analysis of chloride reagents allows for quantitative assessment of chloride concentrations using a smartphone camera, without requiring extraction of sweat or external analysis. Clinical validation studies involving patients with CF and healthy subjects, across a spectrum of age groups, support clinical equivalence compared to existing device platforms in terms of accuracy and demonstrate meaningful reductions in rates of leakage. The wearable microfluidic technologies and smartphone-based analytics reported here establish the foundation for diagnosis of CF outside of clinical settings.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Suor , Cloretos , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Qualidade de Vida , Smartphone
6.
Sens Actuators B Chem ; 3322021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542590

RESUMO

Sweat is a promising, yet relatively unexplored biofluid containing biochemical information that offers broad insights into the underlying dynamic metabolic activity of the human body. The rich composition of electrolytes, metabolites, hormones, proteins, nucleic acids, micronutrients, and exogenous agents found in sweat dynamically vary in response to the state of health, stress, and diet. Emerging classes of skin-interfaced wearable sensors offer powerful capabilities for the real-time, continuous analysis of sweat produced by the eccrine glands in a manner suitable for use in athletics, consumer wellness, military, and healthcare industries. This perspective examines the rapid and continuous progress of wearable sweat sensors through the most advanced embodiments that address the fundamental challenges currently restricting widespread deployment. It concludes with a discussion of efforts to expand the overall utility of wearable sweat sensors and opportunities for commercialization, in which advances in biochemical sensor technologies will be critically important.

8.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 10(4): e2000722, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989913

RESUMO

Eccrine sweat contains a rich blend of electrolytes, metabolites, proteins, metal ions, and other biomarkers. Changes in the concentrations of these chemical species can indicate alterations in hydration status and they can also reflect health conditions such as cystic fibrosis, schizophrenia, and depression. Recent advances in soft, skin-interfaced microfluidic systems enable real-time measurement of local sweat loss and sweat biomarker concentrations, with a wide range of applications in healthcare. Uses in certain contexts involve, however, physical impacts on the body that can dynamically deform these platforms, with adverse effects on measurement reliability. The work presented here overcomes this limitation through the use of microfluidic structures constructed in relatively high modulus polymers, and designed in geometries that offer soft, system level mechanics when embedded low modulus elastomers. Analytical models and finite element analysis quantitatively define the relevant mechanics of these systems, and serve as the basis for layouts optimized to allow robust operation in demanding, rugged scenarios such as those encountered in football, while preserving mechanical stretchability for comfortable, water-tight bonding to the skin. Benchtop testing and on-body field studies of measurements of sweat loss and chloride concentration under imposed mechanical stresses and impacts demonstrate the key features of these platforms.


Assuntos
Microfluídica , Suor , Eletrólitos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pele
9.
Sci Adv ; 6(50)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310859

RESUMO

Advanced capabilities in noninvasive, in situ monitoring of sweating rate and sweat electrolyte losses could enable real-time personalized fluid-electrolyte intake recommendations. Established sweat analysis techniques using absorbent patches require post-collection harvesting and benchtop analysis of sweat and are thus impractical for ambulatory use. Here, we introduce a skin-interfaced wearable microfluidic device and smartphone image processing platform that enable analysis of regional sweating rate and sweat chloride concentration ([Cl-]). Systematic studies (n = 312 athletes) establish significant correlations for regional sweating rate and sweat [Cl-] in a controlled environment and during competitive sports under varying environmental conditions. The regional sweating rate and sweat [Cl-] results serve as inputs to algorithms implemented on a smartphone software application that predicts whole-body sweating rate and sweat [Cl-]. This low-cost wearable sensing approach could improve the accessibility of physiological insights available to sports scientists, practitioners, and athletes to inform hydration strategies in real-world ambulatory settings.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(45): 27906-27915, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106394

RESUMO

Soft microfluidic systems that capture, store, and perform biomarker analysis of microliter volumes of sweat, in situ, as it emerges from the surface of the skin, represent an emerging class of wearable technology with powerful capabilities that complement those of traditional biophysical sensing devices. Recent work establishes applications in the real-time characterization of sweat dynamics and sweat chemistry in the context of sports performance and healthcare diagnostics. This paper presents a collection of advances in biochemical sensors and microfluidic designs that support multimodal operation in the monitoring of physiological signatures directly correlated to physical and mental stresses. These wireless, battery-free, skin-interfaced devices combine lateral flow immunoassays for cortisol, fluorometric assays for glucose and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and digital tracking of skin galvanic responses. Systematic benchtop evaluations and field studies on human subjects highlight the key features of this platform for the continuous, noninvasive monitoring of biochemical and biophysical correlates of the stress state.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Microfluídica/métodos , Suor/química , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/instrumentação , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/métodos , Impedância Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Fluorometria , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Pele/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
11.
Lab Chip ; 20(23): 4391-4403, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089837

