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1.
mSphere ; : e0066121, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817235

RESUMO

Rhodopsins are light-activated proteins displaying an enormous versatility of function as cation/anion pumps or sensing environmental stimuli and are widely distributed across all domains of life. Even with wide sequence divergence and uncertain evolutionary linkages between microbial (type 1) and animal (type 2) rhodopsins, the membrane orientation of the core structural scaffold of both was presumed universal. This was recently amended through the discovery of heliorhodopsins (HeRs; type 3), that, in contrast to known rhodopsins, display an inverted membrane topology and yet retain similarities in sequence, structure, and the light-activated response. While no ion-pumping activity has been demonstrated for HeRs and multiple crystal structures are available, fundamental questions regarding their cellular and ecological function or even their taxonomic distribution remain unresolved. Here, we investigated HeR function and distribution using genomic/metagenomic data with protein domain fusions, contextual genomic information, and gene coexpression analysis with strand-specific metatranscriptomics. We bring to resolution the debated monoderm/diderm occurrence patterns and show that HeRs are restricted to monoderms. Moreover, we provide compelling evidence that HeRs are a novel type of sensory rhodopsins linked to histidine kinases and other two-component system genes across phyla. In addition, we also describe two novel putative signal-transducing domains fused to some HeRs. We posit that HeRs likely function as generalized light-dependent switches involved in the mitigation of light-induced oxidative stress and metabolic circuitry regulation. Their role as sensory rhodopsins is corroborated by their photocycle dynamics and their presence/function in monoderms is likely connected to the higher sensitivity of these organisms to light-induced damage. IMPORTANCE Heliorhodopsins are enigmatic, novel rhodopsins with a membrane orientation that is opposite to all known rhodopsins. However, their cellular and ecological functions are unknown, and even their taxonomic distribution remains a subject of debate. We provide evidence that HeRs are a novel type of sensory rhodopsins linked to histidine kinases and other two-component system genes across phyla boundaries. In support of this, we also identify two novel putative signal transducing domains in HeRs that are fused with them. We also observe linkages of HeRs to genes involved in mitigation of light-induced oxidative stress and increased carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Finally, we synthesize these findings into a framework that connects HeRs with the cellular response to light in monoderms, activating light-induced oxidative stress defenses along with carbon/nitrogen metabolic circuitries. These findings are consistent with the evolutionary, taxonomic, structural, and genomic data available so far.

2.
mSphere ; 6(4): e0056221, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259556

RESUMO

The regulation of the production of oligopeptides is essential in understanding their ecological role in complex microbial communities, including harmful cyanobacterial blooms. The role of chemical communication between the cyanobacterium and the microbial community harbored as epibionts within its phycosphere is at an initial stage of research, and little is understood about its specificity. Here, we present insight into the role of a bacterial epibiont in regulating the production of novel microviridins isolated from Nostoc, an ecologically important cyanobacterial genus. Microviridins are well-known elastase inhibitors with presumed antigrazing effects. Heterologous expression and identification of specific signal molecules from the epibiont suggest the role of a quorum-sensing-based interaction. Furthermore, physiological experiments show an increase in microviridin production without affecting cyanobacterial growth and photosynthetic activity. Simultaneously, oligopeptides presenting a selective inhibition pattern provide support for their specific function in response to the presence of cohabitant epibionts. Thus, the chemical interaction revealed in our study provides an example of an interspecies signaling pathway monitoring the bacterial flora around the cyanobacterial filaments and the induction of intrinsic species-specific metabolic responses. IMPORTANCE The regulation of the production of cyanopeptides beyond microcystin is essential to understand their ecological role in complex microbial communities, e.g., harmful cyanobacterial blooms. The role of chemical communication between the cyanobacterium and the epibionts within its phycosphere is at an initial stage of research, and little is understood about its specificity. The frequency of cyanopeptide occurrence also demonstrates the need to understand the contribution of cyanobacterial peptides to the overall biological impact of cyanopeptides on aquatic organisms and vertebrates, including humans. Our results shed light on the epibiont control of microviridin production via quorum-sensing mechanisms, and we posit that such mechanisms may be widespread in natural cyanobacterial bloom community regulation.

