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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555315

RESUMO

Oligodendrocytes exist in a heterogenous state and are implicated in multiple neuropsychiatric diseases including dementia. Cortical oligodendrocytes are a glial population uniquely positioned to play a key role in neurodegeneration by synchronizing circuit connectivity but molecular pathways specific to this role are lacking. We utilized oligodendrocyte-specific translating ribosome affinity purification and RNA-seq (TRAP-seq) to transcriptionally profile adult mature oligodendrocytes from different regions of the central nervous system. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) reveals distinct region-specific gene networks. Two of these mature myelinating oligodendrocyte gene networks uniquely define cortical oligodendrocytes and differentially regulate cortical myelination (M8) and synaptic signaling (M4). These two cortical oligodendrocyte gene networks are enriched for genes associated with dementia including MAPT and include multiple gene targets of the regulatory microRNA, miR-142-3p. Using a combination of TRAP-qPCR, miR-142-3p overexpression in vitro, and miR-142-null mice, we show that miR-142-3p negatively regulates cortical myelination. In rTg4510 tau-overexpressing mice, cortical myelination is compromised, and tau-mediated neurodegeneration is associated with gene co-expression networks that recapitulate both the M8 and M4 cortical oligodendrocyte gene networks identified from normal cortex. We further demonstrate overlapping gene networks in mature oligodendrocytes present in normal cortex, rTg4510 and miR-142-null mice, and existing datasets from human tauopathies to provide evidence for a critical role of miR-142-3p-regulated cortical myelination and oligodendrocyte-mediated synaptic signaling in neurodegeneration.

3.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 45, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a noninvasive measure of coronary atherosclerosis, the proximal pathophysiology underlying most cases of myocardial infarction (MI). We sought to identify expression signatures of early MI and subclinical atherosclerosis in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). In this study, we conducted paired-end RNA sequencing on whole blood collected from 198 FHS participants (55 with a history of early MI, 72 with high CAC without prior MI, and 71 controls free of elevated CAC levels or history of MI). We applied DESeq2 to identify coding-genes and long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) differentially expressed in MI and high CAC, respectively, compared with the control. RESULTS: On average, 150 million paired-end reads were obtained for each sample. At the false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.1, we found 68 coding genes and 2 lincRNAs that were differentially expressed in early MI versus controls. Among them, 60 coding genes were detectable and thus tested in an independent RNA-Seq data of 807 individuals from the Rotterdam Study, and 8 genes were supported by p value and direction of the effect. Immune response, lipid metabolic process, and interferon regulatory factor were enriched in these 68 genes. By contrast, only 3 coding genes and 1 lincRNA were differentially expressed in high CAC versus controls. APOD, encoding a component of high-density lipoprotein, was significantly downregulated in both early MI (FDR = 0.007) and high CAC (FDR = 0.01) compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: We identified transcriptomic signatures of early MI that include differentially expressed protein-coding genes and lincRNAs, suggesting important roles for protein-coding genes and lincRNAs in the pathogenesis of MI.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a new terminology updated from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we aim to estimate the global prevalence of MAFLD specifically in overweight and obese adults from the general population by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis through mining the existing epidemiological data on fatty liver disease. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane and google scholar database from inception to November, 2020. DerSimonian-Laired random-effects model with Logit transformation was performed for data analysis. Sensitivity analysis and meta-regression were used to explore predictors of MAFLD prevalence in pooled statistics with high heterogeneity. RESULTS: We identified 116 relevant studies comprised of 2667052 participants in general population with an estimated global MAFLD prevalence as 50.7% (95% CI 46.9-54.4) among overweight/obese adults regardless of diagnostic techniques. Ultrasound was the most commonly used diagnostic technique generating prevalence rate of 51.3% (95% CI 49.1-53.4). Male (59.0%, 95% CI 52.0-65.6) had a significantly higher MAFLD prevalence than female (47.5%, 95% CI 40.7-54.5). Interestingly, MAFLD prevalence rates are comparable based on classical NAFLD and non-NAFLD studies in general population. The pooled estimate prevalence of comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome was 19.7% (95% CI 12.8-29.0) and 57.5% (95% CI 49.9-64.8), respectively. CONCLUSION: MAFLD has an astonishingly high prevalence rate in overweight and obese adults. This calls for attention and dedicated action from primary care physicians, specialists, health policy makers and the general public alike.

