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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494793

RESUMO

Inferring a person's smoking habit and history from blood is relevant for complementing or replacing self-reports in epidemiological and public health research, and for forensic applications. However, a finite DNA methylation marker set and a validated statistical model based on a large dataset are not yet available. Employing 14 epigenome-wide association studies for marker discovery, and using data from six population-based cohorts (N = 3764) for model building, we identified 13 CpGs most suitable for inferring smoking versus non-smoking status from blood with a cumulative Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.901. Internal fivefold cross-validation yielded an average AUC of 0.897 ± 0.137, while external model validation in an independent population-based cohort (N = 1608) achieved an AUC of 0.911. These 13 CpGs also provided accurate inference of current (average AUCcrossvalidation 0.925 ± 0.021, AUCexternalvalidation0.914), former (0.766 ± 0.023, 0.699) and never smoking (0.830 ± 0.019, 0.781) status, allowed inferring pack-years in current smokers (10 pack-years 0.800 ± 0.068, 0.796; 15 pack-years 0.767 ± 0.102, 0.752) and inferring smoking cessation time in former smokers (5 years 0.774 ± 0.024, 0.760; 10 years 0.766 ± 0.033, 0.764; 15 years 0.767 ± 0.020, 0.754). Model application to children revealed highly accurate inference of the true non-smoking status (6 years of age: accuracy 0.994, N = 355; 10 years: 0.994, N = 309), suggesting prenatal and passive smoking exposure having no impact on model applications in adults. The finite set of DNA methylation markers allow accurate inference of smoking habit, with comparable accuracy as plasma cotinine use, and smoking history from blood, which we envision becoming useful in epidemiology and public health research, and in medical and forensic applications.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3346, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431621

RESUMO

Predicting longer-term mortality risk requires collection of clinical data, which is often cumbersome. Therefore, we use a well-standardized metabolomics platform to identify metabolic predictors of long-term mortality in the circulation of 44,168 individuals (age at baseline 18-109), of whom 5512 died during follow-up. We apply a stepwise (forward-backward) procedure based on meta-analysis results and identify 14 circulating biomarkers independently associating with all-cause mortality. Overall, these associations are similar in men and women and across different age strata. We subsequently show that the prediction accuracy of 5- and 10-year mortality based on a model containing the identified biomarkers and sex (C-statistic = 0.837 and 0.830, respectively) is better than that of a model containing conventional risk factors for mortality (C-statistic = 0.772 and 0.790, respectively). The use of the identified metabolic profile as a predictor of mortality or surrogate endpoint in clinical studies needs further investigation.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219668, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E is a glycoprotein best known as a mediator and regulator of lipid transport and uptake. The APOE-ε4 allele has long been associated with increased risks of Alzheimer's disease and mortality, but the effect of the less prevalent APOE-ε2 allele on diseases in the elderly and survival remains elusive. METHODS: We aggregated data of 38,537 individuals of European ancestry (mean age 65.5 years; 55.6% women) from six population-based cohort studies (Rotterdam Study, AGES-Reykjavik Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, Health-ABC Study, and the family-based Framingham Heart Study and Long Life Family Study) to determine the association of APOE, and in particular APOE-ε2, with survival in the population. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 11.7 years, 17,021 individuals died. Compared with homozygous APOE-ε3 carriers, APOE-ε2 carriers were at lower risk of death (hazard ratio,95% confidence interval: 0.94,0.90-0.99; P = 1.1*10-2), whereas APOE-ε4 carriers were at increased risk of death (HR 1.17,1.12-1.21; P = 2.8*10-16). APOE was associated with mortality risk in a dose-dependent manner, with risk estimates lowest for homozygous APOE-ε2 (HR 0.89,0.74-1.08), and highest for homozygous APOE-ε4 (HR 1.52,1.37-1.70). After censoring for dementia, effect estimates remained similar for APOE-ε2 (HR 0.95,0.90-1.01), but attenuated for APOE-ε4 (HR 1.07,1.01-1.12). Results were broadly similar across cohorts, and did not differ by age or sex. APOE genotype was associated with baseline lipid fractions (e.g. mean difference(95%CI) in LDL(mg/dL) for ε2 versus ε33: -17.1(-18.1-16.0), and ε4 versus ε33: +5.7(4.8;6.5)), but the association between APOE and mortality was unaltered after adjustment for baseline LDL or cardiovascular disease. Given the European ancestry of the study population, results may not apply to other ethnicities. CONCLUSION: Compared with APOE-ε3, APOE-ε2 is associated with prolonged survival, whereas mortality risk is increased for APOE-ε4 carriers. Further collaborative efforts are needed to unravel the role of APOE and in particular APOE-ε2 in health and disease.