RESUMO

Important insights into human health can be obtained through the non-invasive collection and detailed analysis of sweat, a biofluid that contains a wide range of essential biomarkers. Skin-interfaced microfluidic platforms, characterized by soft materials and thin geometries, offer a collection of capabilities for in situ capture, storage, and analysis of sweat and its constituents. In ambulatory uses cases, the ability to provide real-time feedback on sweat loss, rate and content, without visual inspection of the device, can be important. This paper introduces a low-profile skin-interfaced system that couples disposable microfluidic sampling devices with reusable 'stick-on' electrodes and wireless readout electronics that remain isolated from the sweat. An ultra-thin capping layer on the microfluidic platform permits high-sensitivity, contactless capacitive measurements of both sweat loss and sweat conductivity. This architecture avoids the potential for corrosion of the sensing components and eliminates the need for cleaning/sterilizing the electronics, thereby resulting in a cost-effective platform that is simple to use. Optimized electrode designs follow from a combination of extensive benchtop testing, analytical calculations and FEA simulations for two sensing configurations: (1) sweat rate and loss, and (2) sweat conductivity, which contains information about electrolyte content. Both configurations couple to a flexible, wireless electronics platform that digitizes and transmits information to Bluetooth-enabled devices. On-body field testing during physical exercise validates the performance of the system in scenarios of practical relevance to human health and performance.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Suor , Eletrônica , Humanos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica , Pele
12.
BMC Biomed Eng ; 2: 3, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903362

RESUMO

Background: The characterization of limb biomechanics has broad implications for analyzing and managing motion in aging, sports, and disease. Motion capture videography and on-body wearable sensors are powerful tools for characterizing linear and angular motions of the body, though are often cumbersome, limited in detection, and largely non-portable. Here we examine the feasibility of utilizing an advanced wearable sensor, fabricated with stretchable electronics, to characterize linear and angular movements of the human arm for clinical feedback. A wearable skin-adhesive patch with embedded accelerometer and gyroscope (BioStampRC, MC10 Inc.) was applied to the volar surface of the forearm of healthy volunteers. Arms were extended/flexed for the range of motion of three different regimes: 1) horizontal adduction/abduction 2) flexion/extension 3) vertical abduction. Data were streamed and recorded revealing the signal "pattern" of movement in three separate axes. Additional signal processing and filtering afforded the ability to visualize these motions in each plane of the body; and the 3-dimensional motion envelope of the arm. Results: Each of the three motion regimes studied had a distinct pattern - with identifiable qualitative and quantitative differences. Integration of all three movement regimes allowed construction of a "motion envelope," defining and quantifying motion (range and shape - including the outer perimeter of the extreme of motion - i.e. the envelope) of the upper extremity. The linear and rotational motion results from multiple arm motions match measurements taken with videography and benchtop goniometer. Conclusions: A conformal, stretchable electronic motion sensor effectively captures limb motion in multiple degrees of freedom, allowing generation of characteristic signatures which may be readily recorded, stored, and analyzed. Wearable conformal skin adherent sensor patchs allow on-body, mobile, personalized determination of motion and flexibility parameters. These sensors allow motion assessment while mobile, free of a fixed laboratory environment, with utility in the field, home, or hospital. These sensors and mode of analysis hold promise for providing digital "motion biomarkers" of health and disease.