5.
Stroke ; 52(3): 945-953, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptionally regulators of gene expression that can be released extracellularly upon pathophysiological processes. By complementary binding of target transcripts, miRNAs can modulate the expression of an abundance of genes. Increasing evidence recognize miRNAs as promising biomarkers for complex traits, including cardiovascular disease and stroke. We conducted a longitudinal study to determine the association between circulatory miRNAs and incident stroke in a population-based setting. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing was used to measure expression levels of 2083 miRNAs in plasma samples, collected between 2002 and 2005, from 1914 stroke-free participants of the Rotterdam Study. Participants were assessed for incident stroke through continuous monitoring of medical records until January 1, 2016. Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age, sex, and vascular risk factors were used to investigate the association between the levels of 591 miRNAs well-expressed in plasma and incident stroke. Furthermore, stroke subtype analysis was performed to assess the link between identified miRNAs and ischemic, hemorrhagic, and unspecified stroke. Subsequently, post hoc analyses were conducted to gain insight into the association between putative target genes of miRNAs and stroke. RESULTS: Of 1914 participants (mean age 71.5 years ±7.6; 57.7% women), 138 were diagnosed with incident stroke during a mean follow-up of 9.7±3.2 years. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found plasma levels of 3 miRNAs to be associated with incident stroke (false discovery rate-adjusted P<0.05). These include miR-6124 (hazard ratio, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.31-2.09]), miR-5196-5p (hazard ratio, 1.90 [95% CI, 1.39-2.61]), and miR-4292 (hazard ratio, 2.65 [95% CI, 1.62-4.34]). In silico analysis of the putative target genes of these miRNAs showed associations of variants in several target genes with stroke. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that plasma levels of 3 miRNAs are associated with the risk of stroke, proposing them as potential biomarkers for early detection of the disease.

6.
Curr Drug Targets ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494668

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs containing around 22 nucleotides, which are expressed in vertebrates and plants. They act as posttranscriptional gene expression regulators, fine-tuning various biological processes in different cell types. There is emerging evidence on their role in different stages of atherosclerosis. In addition to regulating the inflammatory cells involved in atherosclerosis, miRNAs play fundamental roles in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis such as endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction, the aberrant function of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and cholesterol metabolism. Moreover, miRNAs participate in several pathogenic pathways of atherosclerotic plaque development, including their effects on immune cell signaling receptors and lipid uptake. In this study, we review our current knowledge of the regulatory role of miRNAs in various pathogenic pathways underlying atherosclerosis development and also outline potential clinical applications of miRNAs in atherosclerosis.

7.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13479, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty liver disease (FLD), primarily nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is the most common liver disorder that affects a quarter of the global population. NAFLD is a spectrum of disease ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which is associated with increased risk of developing liver cancer. Given that the pathogenic mechanisms of fatty liver remain largely elusive, it is important to further investigate potential underlying mechanisms including epigenetic modifications. Here, we performed a systematic review of human epigenetic studies on FLD presence. METHODS: Five bibliographic databases were screened until 28 August 2020. We included cross-sectional, case-control and cohort studies in humans that examined the association of epigenetic modifications including global, candidate or epigenome-wide methylation of DNA, noncoding RNAs and histone modifications with FLD. RESULTS: In total 36 articles, based on 33 unique studies, consisting of 12 112 participants met the inclusion criteria. Among these, two recent epigenome-wide association studies conducted among large population-based cohorts have reported the association between cg06690548 (SLC7A11) and FLD. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated the association between microRNAs (miRNAs) and FLD, in which miR-122, miR-34a and miR-192 were recognized as the most relevant miRNAs as biomarkers for FLD. We did not find any studies examining histone modifications in relation to FLD. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative evidence suggests a link between epigenetic mechanisms, specifically DNA methylation and miRNAs, and FLD. Further efforts should investigate the molecular pathways by which these epigenetic markers may regulate FLD and also the potential role of histone modifications in FLD.

