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1.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; : 1-7, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602110

RESUMO

Identification of a new axis of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin (1-7)/Mas receptor, in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), has opened a new insight regarding the role of RAS and angiotensin in higher brain functions. ACE2 catabolizes angiotensin II and produces angiotensin (1-7), an agonist of Mas receptor. Mice lacking the Mas receptor (angiotensin 1-7 receptor) exhibit anxiety-like behaviours. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis of the involvement of ACE2 genetic variant (G8790A) on response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In a randomised control trial, 200 newly diagnosed Iranian patients with major depressive disorder completed 6 weeks of fluoxetine or sertraline treatment. Patients with a reduction of 50% or more in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score were considered responsive to treatment. G8790A polymorphism was determined in extracted DNAs using restriction fragment length polymerase chain reaction method. Our results show that the A allele and AA and GA genotypes were significantly associated with better response to SSRIs (p = 0.008; OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.4-8.5 and p = 0.027; OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.2-9.2, respectively). Moreover, patients with GA and AA genotypes responded significantly better to sertraline (p = 0.0002; OR = 9.1; 95% CI = 2.4-33.7). The A allele was significantly associated with better response to sertraline (p = 0.0001; OR = 7.6; 95% CI = 2.5-23.3). In conclusion, our results confirm the role of G8790A in response to some SSRIs.

2.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 35(9): e22846, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250697

RESUMO

The liver is the primary organ affected by cholestasis. However, the brain, skeletal muscle, heart, and kidney are also severely influenced by cholestasis/cirrhosis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of organ injury in cholestasis. The current study was designed to evaluate the mitochondrial glutathione redox state as a significant index in cell death. Moreover, tissue energy charge (EC) was calculated. Rats underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) and the brain, heart, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle mitochondria were assessed at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, 14, and 28 days after BDL). A significant decrease in mitochondrial glutathione redox state and EC was detected in BDL animals. Moreover, disturbed mitochondrial indices were evident in different organs of BDL rats. These data could offer new insight into the mechanisms of organ injury and the source of oxidative stress during cholestasis and might provide novel therapeutic strategies against these complications.


Assuntos
Colestase/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Animais , Colestase/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/patologia , Mitocôndrias Musculares/patologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Oxirredução , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(6): 1191-1203, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527194

RESUMO

Cholestasis is a clinical complication with different etiologies. The liver is the primary organ influenced in cholestasis. Renal injury is also a severe clinical complication in cholestatic/cirrhotic patients. Several studies mentioned the importance of oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment as two mechanistically interrelated events in cholestasis-induced organ injury. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a flavoprotein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This molecule is involved in a distinct pathway of cell death. The current study aimed to evaluate the role of AIF in the pathophysiology of cholestasis-associated hepatic and renal injury. Bile duct ligation (BDL) was used as an animal model of cholestasis. Serum, urine, and tissue samples were collected at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, 14, and 28 days after BDL surgery). Tissues' AIF mRNA levels, as well as serum, urine, and tissue activity of AIF, were measured. Moreover, markers of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were assessed in the liver and kidney of cholestatic animals. A significant increase in liver and kidney AIF mRNA levels, in addition to increased AIF activity in the liver, kidney, serum, and urine, was detected in BDL rats. DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were raised in the liver and kidney of cholestatic animals, especially at the early stage of the disease. The apoptotic mode of cell death in the liver and kidney was connected to a higher AIF level. These data mention the importance of AIF in the pathogenesis of cholestasis-induced organ injury, especially at the early stage of this disease. Mitochondrial release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) seems to play a pathogenic role in cholestasis-associated hepatic and renal injury. AIF release is directly connected to oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in cholestatic animals.