13.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 4(10): 997-1009, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895515

RESUMO

The rigidity and relatively primitive modes of operation of catheters equipped with sensing or actuation elements impede their conformal contact with soft-tissue surfaces, limit the scope of their uses, lengthen surgical times and increase the need for advanced surgical skills. Here, we report materials, device designs and fabrication approaches for integrating advanced electronic functionality with catheters for minimally invasive forms of cardiac surgery. By using multiphysics modelling, plastic heart models and Langendorff animal and human hearts, we show that soft electronic arrays in multilayer configurations on endocardial balloon catheters can establish conformal contact with curved tissue surfaces, support high-density spatiotemporal mapping of temperature, pressure and electrophysiological parameters and allow for programmable electrical stimulation, radiofrequency ablation and irreversible electroporation. Integrating multimodal and multiplexing capabilities into minimally invasive surgical instruments may improve surgical performance and patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Cateteres Cardíacos , Eletrônica/instrumentação , Monitorização Intraoperatória/instrumentação , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Animais , Ablação por Cateter , Eletroporação , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Ventrículos do Coração/cirurgia , Humanos , Pressão , Coelhos , Temperatura
14.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 17(1): 52, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disease, with characteristic motor symptoms such as tremor and bradykinesia. There is a growing interest to continuously monitor these and other symptoms through body-worn sensor technology. However, limited battery life and memory capacity hinder the potential for continuous, long-term monitoring with these devices. There is little information available on the relative value of adding sensors, increasing sampling rate, or computing complex signal features, all of which may improve accuracy of symptom detection at the expense of computational resources. Here we build on a previous study to investigate the relationship between data measurement characteristics and accuracy when using wearable sensor data to classify tremor and bradykinesia in patients with PD. METHODS: Thirteen individuals with PD wore a flexible, skin-mounted sensor (collecting tri-axial accelerometer and gyroscope data) and a commercial smart watch (collecting tri-axial accelerometer data) on their predominantly affected hand. The participants performed a series of standardized motor tasks, during which a clinician scored the severity of tremor and bradykinesia in that limb. Machine learning models were trained on scored data to classify tremor and bradykinesia. Model performance was compared when using different types of sensors (accelerometer and/or gyroscope), different data sampling rates (up to 62.5 Hz), and different categories of pre-engineered features (up to 148 features). Performance was also compared between the flexible sensor and smart watch for each analysis. RESULTS: First, there was no effect of device type for classifying tremor symptoms (p > 0.34), but bradykinesia models incorporating gyroscope data performed slightly better (up to 0.05 AUROC) than other models (p = 0.01). Second, model performance decreased with sampling frequency (p < 0.001) for tremor, but not bradykinesia (p > 0.47). Finally, model performance for both symptoms was maintained after substantially reducing the feature set. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the ability to simplify measurement characteristics from body-worn sensors while maintaining performance in PD symptom detection. Understanding the trade-off between model performance and data resolution is crucial to design efficient, accurate wearable sensing systems. This approach may improve the feasibility of long-term, continuous, and real-time monitoring of PD symptoms by reducing computational burden on wearable devices.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Doença de Parkinson/classificação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hipocinesia/diagnóstico , Hipocinesia/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia
15.
IEEE Open J Eng Med Biol ; 1: 243-248, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192282

RESUMO

Goal: The aim of the study herein reported was to review mobile health (mHealth) technologies and explore their use to monitor and mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A Task Force was assembled by recruiting individuals with expertise in electronic Patient-Reported Outcomes (ePRO), wearable sensors, and digital contact tracing technologies. Its members collected and discussed available information and summarized it in a series of reports. Results: The Task Force identified technologies that could be deployed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and would likely be suitable for future pandemics. Criteria for their evaluation were agreed upon and applied to these systems. Conclusions: mHealth technologies are viable options to monitor COVID-19 patients and be used to predict symptom escalation for earlier intervention. These technologies could also be utilized to monitor individuals who are presumed non-infected and enable prediction of exposure to SARS-CoV-2, thus facilitating the prioritization of diagnostic testing.

16.
Lab Chip ; 20(1): 84-92, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776526

RESUMO

Eccrine sweat is a rich and largely unexplored biofluid that contains a range of important biomarkers, from electrolytes, metabolites, micronutrients and hormones to exogenous agents, each of which can change in concentration with diet, stress level, hydration status and physiologic or metabolic state. Traditionally, clinicians and researchers have used absorbent pads and benchtop analyzers to collect and analyze the biochemical constituents of sweat in controlled, laboratory settings. Recently reported wearable microfluidic and electrochemical sensing devices represent significant advances in this context, with capabilities for rapid, in situ evaluations, in many cases with improved repeatability and accuracy. A limitation is that assays performed in these platforms offer limited control of reaction kinetics and mixing of different reagents and samples. Here, we present a multi-layered microfluidic device platform with designs that eliminate these constraints, to enable integrated enzymatic assays with demonstrations of in situ analysis of the concentrations of ammonia and ethanol in microliter volumes of sweat. Careful characterization of the reaction kinetics and their optimization using statistical techniques yield robust analysis protocols. Human subject studies with sweat initiated by warm-water bathing highlight the operational features of these systems.