8.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215849

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated how components of immunity relate to biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in plasma and explored the influence of AD genetic risk factors in the population-based Rotterdam Study. METHODS: In 7397 persons, we calculated the granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (GLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII). In 3615 of these persons, plasma amyloid-beta (Aß)42 and Aß40 were measured. Next, we constructed an overall genetic risk score (GRS) based on genome-wide significant variants, both including and excluding APOE ε4. RESULTS: All innate immunity phenotypes were related to higher Aß, most strongly with a doubling in GLR leading to a 1.9% higher Aß42 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.4 to 3.3%) and 3.2% higher Aß40 (95% CI 2.0 to 4.3%). Higher AD GRS including APOE ε4 was associated with higher immunity markers. DISCUSSION: Higher levels of immunity markers were associated with higher Aß in plasma. Participants with a higher genetic predisposition to AD had higher immunity markers, where these effects were mainly driven by APOE ε4.

9.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137338

RESUMO

Rapid decline of glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine (eGFRcrea) is associated with severe clinical endpoints. In contrast to cross-sectionally assessed eGFRcrea, the genetic basis for rapid eGFRcrea decline is largely unknown. To help define this, we meta-analyzed 42 genome-wide association studies from the Chronic Kidney Diseases Genetics Consortium and United Kingdom Biobank to identify genetic loci for rapid eGFRcrea decline. Two definitions of eGFRcrea decline were used: 3 mL/min/1.73m2/year or more ("Rapid3"; encompassing 34,874 cases, 107,090 controls) and eGFRcrea decline 25% or more and eGFRcrea under 60 mL/min/1.73m2 at follow-up among those with eGFRcrea 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or more at baseline ("CKDi25"; encompassing 19,901 cases, 175,244 controls). Seven independent variants were identified across six loci for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25: consisting of five variants at four loci with genome-wide significance (near UMOD-PDILT (2), PRKAG2, WDR72, OR2S2) and two variants among 265 known eGFRcrea variants (near GATM, LARP4B). All these loci were novel for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25 and our bioinformatic follow-up prioritized variants and genes underneath these loci. The OR2S2 locus is novel for any eGFRcrea trait including interesting candidates. For the five genome-wide significant lead variants, we found supporting effects for annual change in blood urea nitrogen or cystatin-based eGFR, but not for GATM or LARP4B. Individuals at high compared to those at low genetic risk (8-14 vs 0-5 adverse alleles) had a 1.20-fold increased risk of acute kidney injury (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.33). Thus, our identified loci for rapid kidney function decline may help prioritize therapeutic targets and identify mechanisms and individuals at risk for sustained deterioration of kidney function.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20691, 2020 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244083

RESUMO

Sleep and 24-h activity rhythm disturbances are associated with development of neurodegenerative diseases and related pathophysiological processes in the brain. We determined the cross-sectional relation of sleep and 24-h activity rhythm disturbances with plasma-based biomarkers that might signal neurodegenerative disease, in 4712 middle-aged and elderly non-demented persons. Sleep and activity rhythms were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and actigraphy. Simoa assays were used to measure plasma levels of neurofilament light chain, and additionally ß-amyloid 40, ß-amyloid 42, and total-tau. We used linear regression, adjusting for relevant confounders, and corrected for multiple testing. We found no associations of self-rated sleep, actigraphy-estimated sleep and 24-h activity rhythms with neurofilament light chain after confounder adjustment and correction for multiple testing, except for a non-linear association of self-rated time in bed with neurofilament light chain (P = 2.5*10-4). Similarly, we observed no significant associations with ß-amyloid 40, ß-amyloid 42, and total-tau after multiple testing correction. We conclude that sleep and 24-h activity rhythm disturbances were not consistently associated with neuronal damage as indicated by plasma neurofilament light chain in this population-based sample middle-aged and elderly non-demented persons. Further studies are needed to determine the associations of sleep and 24-h activity rhythm disturbances with NfL-related neuronal damage.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty liver disease (FLD) is the most common cause of liver dysfunction in developed countries. There is great interest in developing clinically valid and minimally invasive biomarkers to enhance early diagnosis of FLD. AIM: To investigate the potential of circulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers of FLD at the population level. METHODS: Plasma levels of 2083 miRNAs were measured by RNA sequencing in 1999 participants from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study cohort. The Hounsfield Unit (HU) attenuation of liver was measured using non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan. Logistic and linear regression models adjusting for potential confounders were used to examine the association of circulatory miRNAs with liver enzymes (n = 1991) and CT-based FLD (n = 954). Moreover, the association of miRNAs with hepatic steatosis and liver fibrosis was assessed longitudinally in individuals who underwent abdominal ultrasound (n = 1211) and transient elastography (n = 777) after a median follow-up of >6 years. RESULTS: Cross-sectional analysis showed 61 miRNAs significantly associated with serum gamma-glutamyl transferase and/or alkaline phosphatase levels (Bonferroni-corrected P < 8.46 × 10-5 ). Moreover, 17 miRNAs were significantly associated with CT-based FLD (P < 8.46 × 10-5 ); 14 were among miRNAs associated with liver enzymes. Longitudinal analysis showed that 4 of these 14 miRNAs (miR-193a-5p, miR-122-5p, miR-378d and miR-187-3p) were significantly associated with hepatic steatosis (P < 3.57 × 10-3 ) and three (miR-193a-5p, miR-122-5p and miR-193b-3p) were nominally associated with liver fibrosis (P < 0.05). Nine of the 14 identified miRNAs were involved in pathways underlying liver diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma levels of several miRNAs can be used as biomarkers of FLD, laying the groundwork for future clinical applications.