4.
Nutr Neurosci ; 23(9): 731-743, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856059

RESUMO

Objective(s): Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element physiologically incorporated in the structure of several vital enzymes. Despite its essentiality, excessive Mn exposure is toxic with brain tissue as the primary target organ. There is no specific and clinically available therapeutic/preventive option against Mn neurotoxicity. Carnosine is a neuropeptide with several physiological roles. The neuroprotective properties of this peptide have been evaluated in different experimental models. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of carnosine supplementation and its potential mechanisms of action in an animal model of Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice received Mn (100 mg/kg, s.c) alone and/or in combination with carnosine (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg, i.p). Several locomotor activity indices were monitored. Moreover, biomarkers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were assessed in the brain tissue of Mn-exposed animals. Results: Significant locomotor dysfunction was revealed in Mn-exposed animals. Furthermore, brain tissue biomarkers of oxidative stress were significantly increased, and mitochondrial indices of functionality were impaired in Mn-treated animals. It was found that carnosine supplementation (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg, i.p) alleviated the Mn-induced locomotor deficit. Moreover, this peptide mitigated oxidative stress biomarkers and preserved brain tissue mitochondrial functionality in the animal model of manganism. Conclusion: These data indicate that carnosine is a potential neuroprotective agent against Mn neurotoxicity. Antioxidative and mitochondria protecting effects of carnosine might play a fundamental role in its neuroprotective properties against Mn toxicity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Carnosina/administração & dosagem , Manganês/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 70(1): 49-56, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ifosfamide (IFO) is an alkylating agent administered against different types of malignancies. Several cases of renal injury and serum electrolytes disturbances have been reported in IFO-treated patients. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are suspected of being involved in the mechanism of IFO nephrotoxicity. Carnosine is a dipeptide which its antioxidant and mitochondria protecting properties have been mentioned in different experimental models. The current study aimed to evaluate the nephroprotective properties of carnosine against IFO-induced renal injury. METHODS: Rats were treated with IFO (50 mg/kg, i.p) alone or in combination with carnosine. Serum and urine biomarkers of renal injury in addition to kidney markers of oxidative stress were evaluated. Moreover, kidney mitochondria were isolated, and some mitochondrial indices were assessed. RESULTS: Elevated serum creatinine and BUN, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia, in addition, to an increase in urine glucose, protein, γ-GT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were evident in IFO-treated animals. IFO also caused an increase in kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Renal GSH levels and antioxidant capacity were also depleted with IFO therapy. Mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, GSH level, membrane potential, and ATP content were decreased while mitochondrial LPO and permeabilization were increased in IFO group. Carnosine (250 and 500 mg/kg, i.p) mitigated IFO-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in renal tissue. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress as fundamental mechanisms of renal injury induced by IFO. On the other hand, carnosine supplementation protected kidneys against IFO-induced injury through regulating mitochondrial function and mitigating oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Carnosina/administração & dosagem , Ifosfamida/efeitos adversos , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Ifosfamida/administração & dosagem , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Rim/citologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
6.
Adv Pharm Bull ; 9(2): 294-301, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380256

RESUMO

Purpose: Manganese (Mn) is a neurotoxic chemical which induces a wide range of complications in the brain tissue. Impaired locomotor activity and cognitive dysfunction are associated with high brain Mn content. At the cellular level, mitochondria are potential targets for Mn toxicity. Carnosine is a dipeptide abundantly found in human brain. Several pharmacological properties including mitochondrial protecting and antioxidative effects have been attributed to carnosine. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of carnosine treatment on Mn-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in isolated brain mitochondria. Methods: Mice brain mitochondria were isolated based on the differential centrifugation method and exposed to increasing concentrations of Mn (10 µM-10 mM). Carnosine (1 mM) was added as the protective agent. Mitochondrial indices including mitochondrial depolarization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity, ATP content, and mitochondrial swelling and permeabilization were assessed. Results: Significant deterioration in mitochondrial indices were evident in Mn-exposed brain mitochondria. On the other hand, it was found that carnosine (1 mM) treatment efficiently prevented Mn-induced mitochondrial impairment. Conclusion: These data propose mitochondrial protection as a fundamental mechanism for the effects of carnosine against Mn toxicity. Hence, this peptide might be applicable against Mn neurotoxicity with different etiologies (e.g., in cirrhotic patients).