3.
mSystems ; 6(2)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727400

RESUMO

Members of the bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadota are ubiquitous in most natural environments and represent one of the top 10 most abundant bacterial phyla in soil. Sequences affiliated with Gemmatimonadota were also reported from diverse aquatic habitats; however, it remains unknown whether they are native organisms or represent bacteria passively transported from sediment or soil. To address this question, we analyzed metagenomes constructed from five freshwater lakes in central Europe. Based on the 16S rRNA gene frequency, Gemmatimonadota represented from 0.02 to 0.6% of all bacteria in the epilimnion and between 0.1 and 1% in the hypolimnion. These proportions were independently confirmed using catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). Some cells in the epilimnion were attached to diatoms (Fragilaria sp.) or cyanobacteria (Microcystis sp.), which suggests a close association with phytoplankton. In addition, we reconstructed 45 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) related to Gemmatimonadota They represent several novel lineages, which persist in the studied lakes during the seasons. Three lineages contained photosynthesis gene clusters. One of these lineages was related to Gemmatimonas phototrophica and represented the majority of Gemmatimonadota retrieved from the lakes' epilimnion. The other two lineages came from hypolimnion and probably represented novel photoheterotrophic genera. None of these phototrophic MAGs contained genes for carbon fixation. Since most of the identified MAGs were present during the whole year and cells associated with phytoplankton were observed, we conclude that they represent truly limnic Gemmatimonadota distinct from the previously described species isolated from soils or sediments.IMPORTANCE Photoheterotrophic bacterial phyla such as Gemmatimonadota are key components of many natural environments. Its first photoheterotrophic cultured member, Gemmatimonas phototrophica, was isolated in 2014 from a shallow lake in the Gobi Desert. It contains a unique type of photosynthetic complex encoded by a set of genes which were likely received via horizontal transfer from Proteobacteria We were intrigued to discover how widespread this group is in the natural environment. In the presented study, we analyzed 45 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) that were obtained from five freshwater lakes in Switzerland and Czechia. Interestingly, it was found that phototrophic Gemmatimonadota are relatively common in euphotic zones of the studied lakes, whereas heterotrophic Gemmatimonadota prevail in deeper waters. Moreover, our analysis of the MAGs documented that these freshwater species contain almost the same set of photosynthesis genes identified before in Gemmatimonas phototrophica originating from the Gobi Desert.

4.
Environ Microbiol ; 23(7): 3418-3434, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410366

RESUMO

The development of culture-independent techniques has revolutionized our understanding of microbial ecology, especially through the illustration of the vast gap between the environmentally abundant microbial diversity and that accessible through cultivation. However, culture-based approaches are not only crucial for understanding the evolutionary, metabolic and ecological milieu of microbial diversity but also for the development of novel biotechnological applications. In this study, we used a culturomics-based approach in order to isolate novel microbial taxa from hypersaline environments (i.e. Isla Cristina and Isla Bacuta salterns in Huelva, Spain). We managed to obtain axenic cultures of four haloarchaeal strains that belong to a new haloarchaeal genus and to obtain their genomic sequences. The phylogenomic and phylogenetic analyses (together with AAI, ANI and digital DDH indices) showed that the isolates constitute two new species, for which we propose the names Halosegnis longus sp. nov. and Halosegnis rubeus sp. nov. The genomic-based metabolic reconstructions indicated that members of this new haloarchaeal genus have photoheterotrophic aerobic lifestyle with a typical salt-in signature. 16S rRNA gene sequence reads abundance profiles and genomic recruitment analyses revealed that the Halosegnis genus has a worldwide geographical distribution, reaching high abundance (up to 8%) in habitats with intermediate salinities.