12.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 157, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a well-known modifiable risk factor for many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). One of the proposed underlying mechanism linking smoking to disease is via epigenetic modifications, which could affect the expression of disease-associated genes. Here, we conducted a three-way association study to identify the relationship between smoking-related changes in DNA methylation and gene expression and their associations with cardio-metabolic traits. RESULTS: We selected 2549 CpG sites and 443 gene expression probes associated with current versus never smokers, from the largest epigenome-wide association study and transcriptome-wide association study to date. We examined three-way associations, including CpG versus gene expression, cardio-metabolic trait versus CpG, and cardio-metabolic trait versus gene expression, in the Rotterdam study. Subsequently, we replicated our findings in The Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) study. After correction for multiple testing, we identified both cis- and trans-expression quantitative trait methylation (eQTM) associations in blood. Specifically, we found 1224 smoking-related CpGs associated with at least one of the 443 gene expression probes, and 200 smoking-related gene expression probes to be associated with at least one of the 2549 CpGs. Out of these, 109 CpGs and 27 genes were associated with at least one cardio-metabolic trait in the Rotterdam Study. We were able to replicate the associations with cardio-metabolic traits of 26 CpGs and 19 genes in the KORA study. Furthermore, we identified a three-way association of triglycerides with two CpGs and two genes (GZMA; CLDND1), and BMI with six CpGs and two genes (PID1; LRRN3). Finally, our results revealed the mediation effect of cg03636183 (F2RL3), cg06096336 (PSMD1), cg13708645 (KDM2B), and cg17287155 (AHRR) within the association between smoking and LRRN3 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that smoking-related changes in DNA methylation and gene expression are associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. These findings may provide additional insights into the molecular mechanisms linking smoking to the development of CVD.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 1993-2001, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various studies show an inverse relation between Alzheimer disease and cancer, but findings are likely to be biased by surveillance and survival bias. Plasma amyloid-ß (Aß) is defined as a preclinical feature of Alzheimer disease, with lower levels of Aß42 being associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer disease. To get more insight into the biological link between Alzheimer disease and cancer, we investigated plasma Aß levels in relation to the risk of cancer. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2005, we measured plasma Aß40 and Aß42 levels in 3,949 participants from the population-based Rotterdam Study. These participants were followed until the onset of cancer, all-cause dementia, death, loss to follow-up, or January 1, 2014, whichever came first. We used Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the association between plasma Aß40 and Aß42 levels, and the risk of cancer. Analyses were stratified by cancer site. RESULTS: During a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 9.0 years (6.9-10.1), 560 participants were diagnosed with cancer. Higher levels of log2 plasma Aß40 and Aß42 were associated with a higher risk of cancer [hazard ratio per standard deviation increase for Aß40 = 1.12 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.02-1.23) and Aß42 = 1.12 (95% CI = 1.03-1.23)]. These effect estimates were most pronounced for hematologic cancers, urinary tract cancers, and cancers of unknown primary origin. CONCLUSIONS: We found that higher levels of both plasma Aß40 and Aß42 were associated with a higher risk of cancer. IMPACT: Our study suggests a potential biological link between Alzheimer disease and cancer. The pathophysiologic role of Aß in cancer and its causality warrant further investigation.