Assuntos
Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Amônia/análise , Etanol/análise , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/metabolismo , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Suor/química , Amônia/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Cinética , Suor/metabolismo
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(12): e14904, 2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional diet assessment approaches such as the 24-hour self-reported recall are burdensome, suffer from recall bias, and are inaccurate in estimating energy intake. Wearable sensor technology, coupled with advanced algorithms, is increasingly showing promise in its ability to capture behaviors that provide useful information for estimating calorie and macronutrient intake. OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to summarize current technological approaches to monitoring energy intake on the basis of expert opinion from a workshop panel and to make recommendations to advance technology and algorithms to improve estimation of energy expenditure. METHODS: A 1-day invitational workshop sponsored by the National Science Foundation was held at Northwestern University. A total of 30 participants, including population health researchers, engineers, and intervention developers, from 6 universities and the National Institutes of Health participated in a panel discussing the state of evidence with regard to monitoring calorie intake and eating behaviors. RESULTS: Calorie monitoring using technological approaches can be characterized into 3 domains: (1) image-based sensing (eg, wearable and smartphone-based cameras combined with machine learning algorithms); (2) eating action unit (EAU) sensors (eg, to measure feeding gesture and chewing rate); and (3) biochemical measures (eg, serum and plasma metabolite concentrations). We discussed how each domain functions, provided examples of promising solutions, and highlighted potential challenges and opportunities in each domain. Image-based sensor research requires improved ground truth (context and known information about the foods), accurate food image segmentation and recognition algorithms, and reliable methods of estimating portion size. EAU-based domain research is limited by the understanding of when their systems (device and inference algorithm) succeed and fail, need for privacy-protecting methods of capturing ground truth, and uncertainty in food categorization. Although an exciting novel technology, the challenges of biochemical sensing range from a lack of adaptability to environmental effects (eg, temperature change) and mechanical impact, instability of wearable sensor performance over time, and single-use design. CONCLUSIONS: Conventional approaches to calorie monitoring rely predominantly on self-reports. These approaches can gain contextual information from image-based and EAU-based domains that can map automatically captured food images to a food database and detect proxies that correlate with food volume and caloric intake. Although the continued development of advanced machine learning techniques will advance the accuracy of such wearables, biochemical sensing provides an electrochemical analysis of sweat using soft bioelectronics on human skin, enabling noninvasive measures of chemical compounds that provide insight into the digestive and endocrine systems. Future computing-based researchers should focus on reducing the burden of wearable sensors, aligning data across multiple devices, automating methods of data annotation, increasing rigor in studying system acceptability, increasing battery lifetime, and rigorously testing validity of the measure. Such research requires moving promising technological solutions from the controlled laboratory setting to the field.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Algoritmos , Educação , Humanos , Smartphone , Telemedicina , Estados Unidos
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(20)2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635375

RESUMO

Gait and balance impairments are linked with reduced mobility and increased risk of falling. Wearable sensing technologies, such as inertial measurement units (IMUs), may augment clinical assessments by providing continuous, high-resolution data. This study tested and validated the utility of a single IMU to quantify gait and balance features during routine clinical outcome tests, and evaluated changes in sensor-derived measurements with age, sex, height, and weight. Age-ranged, healthy individuals (N = 49, 20-70 years) wore a lower back IMU during the 10 m walk test (10MWT), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Spatiotemporal gait parameters computed from the sensor data were validated against gold standard measures, demonstrating excellent agreement for stance time, step time, gait velocity, and step count (intraclass correlation (ICC) > 0.90). There was good agreement for swing time (ICC = 0.78) and moderate agreement for step length (ICC = 0.68). A total of 184 features were calculated from the acceleration and angular velocity signals across these tests, 36 of which had significant correlations with age. This approach was also demonstrated for an individual with stroke, providing higher resolution information about balance, gait, and mobility than the clinical test scores alone. Leveraging mobility data from wireless, wearable sensors can help clinicians and patients more objectively pinpoint impairments, track progression, and set personalized goals during and after rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Marcha , Equilíbrio Postural , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto Jovem
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