4.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The FCER2 gene, via encoding of the CD23 receptor, plays an important role in the regulation of IgE responses. A genetic variant of the FCER2 gene (T2206C) was previously shown to be associated with IgE levels in asthmatic children. IgE sensitization has also been linked to increased levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the FCER2 T2206C variant influences FENO levels in asthmatic children with a reported use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 593 asthmatic children with a reported use of ICS, availability of FENO measurements and genotyping data on the FCER2 T2206C variant (rs28364072). An additive genetic model was assumed, and the association between the FCER2 T2206C variant and the log-transformed (ln) FENO levels was evaluated using linear regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, adapted British Thoracic Society (BTS) treatment steps and atopy. RESULTS: The mean age of the population was 9.1 ± 2.2 years, and the median of FENO levels was 13.0 ppb with an interquartile range (IQR) of (8.0-27.5 ppb). The minor allele (G) frequency of rs28364072 was 29.6%, and each extra copy of the G allele was significantly associated with a lower level of the geometric mean of FENO (log scale, ß = -0.12, 95% CI: -0.23, -0.02). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our results showed that the FCER2 T2206C variant was significantly associated with lower FENO levels in carriers of the G allele. Nevertheless, this SNP contributed little to the variability in FENO levels in this patient population. Our findings contribute to the present knowledge on FENO in asthmatic children; however, future replication studies are required to establish the role of this gene in relation to FENO.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 40(11): 2131-2145, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322790

RESUMO

Noncoding RNAs have been widely recognized as essential mediators of gene regulation. However, in contrast to protein-coding genes, much less is known about the influence of noncoding RNAs on human diseases. Here we examined the association of genetic variants located in primary microRNA sequences and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) with Alzheimer disease (AD) by leveraging data from the largest genome-wide association meta-analysis of late-onset AD. Variants annotated to 5 miRNAs and 10 lncRNAs (in seven distinct loci) exceeded the Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold (p < 1.02 × 10-6 ). Among these, a leading variant (rs2526377:A>G) at the 17q22 locus annotated to two noncoding RNAs (MIR142 and BZRAP1-AS) was significantly associated with a reduced risk of AD and fulfilled predefined criteria for being a functional variant. Our functional genomic analyses revealed that rs2526377 affects the promoter activity and decreases the expression of miR-142. Moreover, differential expression analysis by RNA-Seq in human iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells and the hippocampus of miR-142 knockout mice demonstrated multiple target genes of miR-142 in the brain that are likely to be involved in the inflammatory and neurodegenerative manifestations of AD. These include TGFBR1 and PICALM, of which their derepression in the brain due to reduced expression levels of miR-142-3p may reduce the risk of AD.

6.
Diabetes ; 68(5): 1073-1083, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936141

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to identify the peripheral blood DNA methylation signature of hepatic fat. We conducted epigenome-wide association studies of hepatic fat in 3,400 European ancestry (EA) participants and in 401 Hispanic ancestry and 724 African ancestry participants from four population-based cohort studies. Hepatic fat was measured using computed tomography or ultrasound imaging and DNA methylation was assessed at >400,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) in whole blood or CD14+ monocytes using a commercial array. We identified 22 CpGs associated with hepatic fat in EA participants at a false discovery rate <0.05 (corresponding P = 6.9 × 10-6) with replication at Bonferroni-corrected P < 8.6 × 10-4 Mendelian randomization analyses supported the association of hypomethylation of cg08309687 (LINC00649) with NAFLD (P = 2.5 × 10-4). Hypomethylation of the same CpG was also associated with risk for new-onset T2D (P = 0.005). Our study demonstrates that a peripheral blood-derived DNA methylation signature is robustly associated with hepatic fat accumulation. The hepatic fat-associated CpGs may represent attractive biomarkers for T2D. Future studies are warranted to explore mechanisms and to examine DNA methylation signatures of NAFLD across racial/ethnic groups.