5.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(22)2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917751

RESUMO

Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are ubiquitous and abundant microorganisms that play key roles in global nitrogen and carbon biogeochemical cycling. Despite recent advances in understanding NOB physiology and taxonomy, currently very few cultured NOB or representative NOB genome sequences from marine environments exist. In this study, we employed enrichment culturing and genomic approaches to shed light on the phylogeny and metabolic capacity of marine NOB. We successfully enriched two marine NOB (designated MSP and DJ) and obtained a high-quality metagenome-assembled genome (MAG) from each organism. The maximum nitrite oxidation rates of the MSP and DJ enrichment cultures were 13.8 and 30.0 µM nitrite per day, respectively, with these optimum rates occurring at 0.1 mM and 0.3 mM nitrite, respectively. Each enrichment culture exhibited a different tolerance to various nitrite and salt concentrations. Based on phylogenomic position and overall genome relatedness indices, both NOB MAGs were proposed as novel taxa within the Nitrospinota and Nitrospirota phyla. Functional predictions indicated that both NOB MAGs shared many highly conserved metabolic features with other NOB. Both NOB MAGs encoded proteins for hydrogen and organic compound metabolism and defense mechanisms for oxidative stress. Additionally, these organisms may have the genetic potential to produce cobalamin (an essential enzyme cofactor that is limiting in many environments) and, thus, may play an important role in recycling cobalamin in marine sediment. Overall, this study appreciably expands our understanding of the Nitrospinota and Nitrospirota phyla and suggests that these NOB play important biogeochemical roles in marine habitats.IMPORTANCE Nitrification is a key process in the biogeochemical and global nitrogen cycle. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) perform the second step of aerobic nitrification (converting nitrite to nitrate), which is critical for transferring nitrogen to other organisms for assimilation or energy. Despite their ecological importance, there are few cultured or genomic representatives from marine systems. Here, we obtained two NOB (designated MSP and DJ) enriched from marine sediments and estimated the physiological and genomic traits of these marine microbes. Both NOB enrichment cultures exhibit distinct responses to various nitrite and salt concentrations. Genomic analyses suggest that these NOB are metabolically flexible (similar to other previously described NOB) yet also have individual genomic differences that likely support distinct niche distribution. In conclusion, this study provides more insights into the ecological roles of NOB in marine environments.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbiota , Nitritos/metabolismo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Oxirredução , República da Coreia , Água do Mar/microbiologia
6.
Environ Microbiol ; 22(11): 4658-4668, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830371

RESUMO

Diplonemids are considered marine protists and have been reported among the most abundant and diverse eukaryotes in the world oceans. Recently we detected the presence of freshwater diplonemids in Japanese deep freshwater lakes. However, their distribution and abundances in freshwater ecosystems remain unknown. We assessed abundance and diversity of diplonemids from several geographically distant deep freshwater lakes of the world by amplicon-sequencing, shotgun metagenomics and catalysed reporter deposition-fluorescent in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). We found diplonemids in all the studied lakes, albeit with low abundances and diversity. We assembled long 18S rRNA sequences from freshwater diplonemids and showed that they form a new lineage distinct from the diverse marine clades. Freshwater diplonemids are a sister-group to a marine clade, which are mainly isolates from coastal and bay areas, suggesting a recent habitat transition from marine to freshwater habitats. Images of CARD-FISH targeted freshwater diplonemids suggest they feed on bacteria. Our analyses of 18S rRNA sequences retrieved from single-cell genomes of marine diplonemids show they encode multiple rRNA copies that may be very divergent from each other, suggesting that marine diplonemid abundance and diversity both have been overestimated. These results have wider implications on assessing eukaryotic abundances in natural habitats by using amplicon-sequencing alone.


Assuntos
Euglenozoários/classificação , Euglenozoários/isolamento & purificação , Lagos/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Euglenozoários/citologia , Euglenozoários/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Japão , Metagenômica , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
mSphere ; 5(4)2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727863