14.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(9): 1247-1250, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690454

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is spreading at unprecedented pace among the Middle East and neighboring countries. This region is geographically, economically, politically, culturally and religiously a very sensitive area, which impose unique challenges for effective control of this epidemic. These challenges include compromised healthcare systems, prolonged regional conflicts and humanitarian crises, suboptimal levels of transparency and cooperation, and frequent religious gatherings. These factors are interrelated and collectively determine the response to the pandemic in this region. Here, we in-depth emphasize these challenges and take a glimpse of possible solutions towards mitigating the spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Conflitos Armados , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Oriente Médio , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Religião
15.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 193, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung disorder characterized by persistent and progressive airflow limitation as well as systemic changes. Metabolic changes in blood may help detect COPD in an earlier stage and predict prognosis. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive study of circulating metabolites, measured by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, in relation with COPD and lung function. The discovery sample consisted of 5557 individuals from two large population-based studies in the Netherlands, the Rotterdam Study and the Erasmus Rucphen Family study. Significant findings were replicated in 12,205 individuals from the Lifelines-DEEP study, FINRISK and the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) studies. For replicated metabolites further investigation of causality was performed, utilizing genetics in the Mendelian randomization approach. RESULTS: There were 602 cases of COPD and 4955 controls used in the discovery meta-analysis. Our logistic regression results showed that higher levels of plasma Glycoprotein acetyls (GlycA) are significantly associated with COPD (OR = 1.16, P = 5.6 × 10- 4 in the discovery and OR = 1.30, P = 1.8 × 10- 6 in the replication sample). A bi-directional two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis suggested that circulating blood GlycA is not causally related to COPD, but that COPD causally increases GlycA levels. Using the prospective data of the same sample of Rotterdam Study in Cox-regression, we show that the circulating GlycA level is a predictive biomarker of COPD incidence (HR = 1.99, 95%CI 1.52-2.60, comparing those in the highest and lowest quartile of GlycA) but is not significantly associated with mortality in COPD patients (HR = 1.07, 95%CI 0.94-1.20). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that circulating blood GlycA is a biomarker of early COPD pathology.

16.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(5): 483-517, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367290

RESUMO

The Rotterdam Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that started in 1990 in the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The study aims to unravel etiology, preclinical course, natural history and potential targets for intervention for chronic diseases in mid-life and late-life. The study focuses on cardiovascular, endocrine, hepatic, neurological, ophthalmic, psychiatric, dermatological, otolaryngological, locomotor, and respiratory diseases. As of 2008, 14,926 subjects aged 45 years or over comprise the Rotterdam Study cohort. Since 2016, the cohort is being expanded by persons aged 40 years and over. The findings of the Rotterdam Study have been presented in over 1700 research articles and reports. This article provides an update on the rationale and design of the study. It also presents a summary of the major findings from the preceding 3 years and outlines developments for the coming period.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230815, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379818

RESUMO

Smoking is a potentially causal behavioral risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but not all smokers develop T2D. It is unknown whether genetic factors partially explain this variation. We performed genome-environment-wide interaction studies to identify loci exhibiting potential interaction with baseline smoking status (ever vs. never) on incident T2D and fasting glucose (FG). Analyses were performed in participants of European (EA) and African ancestry (AA) separately. Discovery analyses were conducted using genotype data from the 50,000-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ITMAT-Broad-CARe (IBC) array in 5 cohorts from from the Candidate Gene Association Resource Consortium (n = 23,189). Replication was performed in up to 16 studies from the Cohorts for Heart Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 74,584). In meta-analysis of discovery and replication estimates, 5 SNPs met at least one criterion for potential interaction with smoking on incident T2D at p<1x10-7 (adjusted for multiple hypothesis-testing with the IBC array). Two SNPs had significant joint effects in the overall model and significant main effects only in one smoking stratum: rs140637 (FBN1) in AA individuals had a significant main effect only among smokers, and rs1444261 (closest gene C2orf63) in EA individuals had a significant main effect only among nonsmokers. Three additional SNPs were identified as having potential interaction by exhibiting a significant main effects only in smokers: rs1801232 (CUBN) in AA individuals, rs12243326 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals, and rs4132670 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals. No SNP met significance for potential interaction with smoking on baseline FG. The identification of these loci provides evidence for genetic interactions with smoking exposure that may explain some of the heterogeneity in the association between smoking and T2D.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Jejum/sangue , Genótipo , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
18.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393786