7.
Heliyon ; 5(6): e01996, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294126

RESUMO

Imatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor widely administered against chronic myeloid leukemia. On the other hand, drug-induced kidney proximal tubular injury, electrolytes disturbances, and renal failure is a clinical complication associated with imatinib therapy. There is no precise cellular mechanism(s) for imatinib-induced renal injury. The current investigation aimed to evaluate the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of imatinib nephrotoxicity. Rats received imatinib (50 and 100 mg/kg, oral, 14 consecutive days). Serum and urine biomarkers of renal injury and markers of oxidative stress in the kidney tissue were assessed. Moreover, kidney mitochondria were isolated, and mitochondrial indices, including mitochondrial depolarization, dehydrogenases activity, mitochondrial permeabilization, lipid peroxidation (LPO), mitochondrial glutathione levels, and ATP content were determined. A significant increase in serum (Creatinine; Cr and blood urea nitrogen; BUN) and urine (Glucose, protein, gamma-glutamyl transferase; γ-GT, and alkaline phosphatase; ALP) biomarkers of renal injury, as well as serum electrolytes disturbances (hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia), were evident in imatinib-treated animals. On the other hand, imatinib (100 mg/kg) caused an increase in kidney ROS and LPO. Renal tubular interstitial nephritis, tissue necrosis, and atrophy were evident as tissue histopathological changes in imatinib-treated rats. Mitochondrial parameters were also adversely affected by imatinib administration. These data represent mitochondrial impairment, renal tissue energy crisis, and oxidative stress as possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of imatinib-induced renal injury and serum electrolytes disturbances.

8.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 190(2): 384-395, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357569

RESUMO

Manganese (Mn) is a trace element involved in many physiological processes. However, excessive Mn exposure leads to neurological complications. Although no precise mechanism(s) has been found for Mn-induced neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury seem to play a relevant role in this complication. On the other hand, there is no protective strategy against Mn neurotoxicity so far. Taurine is an amino acid with significant neuroprotective properties. The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of taurine supplementation and its potential mechanism(s) of action in a mouse model of manganism. Animals were treated with Mn (100 mg/kg, s.c) alone and/or in combination with taurine (50, 100, and 500 mg/kg, i.p, for eight consecutive days). Severe locomotor dysfunction along with a significant elevation in brain tissue biomarkers of oxidative stress was evident in Mn-exposed mice. On the other hand, it was revealed that mitochondrial indices of functionality were hampered in Mn-treated animals. Taurine supplementation (50, 100, and 500 mg/kg, i.p) alleviated Mn-induced locomotor deficit. Moreover, this amino acid mitigated oxidative stress biomarkers and preserved brain tissue mitochondrial indices of functionality. These data introduce taurine as a potential neuroprotective agent against Mn neurotoxicity. Antioxidative and mitochondria protecting effects of taurine might play a fundamental role in its neuroprotective properties against Mn toxicity.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Manganês/toxicidade , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Injeções Subcutâneas , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Manganês/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Taurina/administração & dosagem
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 109: 271-280, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396085

RESUMO

Cholemic nephropathy (CN) is a clinical complication associated with cholestasis and chronic liver diseases. CN could lead to renal failure and the need for kidney transplantation if not appropriately managed. On the other hand, although the clinical features of CN are well described, there is no clear idea on the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms of CN. The current study was designed to evaluate kidney mitochondrial function in cholestasis-associated CN. Rats underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery, and kidney mitochondria were isolated at scheduled time intervals (14, 28, and 42 days after BDL operation). Several mitochondrial indices including mitochondrial permeabilization and swelling, glutathione and ATP content, mitochondrial depolarization, and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Renal tissue markers of oxidative stress along with tissue histopathological changes and serum biochemistry were also analyzed. Severe kidney tissue histopathological alterations including interstitial inflammation, necrosis, and Bowman capsule dilation were detected in the BDL animals. Moreover, drastic elevation in renal fibrosis and collagen deposition was detected in BDL rats. Oxidative stress markers were also significantly enhanced in the kidney tissue of BDL animals. On the other hand, it was found that mitochondrial indices of functionality were significantly deteriorated in BDL rats. These data introduce mitochondrial dysfunction and energy metabolism disturbances as a fundamental mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of bile acids-associated renal injury during cholestasis.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Colestase/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Colestase/patologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 30(1): 91-101, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205645