7.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(8): 793-799, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993509

RESUMO

Chronological age alone is not a sufficient measure of the true physiological state of the body. The aims of the present study were to: (1) quantify biological age based on a physiological biomarker composite model; (2) and evaluate its association with death and age-related disease onset in the setting of an elderly population. Using structural equation modeling we computed biological age for 1699 individuals recruited from the first and second waves of the Rotterdam study. The algorithm included nine physiological parameters (c-reactive protein, creatinine, albumin, total cholesterol, cytomegalovirus optical density, urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase, forced expiratory volume and systolic blood pressure). We assessed the association between biological age, all-cause mortality, all-cause morbidity and specific age-related diseases over a median follow-up of 11 years. Biological age, compared to chronological age or the traditional biomarkers of age-related diseases, showed a stronger association with all-cause mortality (HR 1.15 vs. 1.13 and 1.10), all-cause morbidity (HR 1.06 vs. 1.05 and 1.03), stroke (HR 1.17 vs. 1.08 and 1.04), cancer (HR 1.07 vs. 1.04 and 1.02) and diabetes mellitus (HR 1.12 vs. 1.01 and 0.98). Individuals who were biologically younger exhibited a healthier life-style as reflected in their lower BMI (P < 0.001) and lower incidence of stroke (P < 0.001), cancer (P < 0.01) and diabetes mellitus (P = 0.02). Collectively, our findings suggest that biological age based on the biomarker composite model of nine physiological parameters is a useful construct to assess individuals 65 years and older at increased risk for specific age-related diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Creatinina , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214137, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908504

RESUMO

Autophagy is involved in cellular homeostasis and maintenance and may play a role in cardiometabolic health. We aimed to elucidate the role of autophagy in cardiometabolic traits by investigating genetic variants and DNA methylation in autophagy-related genes in relation to cardiovascular diseases and related traits. To address this research question, we implemented a multidirectional approach using several molecular epidemiology tools, including genetic association analysis with genome wide association studies data and exome sequencing data and differential DNA methylation analysis. We investigated the 21 autophagy-related genes in relation to coronary artery disease and a number of cardiometabolic traits (blood lipids, blood pressure, glycemic traits, type 2 diabetes). We used data from the largest genome wide association studies as well as DNA methylation and exome sequencing data from the Rotterdam Study. Single-nucleotide polymorphism rs110389913 in AMBRA1 (p-value = 4.9×10-18) was associated with blood proinsulin levels, whereas rs6587988 in ATG4C and rs10439163 in ATG4D with lipid traits (ATG4C: p-value = 2.5×10-15 for total cholesterol and p-value = 3.1×10-18 for triglycerides, ATG4D: p-value = 9.9×10-12 for LDL and p-value = 1.3×10-10 for total cholesterol). Moreover, rs7635838 in ATG7 was associated with HDL (p-value = 1.9×10-9). Rs2447607 located in ATG7 showed association with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. Rs2424994 in MAP1LC3A was associated with coronary artery disease (p-value = 5.8×10-6). Furthermore, we identified association of an exonic variant located in ATG3 with diastolic blood pressure (p-value = 6.75×10-6). Using DNA methylation data, two CpGs located in ULK1 (p-values = 4.5×10-7 and 1×10-6) and two located in ATG4B (2×10-13 and 1.48×10-7) were significantly associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In addition one CpG in ATG4D was associated with HDL (p-value = 3.21×10-5). Our findings provide support for the role of autophagy in glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as blood pressure regulation.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 112-138, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595373