RESUMO

Metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of Asgardarchaeota have been recovered from a variety of habitats, broadening their environmental distribution and providing access to the genetic makeup of this archaeal lineage. The recent success in cultivating the first representative of Lokiarchaeia was a breakthrough in science at large and gave rise to new hypotheses about the evolution of eukaryotes. Despite their singular phylogenetic position at the base of the eukaryotic tree of life, the morphology of these bewildering organisms remains a mystery, except for the report of an unusual morphology with long, branching protrusions of the cultivated Lokiarchaeion strain "Candidatus Prometheoarchaeum syntrophicum" MK-D1. In order to visualize this elusive group, we applied a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization and catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD-FISH) and epifluorescence microscopy on coastal hypersaline sediment samples, using specifically designed CARD-FISH probes for Heimdallarchaeia and Lokiarchaeia lineages, and provide the first visual evidence for Heimdallarchaeia and new images of a lineage of Lokiarchaeia that is different from the cultured representative. Here, we show that while Heimdallarchaeia are characterized by a uniform cellular morphology typified by a centralized DNA localization, Lokiarchaeia display a plethora of shapes and sizes that likely reflect their broad phylogenetic diversity and ecological distribution.IMPORTANCE Asgardarchaeota are considered to be the closest relatives to modern eukaryotes. These enigmatic microbes have been mainly studied using metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). Only very recently, a first member of Lokiarchaeia was isolated and characterized in detail; it featured a striking morphology with long, branching protrusions. In order to visualize additional members of the phylum Asgardarchaeota, we applied a fluorescence in situ hybridization technique and epifluorescence microscopy on coastal hypersaline sediment samples, using specifically designed probes for Heimdallarchaeia and Lokiarchaeia lineages. We provide the first visual evidence for Heimdallarchaeia that are characterized by a uniform cellular morphology typified by an apparently centralized DNA localization. Further, we provide new images of a lineage of Lokiarchaeia that is different from the cultured representative and with multiple morphologies, ranging from small ovoid cells to long filaments. This diversity in observed cell shapes is likely owing to the large phylogenetic diversity within Asgardarchaeota, the vast majority of which remain uncultured.


Assuntos
Archaea/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Sondas de Oligonucleotídeos/genética , Archaea/classificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Filogenia
8.
Sci Adv ; 6(15): eaaz2441, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300653

RESUMO

Schizorhodopsins (SzRs), a rhodopsin family first identified in Asgard archaea, the archaeal group closest to eukaryotes, are present at a phylogenetically intermediate position between typical microbial rhodopsins and heliorhodopsins. However, the biological function and molecular properties of SzRs have not been reported. Here, SzRs from Asgardarchaeota and from a yet unknown microorganism are expressed in Escherichia coli and mammalian cells, and ion transport assays and patch clamp analyses are used to demonstrate SzR as a novel type of light-driven inward H+ pump. The mutation of a cytoplasmic glutamate inhibited inward H+ transport, suggesting that it functions as a cytoplasmic H+ acceptor. The function, trimeric structure, and H+ transport mechanism of SzR are similar to that of xenorhodopsin (XeR), a light-driven inward H+ pumping microbial rhodopsins, implying that they evolved convergently. The inward H+ pump function of SzR provides new insight into the photobiological life cycle of the Asgardarchaeota.


Assuntos
Archaea/metabolismo , Ativação do Canal Iônico/efeitos da radiação , Bombas de Próton/metabolismo , Rodopsina/metabolismo , Archaea/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência , Luz , Modelos Moleculares , Família Multigênica , Mutação , Conformação Proteica , Bombas de Próton/química , Bombas de Próton/genética , Rodopsina/química , Rodopsina/genética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Microbiome ; 8(1): 40, 2020 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192536

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that an affiliation of the first author was missing.

10.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 135, 2019 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630686

RESUMO

The persistent inertia in the ability to culture environmentally abundant microbes from aquatic ecosystems represents an obstacle in disentangling the complex web of ecological interactions spun by a diverse assortment of participants (pro- and eukaryotes and their viruses). In aquatic microbial communities, the numerically most abundant actors, the viruses, remain the most elusive, and especially in freshwaters their identities and ecology remain unknown. Here, using ultra-deep metagenomic sequencing from pelagic freshwater habitats, we recovered complete genomes of > 2000 phages, including small "miniphages" and large "megaphages" infecting iconic freshwater prokaryotic lineages. For instance, abundant freshwater Actinobacteria support infection by a very broad size range of phages (13-200 Kb). We describe many phages encoding genes that likely afford protection to their host from reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the aquatic environment and in the oxidative burst in protist phagolysosomes (phage-mediated ROS defense). Spatiotemporal abundance analyses of phage genomes revealed evanescence as the primary dynamic in upper water layers, where they displayed short-lived existences. In contrast, persistence was characteristic for the deeper layers where many identical phage genomes were recovered repeatedly. Phage and host abundances corresponded closely, with distinct populations displaying preferential distributions in different seasons and depths, closely mimicking overall stratification and mixis.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/virologia , Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Água Doce/microbiologia , Metagenoma/genética , Microbiologia da Água , Bacteriófagos/genética , República Tcheca , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Genoma Viral , Metagenômica , Filogenia
11.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1928, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507553