RESUMO

Background Proline is a proteinogenic amino acid with multiple biological functions. Several investigations have been supposed that cellular proline accumulation is a stress response mechanism. This amino acid acts as an osmoregulator, scavenges free radical species, boosts cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms, protects mitochondria, and promotes energy production. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of proline treatment on the liver in bile duct ligated (BDL) rats as an animal model of cholestasis/cirrhosis. Methods BDL rats were supplemented with proline-containing drinking water (0.25% and 0.5% w:v), and samples were collected at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days after BDL surgery). Results Drastic elevation in the serum level of liver injury biomarkers and significant tissue histopathological changes were evident in BDL rats. Markers of oxidative stress were also higher in the liver of BDL animals. It was found that proline supplementation attenuated BDL-induced alteration in serum biomarkers of liver injury, mitigated liver histopathological changes, and alleviated markers of oxidative stress at the early stage of BDL operation (3, 7, and 14 days after BDL surgery). Conclusions The hepatoprotection provided by proline in BDL animals might be associated with its ability to attenuate oxidative stress and its consequences.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Falência Hepática Aguda/prevenção & controle , Prolina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Ductos Biliares/efeitos dos fármacos , Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares/patologia , Ligadura/efeitos adversos , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/patologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/metabolismo , Falência Hepática Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Prolina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 32(11): e22216, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152904

RESUMO

Brain tissue manganese (Mn) accumulation is a cirrhosis-associated complication. Cellular mitochondria are among the potential targets for Mn-induced cytotoxicity. Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids with high concentrations in human brain tissue. Several pharmacological properties including regulation of mitochondrial function are attributed to taurine. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the effect of taurine on Mn-induced mitochondrial impairment in isolated mice brain mitochondria. The brain mitochondria were exposed to increasing concentrations of Mn (0.1-10 mM). Taurine (0.1, 1, and 10 mM) was added as the protective agent. The severe collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity, mitochondrial swelling, and depleted mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were evident in Mn-exposed mitochondria. It was found that taurine administration preserved mitochondrial ATP, prevented mitochondrial depolarization and swelling, and increased mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity. These data suggest mitochondrial protection as an underlying mechanism for the protective effects of taurine against Mn toxicity.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Manganês/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Dilatação Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/agonistas , Trifosfato de Adenosina/antagonistas & inibidores , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalopatia Hepática/metabolismo , Encefalopatia Hepática/patologia , Cinética , Masculino , Manganês/efeitos adversos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/química , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/agonistas , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Oxirredutases/química , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/uso terapêutico
12.
Clin Exp Hepatol ; 4(2): 72-82, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904723

RESUMO

Aim of the study: Hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia is a clinical complication associated with liver cirrhosis. The brain is the target organ for ammonia toxicity. Ammonia-induced brain injury is related to oxidative stress, locomotor activity dysfunction, and cognitive deficit, which could lead to permanent brain injury, coma and death if not appropriately managed. There is no promising pharmacological intervention against cirrhosis-associated brain injury. Taurine (TAU) is one of the most abundant amino acids in the human body. Several physiological and pharmacological roles have been attributed to TAU. TAU may act as an antioxidant and is an excellent neuroprotective agent. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of TAU supplementation on cirrhosis-associated locomotor activity disturbances and oxidative stress in the brain. Material and methods: Rats underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery, and plasma and brain ammonia level, plasma biochemical parameters, and rats' locomotor function were monitored. Furthermore, brain tissue markers of oxidative stress were assessed. Results: It was found that plasma and brain ammonia was increased, and markers of liver injury were significantly elevated in the cirrhotic group. Impaired locomotor activity was also evident in BDL rats. Moreover, an increase in brain tissue markers of oxidative stress was detected in the brain of cirrhotic animals. It was found that TAU supplementation (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, gavage) alleviated brain tissue markers of oxidative stress and improved animals' locomotor activity. Conclusions: These data suggest that TAU is a potential protective agent against cirrhosis-associated brain injury.

13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 103: 75-86, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635131

RESUMO

Betaine is a derivative of the amino acid glycine widely investigated for its hepatoprotective properties against alcoholism. The protective properties of betaine in different other experimental models also have been documented. On the other hand, the exact cellular mechanism of cytoprotection provided by betaine is obscure. The current study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of betaine and its potential mechanisms of hepatoprotection in two animal models of acute and chronic liver injury. Bile duct ligation (BDL) was used as a model of chronic liver injury and thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatotoxicity was applied as the acute liver injury model. Severe increase in serum markers of liver tissue damage along with significant liver tissue histopathological changes were evident in both acute and chronic models of hepatic injury. It was also found that tissue markers of oxidative stress were significantly increased in BDL and TAA-treated animals. Moreover, liver mitochondrial indices of functionality were deteriorated in both investigated models. Betaine supplementation (10 and 50 mg/kg, i.p) ameliorated hepatic injury as judged by decreased liver tissue histopathological alterations, a significant decrease in tissue markers of oxidative stress, and mitigation of serum biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. On the other hand, betaine (10 and 50 mg/kg, i.p) protected hepatocytes mitochondria in both chronic and acute models of hepatotoxicity. These data indicate that the antioxidative and mitochondria regulating properties of betaine could play a primary role in its mechanisms of hepatoprotection.