RESUMO

Mitochondria (MT), the major site of cellular energy production, are under dual genetic control by 37 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes and numerous nuclear genes (MT-nDNA). In the CHARGEmtDNA+ Consortium, we studied genetic associations of mtDNA and MT-nDNA associations with body mass index (BMI), waist-hip-ratio (WHR), glucose, insulin, HOMA-B, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c. This 45-cohort collaboration comprised 70,775 (insulin) to 170,202 (BMI) pan-ancestry individuals. Validation and imputation of mtDNA variants was followed by single-variant and gene-based association testing. We report two significant common variants, one in MT-ATP6 associated (p ≤ 5E-04) with WHR and one in the D-loop with glucose. Five rare variants in MT-ATP6, MT-ND5, and MT-ND6 associated with BMI, WHR, or insulin. Gene-based meta-analysis identified MT-ND3 associated with BMI (p ≤ 1E-03). We considered 2,282 MT-nDNA candidate gene associations compiled from online summary results for our traits (20 unique studies with 31 dataset consortia's genome-wide associations [GWASs]). Of these, 109 genes associated (p ≤ 1E-06) with at least 1 of our 7 traits. We assessed regulatory features of variants in the 109 genes, cis- and trans-gene expression regulation, and performed enrichment and protein-protein interactions analyses. Of the identified mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes, 79 associated with adipose measures, 49 with glucose/insulin, 13 with risk for type 2 diabetes, and 18 with cardiovascular disease, indicating for pleiotropic effects with health implications. Additionally, 21 genes related to cholesterol, suggesting additional important roles for the genes identified. Our results suggest that mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes and variants reported make important contributions to glucose and insulin metabolism, adipocyte regulation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Metabolismo/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Relação Cintura-Quadril
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(11)2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463316

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of the majority of genes. However, it is not known whether they regulate genes in random or are organized according to their function. To this end, we chose cardiometabolic disorders as an example and investigated whether genes associated with cardiometabolic disorders are regulated by a random set of miRNAs or a limited number of them. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reaching genome-wide level significance were retrieved from most recent genome-wide association studies on cardiometabolic traits, which were cross-referenced with Ensembl to identify related genes and combined with miRNA target prediction databases (TargetScan, miRTarBase, or miRecords) to identify miRNAs that regulate them. We retrieved 520 SNPs, of which 355 were intragenic, corresponding to 304 genes. While we found a higher proportion of genes reported from all GWAS that were predicted targets for miRNAs in comparison to all protein-coding genes (75.1%), the proportion was even higher for cardiometabolic genes (80.6%). Enrichment analysis was performed within each database. We found that cardiometabolic genes were over-represented in target genes for 29 miRNAs (based on TargetScan) and 3 miRNAs (miR-181a, miR-302d and miR-372) (based on miRecords) after Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple testing. Our work provides evidence for non-random assignment of genes to miRNAs and supports the idea that miRNAs regulate sets of genes that are functionally related.

11.
Front Genet ; 9: 420, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356672

RESUMO

Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an established heritable marker for subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study, we aim to identify rare variants with large effects driving differences in cIMT by performing genome-wide linkage analysis of individuals in the extremes of cIMT trait distribution (>90th percentile) in a large family-based study from a genetically isolated population in the Netherlands. Linked regions were subsequently explored by fine-mapping using exome sequencing. We observed significant evidence of linkage on chromosomes 2p16.3 [rs1017418, heterogeneity LOD (HLOD) = 3.35], 19q13.43 (rs3499, HLOD = 9.09), 20p13 (rs1434789, HLOD = 4.10), and 21q22.12 (rs2834949, HLOD = 3.59). Fine-mapping using exome sequencing data identified a non-coding variant (rs62165235) in PNPT1 gene under the linkage peak at chromosome 2 that is likely to have a regulatory function. The variant was associated with quantitative cIMT in the family-based study population (effect = 0.27, p-value = 0.013). Furthermore, we identified several genes under the linkage peak at chromosome 21 highly expressed in tissues relevant for atherosclerosis. To conclude, our linkage analysis identified four genomic regions significantly linked to cIMT. Further analyses are needed to demonstrate involvement of identified candidate genes in development of atherosclerosis.