RESUMO

Hypersaline aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems display a cosmopolitan distribution. These environments teem with microbes and harbor a plethora of prokaryotic lineages that evaded ecological characterization due to the prior inability to cultivate them or to access their genomic information. In order to close the current knowledge gap, we performed two sampling and isolation campaigns in the saline soils of the Odiel Saltmarshes and the salterns of Isla Cristina (Huelva, Spain). From the isolated haloarchaeal strains subjected to high-throughput phylogenetic screening, two were chosen (F15BT and F9-27T) for physiological and genomic characterization due of their relatedness to the genus Halonotius. Comparative genomic analyses were carried out between the isolated strains and the genomes of previously described species Halonotius pteroides CECT 7525T, Halonotius aquaticus F13-13T and environmentaly recovered metagenome-assembled representatives of the genus Halonotius. The topology of the phylogenomic tree showed agreement with the phylogenetic ones based on 16S rRNA and rpoB' genes, and together with average amino acid and nucleotide identities suggested the two strains as novel species within the genus. We propose the names Halonotius terrestris sp. nov. (type strain F15BT = CECT 9688T = CCM 8954T) and Halonotius roseus sp. nov. (type strain F9-27T = CECT 9745T = CCM 8956T) for these strains. Comparative genomic analyses within the genus highlighted a typical salt-in signature, characterized by acidic proteomes with low isoelectric points, and indicated heterotrophic aerobic lifestyles. Genome-scale metabolic reconstructions revealed that the newly proposed species encode all the necessary enzymatic reactions involved in cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthesis. Based on the worldwide distribution of the genus and its abundance in hypersaline habitats we postulate that its members perform a critical function by being able to provide "expensive" commodities (i.e., vitamin B12) to the halophilic microbial communities at large.

12.
BMC Biol ; 17(1): 69, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The planetary sulfur cycle is a complex web of chemical reactions that can be microbial-mediated or can occur spontaneously in the environment, depending on the temperature and pH. Inorganic sulfur compounds can serve as energy sources for specialized prokaryotes and are important substrates for microbial growth in general. Here, we investigate dissimilatory sulfur cycling in the brine and sediments of a southwestern Siberian soda lake characterized by an extremely high pH and salinity, combining meta-omics analyses of its uniquely adapted highly diverse prokaryote communities with biogeochemical profiling to identify key microbial players and expand our understanding of sulfur cycling under haloalkaline conditions. RESULTS: Peak microbial activity was found in the top 4 cm of the sediments, a layer with a steep drop in oxygen concentration and redox potential. The majority of sulfur was present as sulfate or iron sulfide. Thiosulfate was readily oxidized by microbes in the presence of oxygen, but oxidation was partially inhibited by light. We obtained 1032 metagenome-assembled genomes, including novel population genomes of characterized colorless sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), anoxygenic purple sulfur bacteria, heterotrophic SOB, and highly active lithoautotrophic sulfate reducers. Surprisingly, we discovered the potential for nitrogen fixation in a new genus of colorless SOB, carbon fixation in a new species of phototrophic Gemmatimonadetes, and elemental sulfur/sulfite reduction in the "Candidatus Woesearchaeota." Polysulfide/thiosulfate and tetrathionate reductases were actively transcribed by various (facultative) anaerobes. CONCLUSIONS: The recovery of over 200 genomes that encoded enzymes capable of catalyzing key reactions in the inorganic sulfur cycle indicates complete cycling between sulfate and sulfide at moderately hypersaline and extreme alkaline conditions. Our results suggest that more taxonomic groups are involved in sulfur dissimilation than previously assumed.