RESUMO

We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of relative intake from the macronutrients fat, protein, carbohydrates, and sugar in over 235,000 individuals of European ancestries. We identified 21 unique, approximately independent lead SNPs. Fourteen lead SNPs are uniquely associated with one macronutrient at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8), while five of the 21 lead SNPs reach suggestive significance (P < 1 × 10-5) for at least one other macronutrient. While the phenotypes are genetically correlated, each phenotype carries a partially unique genetic architecture. Relative protein intake exhibits the strongest relationships with poor health, including positive genetic associations with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease (rg ≈ 0.15-0.5). In contrast, relative carbohydrate and sugar intake have negative genetic correlations with waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and neighborhood deprivation (|rg| ≈ 0.1-0.3) and positive genetic correlations with physical activity (rg ≈ 0.1 and 0.2). Relative fat intake has no consistent pattern of genetic correlations with poor health but has a negative genetic correlation with educational attainment (rg ≈-0.1). Although our analyses do not allow us to draw causal conclusions, we find no evidence of negative health consequences associated with relative carbohydrate, sugar, or fat intake. However, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that relative protein intake plays a role in the etiology of metabolic dysfunction.

19.
Maturitas ; 135: 6-26, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252966

RESUMO

Sex is a major determinant of cardiometabolic risk. DNA methylation (DNAm), an important epigenetic mechanism that differs between sexes, has been associated with cardiometabolic diseases. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review studies in adults investigating sex-specific associations of DNAm with intermediate cardiometabolic traits and incident cardiovascular disease including stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Five bibliographic databases were searched from inception to 15 July 2019. We selected 35 articles (based on 30 unique studies) from 17,023 references identified, with a total of 14,020 participants of European, North American or Asian ancestry. Four studies reported sex differences between global DNAm and blood lipid levels and stroke risk. In 25 studies that took a genome wide or candidate gene approach, DNAm at 31 gene sites was associated with sex differences in cardiometabolic diseases. The identified genes were PLA2G7, BCL11A, KDM6A, LIPC, ABCG1, PLTP, CETP, ADD1, CNN1B, HOOK2, GFBP-7,PTPN1, GCK, PTX3, ABCG1, GALNT2, CDKN2B, APOE, CTH, GNASAS, INS, PON1, TCN2, CBS, AMT, KDMA6A, FTO, MAP3K13, CCDC8, MMP-2 and ER-α. Prioritized pathway connectivity analysis associated these genes with biological pathways such as vitamin B12 metabolism, statin pathway, plasma lipoprotein, plasma lipoprotein assembly, remodeling and clearance and cholesterol metabolism. Our findings suggest that DNAm might be a promising molecular strategy for understanding sex differences in the pathophysiology of cardiometabolic diseases and that future studies should investigate the effects of sex on epigenetic mechanisms in cardiometabolic risk. In addition, we emphasize the gap between the translational potential and the clinical utilization of cardiometabolic epigenetics.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Metilação de DNA , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Humanos
20.
Front Genet ; 11: 110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174972

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. Extensive research has explored the role of miRNAs in the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary heart disease (CHD) using single-omics data, but much less by leveraging population-based omics data. Here we aimed to conduct a multi-omics analysis to identify miRNAs associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases. First, we used publicly available summary statistics from large-scale genome-wide association studies to find genetic variants in miRNA-related sequences associated with various cardiometabolic traits, including lipid and obesity-related traits, glycemic indices, blood pressure, and disease prevalence of T2D and CHD. Then, we used DNA methylation and miRNA expression data from participants of the Rotterdam Study to further investigate the link between associated miRNAs and cardiometabolic traits. After correcting for multiple testing, 180 genetic variants annotated to 67 independent miRNAs were associated with the studied traits. Alterations in DNA methylation levels of CpG sites annotated to 38 of these miRNAs were associated with the same trait(s). Moreover, we found that plasma expression levels of 8 of the 67 identified miRNAs were also associated with the same trait. Integrating the results of different omics data showed miR-10b-5p, miR-148a-3p, miR-125b-5p, and miR-100-5p to be strongly linked to lipid traits. Collectively, our multi-omics analysis revealed multiple miRNAs that could be considered as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis and progression of cardiometabolic diseases.

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