12.
Blood ; 132(17): 1842-1850, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042098

RESUMO

Many hemostatic factors are associated with age and age-related diseases; however, much remains unknown about the biological mechanisms linking aging and hemostatic factors. DNA methylation is a novel means by which to assess epigenetic aging, which is a measure of age and the aging processes as determined by altered epigenetic states. We used a meta-analysis approach to examine the association between measures of epigenetic aging and hemostatic factors, as well as a clotting time measure. For fibrinogen, we performed European and African ancestry-specific meta-analyses which were then combined via a random effects meta-analysis. For all other measures we could not estimate ancestry-specific effects and used a single fixed effects meta-analysis. We found that 1-year higher extrinsic epigenetic age as compared with chronological age was associated with higher fibrinogen (0.004 g/L/y; 95% confidence interval, 0.001-0.007; P = .01) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1; 0.13 U/mL/y; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.20; P = 6.6 × 10-5) concentrations, as well as lower activated partial thromboplastin time, a measure of clotting time. We replicated PAI-1 associations using an independent cohort. To further elucidate potential functional mechanisms, we associated epigenetic aging with expression levels of the PAI-1 protein encoding gene (SERPINE1) and the 3 fibrinogen subunit-encoding genes (FGA, FGG, and FGB) in both peripheral blood and aorta intima-media samples. We observed associations between accelerated epigenetic aging and transcription of FGG in both tissues. Collectively, our results indicate that accelerated epigenetic aging is associated with a procoagulation hemostatic profile, and that epigenetic aging may regulate hemostasis in part via gene transcription.

13.
Stem Cell Rev ; 14(3): 309-322, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29541978

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of gene expression. They are involved in the fine-tuning of fundamental biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis in many cell types. Emerging evidence suggests that miRNAs regulate critical pathways involved in stem cell function. Several miRNAs have been suggested to target transcripts that directly or indirectly coordinate the cell cycle progression of stem cells. Moreover, previous studies have shown that altered expression levels of miRNAs can contribute to pathological conditions, such as cancer, due to the loss of cell cycle regulation. However, the precise mechanism underlying miRNA-mediated regulation of cell cycle in stem cells is still incompletely understood. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of miRNAs regulatory role in cell cycle progression of stem cells. We describe how specific miRNAs may control cell cycle associated molecules and checkpoints in embryonic, somatic and cancer stem cells. We further outline how these miRNAs could be regulated to influence cell cycle progression in stem cells as a potential clinical application.

14.
J Hum Genet ; 63(4): 431-446, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382920

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many susceptibility loci for cardiometabolic disorders. Most of the associated variants reside in non-coding regions of the genome including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are thought to play critical roles in diverse biological processes. Here, we leveraged data from the available GWAS meta-analyses on lipid and obesity-related traits, blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and coronary artery disease and identified 179 associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 102 lncRNAs (p-value < 2.3 × 10-7). Of these, 55 SNPs, either the lead SNP or in strong linkage disequilibrium with the lead SNP in the related loci, were selected for further investigations. Our in silico predictions and functional annotations of the SNPs as well as expression and DNA methylation analysis of their lncRNAs demonstrated several lncRNAs that fulfilled predefined criteria for being potential functional targets. In particular, we found evidence suggesting that LOC157273 (at 8p23.1) is involved in regulating serum lipid-cholesterol. Our results showed that rs4841132 in the second exon and cg17371580 in the promoter region of LOC157273 are associated with lipids; the lncRNA is expressed in liver and associates with the expression of its nearby coding gene, PPP1R3B. Collectively, we highlight a number of loci associated with cardiometabolic disorders for which the association may act through lncRNAs.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Cardiopatias/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Epistasia Genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Interferência de RNA , RNA Longo não Codificante/química
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(12)2017 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186852

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate the translation of messenger RNAs. Given the crucial role of miRNAs in gene expression, genetic variants within miRNA-related sequences may affect miRNA function and contribute to disease risk. Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass, and bone mineral density (BMD) is a major diagnostic proxy to assess osteoporosis risk. Here, we aimed to identify miRNAs that are involved in BMD using data from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on femoral neck, lumbar spine and forearm BMD. Of 242 miRNA-variants available in the GWAS data, we found rs11614913:C > T in the precursor miR-196a-2 to be significantly associated with femoral neck-BMD (p-value = 9.9 × 10-7, ß = -0.038) and lumbar spine-BMD (p-value = 3.2 × 10-11, ß = -0.061). Furthermore, our sensitivity analyses using the Rotterdam study data showed a sex-specific association of rs11614913 with BMD only in women. Subsequently, we highlighted a number of miR-196a-2 target genes, expressed in bone and associated with BMD, that may mediate the miRNA function in BMD. Collectively, our results suggest that miR-196a-2 may contribute to variations in BMD level. Further biological investigations will give more insights into the mechanisms by which miR-196a-2 control expression of BMD-related genes.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Colo do Fêmur/patologia , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/metabolismo
16.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 58(12): 5368-5377, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049738