Assuntos
Betaína/farmacologia , Fígado/lesões , Fígado/patologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Doença Aguda , Animais , Ductos Biliares/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ligadura , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 99: 1022-1032, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29307496

RESUMO

Cholestasis is a disorder characterized by impaired bile flow and accumulation of cytotoxic bile acids in the liver. On the other hand, oxidative stress and its deleterious consequences seem to have a significant role in cholestasis-induced organ injury. Hence, antioxidants and thiol-reducing agents could have potential protective effect against this complication. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the effect of dithiothreitol (DTT) as a safe and clinically applicable thiol-reductant in cholestatic animals. DTT is a dithiol compound which effectively reduces disulfide bonds in glutathione molecule or different proteins and preserves cellular redox environment. Bile duct ligated (BDL) mice were supplemented with DTT-containing drinking water (0.25% and 1% w: v) for 14 days. Blood, liver, kidney, and spleen samples were collected at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, and 14 days after BDL operation). Significant elevation in plasma biomarkers of liver and kidney injury was detected in BDL animals. Liver and kidney injury was also histopathologically evident by necrosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Furthermore, high levels of reactive oxygen species in addition to lipid peroxidation, depleted glutathione reservoirs, and impaired tissue antioxidant capacity was detected in the liver and kidney of cholestatic animals. It was found that DTT supplementation (0.25% and 1% w:v) alleviated markers of oxidative stress in the liver and kidney. Moreover, liver and kidney histopathological changes and collagen deposition were markedly attenuated by DTT treatment. The beneficial effects of DTT administration in cholestasis and its associated complications might be linked to its ability for preserving cellular redox environment and preventing oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Ductos Biliares/patologia , Colestase/complicações , Colestase/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ditiotreitol/uso terapêutico , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Colestase/sangue , Colestase/patologia , Ditiotreitol/química , Ditiotreitol/farmacologia , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Ligadura , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tamanho do Órgão , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 97: 1086-1095, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136945

RESUMO

Cholestasis is the stoppage of bile flow which could lead to serious clinical complications if not managed. Cytotoxic bile acids are involved in the pathogenesis of liver injury during cholestasis. There are no promising pharmacological interventions against cholestasis and its associated complications. This study examined the impact of glycine supplementation on liver mitochondria as a major target of bile acids-induced toxicity during cholestasis. Mice underwent BDL operation and received glycine (0.25% and 1% w:v in drinking water). Blood and liver samples were collected at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, and 14 days after BDL surgery). Plasma biomarkers of liver injury, along with markers of oxidative stress in the liver tissue were evaluated. Furthermore, liver mitochondria were isolated, and several mitochondrial indices were assessed. BDL-induced cholestasis was evident in mice as a significant elevation in plasma biomarkers of liver injury. Markers of oxidative stress were significantly increased in the liver of BDL animals. Liver injury was histopathologically evident by tissue necrosis, bile duct proliferation, hydropic changes, inflammation, and fibrosis. Furthermore, high level of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, depleted glutathione reservoirs, and impaired tissue antioxidant capacity were also detected in the liver of cholestatic mice. An assessment of liver mitochondrial function in BDL animals revealed an inhibition of mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial swelling, and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Furthermore, a significant decrease in mitochondrial ATP was detected in the liver mitochondria isolated from cholestatic animals. Glycine supplementation (0.25% and 1%) decreased mitochondrial swelling, ROS, and LPO. Moreover, glycine treatment improved mitochondrial membrane potential and restored liver mitochondrial ATP. On the other hand, it was found that glycine supplementation attenuated oxidative stress markers in the liver of BDL animals. Moreover, liver histopathological changes and collagen deposition were markedly mitigated by glycine treatment. The mechanisms for the beneficial effects of glycine administration in cholestatic animals might be linked to its ability for preserving cellular redox environment, preventing oxidative stress, and maintaining mitochondrial functionality.


Assuntos
Colestase/tratamento farmacológico , Glicina/farmacologia , Fígado/patologia , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colestase/complicações , Colestase/fisiopatologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/patologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
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