Assuntos
Archaea/classificação , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Lagos/microbiologia , Enxofre/metabolismo , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lagos/química , Metagenoma , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Salinidade , Sais/química , Sibéria , Enxofre/análise
13.
ISME J ; 13(11): 2764-2777, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292537

RESUMO

The most abundant aquatic microbes are small in cell and genome size. Genome-streamlining theory predicts gene loss caused by evolutionary selection driven by environmental factors, favouring superior competitors for limiting resources. However, evolutionary histories of such abundant, genome-streamlined microbes remain largely unknown. Here we reconstruct the series of steps in the evolution of some of the most abundant genome-streamlined microbes in freshwaters ("Ca. Methylopumilus") and oceans (marine lineage OM43). A broad genomic spectrum is visible in the family Methylophilaceae (Betaproteobacteria), from sediment microbes with medium-sized genomes (2-3 Mbp genome size), an occasionally blooming pelagic intermediate (1.7 Mbp), and the most reduced pelagic forms (1.3 Mbp). We show that a habitat transition from freshwater sediment to the relatively oligotrophic pelagial was accompanied by progressive gene loss and adaptive gains. Gene loss has mainly affected functions not necessarily required or advantageous in the pelagial or is encoded by redundant pathways. Likewise, we identified genes providing adaptations to oligotrophic conditions that have been transmitted horizontally from pelagic freshwater microbes. Remarkably, the secondary transition from the pelagial of lakes to the oceans required only slight modifications, i.e., adaptations to higher salinity, gained via horizontal gene transfer from indigenous microbes. Our study provides first genomic evidence of genome reduction taking place during habitat transitions. In this regard, the family Methylophilaceae is an exceptional model for tracing the evolutionary history of genome streamlining as such a collection of evolutionarily related microbes from different habitats is rare in the microbial world.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Genoma Bacteriano , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Lagos/microbiologia , Methylophilaceae/genética , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Evolução Molecular , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Tamanho do Genoma , Methylophilaceae/classificação , Methylophilaceae/isolamento & purificação , Methylophilaceae/fisiologia , Filogenia
14.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(7): 1129-1137, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936485

RESUMO

Recent advances in phylogenomic analyses and increased genomic sampling of uncultured prokaryotic lineages have brought compelling evidence in support of the emergence of eukaryotes from within the archaeal domain of life (eocyte hypothesis)1,2. The discovery of Asgardarchaeota and its supposed position at the base of the eukaryotic tree of life3,4 provided cues about the long-awaited identity of the eocytic lineage from which the nucleated cells (Eukaryota) emerged. While it is apparent that Asgardarchaeota encode a plethora of eukaryotic-specific proteins (the highest number identified yet in prokaryotes)5, the lack of genomic information and metabolic characterization has precluded inferences about their lifestyles and the metabolic landscape that favoured the emergence of the protoeukaryote ancestor. Here, we use advanced phylogenetic analyses for inferring the deep ancestry of eukaryotes, and genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for shedding light on the metabolic milieu of Asgardarchaeota. In doing so, we: (1) show that Heimdallarchaeia (the closest eocytic lineage to eukaryotes to date) are likely to have a microoxic niche, based on their genomic potential, with aerobic metabolic pathways that are unique among Archaea (that is, the kynurenine pathway); (2) provide evidence of mixotrophy within Asgardarchaeota; and (3) describe a previously unknown family of rhodopsins encoded within the recovered genomes.


Assuntos
Archaea/classificação , Archaea/metabolismo , Filogenia , Aerobiose , Anaerobiose , Archaea/genética , Ecossistema , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Arqueal/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Rodopsinas Microbianas/classificação , Rodopsinas Microbianas/genética
15.
ISME J ; 13(4): 1056-1071, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610231

RESUMO

Freshwater environments teem with microbes that do not have counterparts in culture collections or genetic data available in genomic repositories. Currently, our apprehension of evolutionary ecology of freshwater bacteria is hampered by the difficulty to establish organism models for the most representative clades. To circumvent the bottlenecks inherent to the cultivation-based techniques, we applied ecogenomics approaches in order to unravel the evolutionary history and the processes that drive genome architecture in hallmark freshwater lineages from the phylum Planctomycetes. The evolutionary history inferences showed that sediment/soil Planctomycetes transitioned to aquatic environments, where they gave rise to new freshwater-specific clades. The most abundant lineage was found to have the most specialised lifestyle (increased regulatory genetic circuits, metabolism tuned for mineralization of proteinaceous sinking aggregates, psychrotrophic behaviour) within the analysed clades and to harbour the smallest freshwater Planctomycetes genomes, highlighting a genomic architecture shaped by niche-directed evolution (through loss of functions and pathways not needed in the newly acquired freshwater niche).