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), using genetic data. MiRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression. Genetic variants in miRNAs or miRNA-binding sites within gene 3'-untranslated regions (3'UTRs) are expected to affect miRNA function and contribute to disease risk. Methods: Data from the recent genome-wide association studies on intraocular pressure, vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR), cupa area and disc area were used to investigate the association of miRNAs with POAG endophenotypes. Putative targets of the associated miRNAs were studied according to their association with POAG and tested in cell line by transfection experiments for regulation by the miRNAs. Results: Of 411 miRNA variants, rs12803915:A/G in the terminal loop of pre-miR-612 and rs2273626:A/C in the seed sequence of miR-4707 were significantly associated with VCDR and cup area (P values < 1.2 × 10-4). The first variant is demonstrated to increase the miR-612 expression. We showed that the second variant does not affect the miR-4707 biogenesis, but reduces the binding of miR-4707-3p to CARD10, a gene known to be involved in glaucoma. Moreover, of 72,052 miRNA-binding-site variants, 47 were significantly associated with four POAG endophenotypes (P value < 6.9 × 10-6). Of these, we highlighted 10 variants that are more likely to affect miRNA-mediated gene regulation in POAG. These include rs3217992 and rs1063192, which have been shown experimentally to affect miR-138-3p- and miR-323b-5p-mediated regulation of CDKN2B. Conclusions: We identified a number of miRNAs that are associated with POAG endophenotypes. The identified miRNAs and their target genes are candidates for future studies on miRNA-related therapies for POAG.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 121, 2017 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28743860

RESUMO

Bone mineral density is known to be a heritable, polygenic trait whereas genetic variants contributing to lean mass variation remain largely unknown. We estimated the shared SNP heritability and performed a bivariate GWAS meta-analysis of total-body lean mass (TB-LM) and total-body less head bone mineral density (TBLH-BMD) regions in 10,414 children. The estimated SNP heritability is 43% (95% CI: 34-52%) for TBLH-BMD, and 39% (95% CI: 30-48%) for TB-LM, with a shared genetic component of 43% (95% CI: 29-56%). We identify variants with pleiotropic effects in eight loci, including seven established bone mineral density loci: WNT4, GALNT3, MEPE, CPED1/WNT16, TNFSF11, RIN3, and PPP6R3/LRP5. Variants in the TOM1L2/SREBF1 locus exert opposing effects TB-LM and TBLH-BMD, and have a stronger association with the former trait. We show that SREBF1 is expressed in murine and human osteoblasts, as well as in human muscle tissue. This is the first bivariate GWAS meta-analysis to demonstrate genetic factors with pleiotropic effects on bone mineral density and lean mass.Bone mineral density and lean skeletal mass are heritable traits. Here, Medina-Gomez and colleagues perform bivariate GWAS analyses of total body lean mass and bone mass density in children, and show genetic loci with pleiotropic effects on both traits.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Metanálise como Assunto , Desenvolvimento Musculoesquelético/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Peso Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Criança , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
18.
Gastroenterology ; 153(4): 1096-1106.e2, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28624579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Epigenetic mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of liver enzyme level. We aimed to identify CpG sites at which DNA methylation levels are associated with blood levels of liver enzymes and hepatic steatosis. METHODS: We conducted an epigenome-wide association study in whole blood for liver enzyme levels, including gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), among a discovery set of 731 participants of the Rotterdam Study and sought replication in a non-overlapping sample of 719 individuals. Significant DNA methylation changes were further analyzed to evaluate their relation with hepatic steatosis. Expression levels of the top identified gene were measured in 9 human liver cell lines and compared with expression profiles of its potential targets associated with lipid traits. The candidate gene was subsequently knocked down in human hepatoma cells using lentiviral vectors expressing small hairpin RNAs. RESULTS: Eight probes annotated to SLC7A11, SLC1A5, SLC43A1, PHGDH, PSORS1C1, SREBF1, ANKS3 were associated with GGT and 1 probe annotated to SLC7A11 was associated with ALT after Bonferroni correction (1.0 × 10-7). No probe was identified for AST levels. Four probes for GGT levels including cg06690548 (SLC7A11), cg11376147 (SLC43A1), cg22304262 (SLC1A5), and cg14476101 (PHGDH), and 1 for ALT cg06690548 (SLC7A11) were replicated. DNA methylation at SLC7A11 was associated with reduced risk of hepatic steatosis in participants (odds ratio, 0.69; 95% CI= 0.55-0.93; P value: 2.7 × 10-3). In functional experiments, SLC7A11 was highly expressed in human liver cells; its expression is positively correlated with expression of a panel of lipid-associated genes, indicating a role of SLC7A11 in lipid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide new insights into epigenetic mechanisms associated with markers of liver function and hepatic steatosis, laying the groundwork for future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sistema ASC de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Sistema ASC de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Sistema y+L de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Sistema y+L de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ilhas de CpG , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/enzimologia , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Países Baixos , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/genética , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Fatores de Proteção , Interferência de RNA , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transfecção
19.
Hum Mutat ; 38(7): 827-838, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28397307

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly, is a complex disease that results from multiple genetic and environmental factors. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate target mRNAs and are frequently implicated in human diseases. Here, we investigated the association of genetic variants in miRNAs and miRNA-binding sites within gene 3'-untranslated regions (3'UTRs) with AMD using data from the largest AMD genome-wide association study. First, we identified three variants in miRNAs significantly associated with AMD. These include rs2168518:G>A in the miR-4513 seed sequence, rs41292412:C>T in pre-miR-122/miR-3591, and rs4351242:C>T in the terminal-loop of pre-miR-3135b. We demonstrated that these variants reduce expression levels of the mature miRNAs in vitro and pointed the target genes that may mediate downstream effects of these miRNAs in AMD. Second, we identified 54 variants (in 31 genes) in miRNA-binding sites associated with AMD. Based on stringent prioritization criteria, we highlighted the variants that are more likely to have an impact on the miRNA-target interactions. Further, we selected rs4151672:C>T within the CFB 3'UTR and experimentally showed that while miR-210-5p downregulates expression of CFB, the variant decreases miR-210-5p-mediated repression of CFB. Together, our findings support the notion that miRNAs may play a role in AMD.


Assuntos
Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Variação Genética , Degeneração Macular/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Células A549 , Algoritmos , Sítios de Ligação , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Complemento C3/genética , Fator B do Complemento/genética , Biologia Computacional , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células HEK293 , Haplótipos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 32(3): 217-226, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28258520

RESUMO

The immune response involved in each phase of type 2 diabetes (T2D) development might be different. We aimed to identify novel inflammatory markers that predict progression from normoglycemia to pre-diabetes, incident T2D and insulin therapy. We used plasma levels of 26 inflammatory markers in 971 subjects from the Rotterdam Study. Among them 17 are novel and 9 previously studied. Cox regression models were built to perform survival analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: During a follow-up of up to 14.7 years (between April 1, 1997, and Jan 1, 2012) 139 cases of pre-diabetes, 110 cases of T2D and 26 cases of insulin initiation were identified. In age and sex adjusted Cox models, IL13 (HR = 0.78), EN-RAGE (1.30), CFH (1.24), IL18 (1.22) and CRP (1.32) were associated with incident pre-diabetes. IL13 (0.62), IL17 (0.75), EN-RAGE (1.25), complement 3 (1.44), IL18 (1.35), TNFRII (1.27), IL1ra (1.24) and CRP (1.64) were associated with incident T2D. In multivariate models, IL13 (0.77), EN-RAGE (1.23) and CRP (1.26) remained associated with pre-diabetes. IL13 (0.67), IL17 (0.76) and CRP (1.32) remained associated with T2D. IL13 (0.55) was the only marker associated with initiation of insulin therapy in diabetics. Various inflammatory markers are associated with progression from normoglycemia to pre-diabetes (IL13, EN-RAGE, CRP), T2D (IL13, IL17, CRP) or insulin therapy start (IL13). Among them, EN-RAGE is a novel inflammatory marker for pre-diabetes, IL17 for incident T2D and IL13 for pre-diabetes, incident T2D and insulin therapy start.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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