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Evolução Molecular , Água Doce/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Bactérias/classificação , Ecossistema , Genômica , Filogenia
16.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 11(3): 419-424, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618066

RESUMO

Microbial heliorhodopsins are a new type of rhodopsins, currently believed to engage in light sensing, with an opposite membrane topology compared to type-1 and type-2 rhodopsins. We determined heliorhodopsins presence/absence is monoderms and diderms representatives from the Tara Oceans and freshwater metagenomes as well as metagenome assembled genome collections. Heliorhodopsins are absent in diderms, confirming our previous observations in cultured Proteobacteria. We do not rule out the possibility that heliorhodopsins serve as light sensors. However, this does not easily explain their absence from diderms. Based on these observations, we speculate on the putative role of heliorhodopsins in light-driven transport of amphiphilic molecules.


Assuntos
Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Rodopsinas Sensoriais/genética , Água Doce/microbiologia , Água Doce/virologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/classificação , Metagenoma , Modelos Biológicos , Oceanos e Mares , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Água do Mar/virologia , Rodopsinas Sensoriais/metabolismo
17.
Microbiome ; 6(1): 176, 2018 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Representatives of the phylum Chloroflexi, though reportedly highly abundant in the extensive deep water habitats of both marine (SAR202 up to 30% of total prokaryotes) and freshwater (CL500-11 up to 26% of total prokaryotes), remain uncultivated and uncharacterized. There are few metagenomic studies on marine Chloroflexi representatives, while the pelagic freshwater Chloroflexi community is largely unknown except for a single metagenome-assembled genome of CL500-11. RESULTS: Here, we provide the first extensive examination of the community composition of this cosmopolitan phylum in a range of pelagic habitats (176 datasets) and highlight the impact of salinity and depth on their phylogenomic composition. Reconstructed genomes (53 in total) provide a perspective on the phylogeny, metabolism, and distribution of three novel classes and two family-level taxa within the phylum Chloroflexi. We unraveled a remarkable genomic diversity of pelagic freshwater Chloroflexi representatives that thrive not only in the hypolimnion as previously suspected, but also in the epilimnion. Our results suggest that the lake hypolimnion provides a globally stable habitat reflected in lower species diversity among hypolimnion-specific CL500-11 and TK10 clusters in distantly related lakes compared to a higher species diversity of the epilimnion-specific SL56 cluster. Cell volume analyses show that the CL500-11 are among the largest prokaryotic cells in the water column of deep lakes and with a biomass to abundance ratio of two they significantly contribute to the deep lake carbon flow. Metabolic insights indicate participation of JG30-KF-CM66 representatives in the global cobalamin production via cobinamide to cobalamin salvage pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Extending phylogenomic comparisons to brackish and marine habitats suggests salinity as the major influencer of the community composition of the deep-dwelling Chloroflexi in marine (SAR202) and freshwater (CL500-11) habitats as both counterparts thrive in intermediate brackish salinity; however, freshwater habitats harbor the most phylogenetically diverse community of pelagic Chloroflexi representatives that reside both in epi- and hypolimnion.


Assuntos
Chloroflexi/classificação , Lagos/microbiologia , Metagenoma/genética , Plâncton/classificação , Chloroflexi/genética , Chloroflexi/isolamento & purificação , República Tcheca , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ecossistema , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , Plâncton/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Salinidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Microbiome ; 6(1): 168, 2018 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypersaline soda lakes are characterized by extreme high soluble carbonate alkalinity. Despite the high pH and salt content, highly diverse microbial communities are known to be present in soda lake brines but the microbiome of soda lake sediments received much less attention of microbiologists. Here, we performed metagenomic sequencing on soda lake sediments to give the first extensive overview of the taxonomic diversity found in these complex, extreme environments and to gain novel physiological insights into the most abundant, uncultured prokaryote lineages. RESULTS: We sequenced five metagenomes obtained from four surface sediments of Siberian soda lakes with a pH 10 and a salt content between 70 and 400 g L-1. The recovered 16S rRNA gene sequences were mostly from Bacteria, even in the salt-saturated lakes. Most OTUs were assigned to uncultured families. We reconstructed 871 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) spanning more than 45 phyla and discovered the first extremophilic members of the Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR). Five new species of CPR were among the most dominant community members. Novel dominant lineages were found within previously well-characterized functional groups involved in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycling. Moreover, key enzymes of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway were encoded within at least four bacterial phyla never previously associated with this ancient anaerobic pathway for carbon fixation and dissimilation, including the Actinobacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Our first sequencing effort of hypersaline soda lake sediment metagenomes led to two important advances. First, we showed the existence and obtained the first genomes of haloalkaliphilic members of the CPR and several hundred other novel prokaryote lineages. The soda lake CPR is a functionally diverse group, but the most abundant organisms in this study are likely fermenters with a possible role in primary carbon degradation. Second, we found evidence for the presence of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway in many more taxonomic groups than those encompassing known homo-acetogens, sulfate-reducers, and methanogens. Since only few environmental metagenomics studies have targeted sediment microbial communities and never to this extent, we expect that our findings are relevant not only for the understanding of haloalkaline environments but can also be used to set targets for future studies on marine and freshwater sediments.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Lagos/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Lagos/análise , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Microbiota , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Filogenia , Cloreto de Sódio/análise
19.
ISME J ; 12(1): 185-198, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027997

RESUMO

Actinobacteria of the acI lineage are the most abundant microbes in freshwater systems, but there are so far no pure living cultures of these organisms, possibly because of metabolic dependencies on other microbes. This, in turn, has hampered an in-depth assessment of the genomic basis for their success in the environment. Here we present genomes from 16 axenic cultures of acI Actinobacteria. The isolates were not only of minute cell size, but also among the most streamlined free-living microbes, with extremely small genome sizes (1.2-1.4 Mbp) and low genomic GC content. Genome reduction in these bacteria might have led to auxotrophy for various vitamins, amino acids and reduced sulphur sources, thus creating dependencies to co-occurring organisms (the 'Black Queen' hypothesis). Genome analyses, moreover, revealed a surprising degree of inter- and intraspecific diversity in metabolic pathways, especially of carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and mainly encoded in genomic islands. The striking genotype microdiversification of acI Actinobacteria might explain their global success in highly dynamic freshwater environments with complex seasonal patterns of allochthonous and autochthonous carbon sources. We propose a new order within Actinobacteria ('Candidatus Nanopelagicales') with two new genera ('Candidatus Nanopelagicus' and 'Candidatus Planktophila') and nine new species.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/genética , Água Doce/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Composição de Bases , Biodiversidade , DNA Bacteriano/química , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Filogenia
20.
ISME J ; 12(3): 655-668, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29208946

RESUMO

The dark ocean microbiota represents the unknown majority in the global ocean waters. The SAR202 cluster belonging to the phylum Chloroflexi was the first microbial lineage discovered to specifically inhabit the aphotic realm, where they are abundant and globally distributed. The absence of SAR202 cultured representatives is a significant bottleneck towards understanding their metabolic capacities and role in the marine environment. In this work, we use a combination of metagenome-assembled genomes from deep-sea datasets and publicly available single-cell genomes to construct a genomic perspective of SAR202 phylogeny, metabolism and biogeography. Our results suggest that SAR202 cluster members are medium sized, free-living cells with a heterotrophic lifestyle, broadly divided into two distinct clades. We present the first evidence of vertical stratification of these microbes along the meso- and bathypelagic ocean layers. Remarkably, two distinct species of SAR202 cluster are highly abundant in nearly all deep bathypelagic metagenomic datasets available so far. SAR202 members metabolize multiple organosulfur compounds, many appear to be sulfite-oxidizers and are predicted to play a major role in sulfur turnover in the dark water column. This concomitantly suggests an unsuspected availability of these nutrient sources to allow for the high abundance of these microbes in the deep sea.


Assuntos
Chloroflexi/isolamento & purificação , Chloroflexi/metabolismo , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Enxofre/metabolismo , Chloroflexi/classificação , Chloroflexi/genética , Genômica , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Microbiota , Oceanos e Mares , Filogenia
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