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1.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring. Growing evidence suggests that the epigenome may play a role, but most previous studies have been small and adjusted for few covariates. The current study meta-analyzed the association between maternal GDM and cord blood DNA methylation in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven pregnancy cohorts (3,677 mother-newborn pairs [317 with GDM]) contributed results from epigenome-wide association studies, using DNA methylation data acquired by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Associations between GDM and DNA methylation were examined using robust linear regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were performed using METAL. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified by taking the intersection of results obtained using two regional approaches: comb-p and DMRcate. RESULTS: Two DMRs were identified by both comb-p and DMRcate. Both regions were hypomethylated in newborns exposed to GDM in utero compared with control subjects. One DMR (chr 1: 248100345-248100614) was located in the OR2L13 promoter, and the other (chr 10: 135341870-135342620) was located in the gene body of CYP2E1. Individual CpG analyses did not reveal any differentially methylated loci based on a false discovery rate-adjusted P value threshold of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal GDM was associated with lower cord blood methylation levels within two regions, including the promoter of OR2L13, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorder, and the gene body of CYP2E1, which is upregulated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Future studies are needed to understand whether these associations are causal and possible health consequences.

2.
Epigenomics ; 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536415

RESUMO

Aim: Cigarette smoking influences DNA methylation genome wide, in newborns from pregnancy exposure and in adults from personal smoking. Whether a unique methylation signature exists for in utero exposure in newborns is unknown. Materials & methods: We separately meta-analyzed newborn blood DNA methylation (assessed using Illumina450k Beadchip), in relation to sustained maternal smoking during pregnancy (9 cohorts, 5648 newborns, 897 exposed) and adult blood methylation and personal smoking (16 cohorts, 15907 participants, 2433 current smokers). Results & conclusion: Comparing meta-analyses, we identified numerous signatures specific to newborns along with many shared between newborns and adults. Unique smoking-associated genes in newborns were enriched in xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Our findings may provide insights into specific health impacts of prenatal exposure on offspring.

3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(18): 9637-9657, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410472

RESUMO

Establishing causal relationship between epigenetic marks and gene transcription requires molecular tools, which can precisely modify specific genomic regions. Here, we present a modular and extensible CRISPR/dCas9-based toolbox for epigenetic editing and direct gene regulation. It features a system for expression of orthogonal dCas9 proteins fused to various effector domains and includes a multi-gRNA system for simultaneous targeting dCas9 orthologs to up to six loci. The C- and N-terminal dCas9 fusions with DNMT3A and TET1 catalytic domains were thoroughly characterized. We demonstrated simultaneous use of the DNMT3A-dSpCas9 and TET1-dSaCas9 fusions within the same cells and showed that imposed cytosine hyper- and hypo-methylation altered level of gene transcription if targeted CpG sites were functionally relevant. Dual epigenetic manipulation of the HNF1A and MGAT3 genes, involved in protein N-glycosylation, resulted in change of the glycan phenotype in BG1 cells. Furthermore, simultaneous targeting of the TET1-dSaCas9 and VPR-dSpCas9 fusions to the HNF1A regulatory region revealed strong and persistent synergistic effect on gene transcription, up to 30 days following cell transfection, suggesting involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in maintenance of the reactivated state. Also, modulation of dCas9 expression effectively reduced off-target effects while maintaining the desired effects on target regions.

4.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1893, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015461

RESUMO

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from -183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (PBonferroni < 1.06 x 10-7). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10-74) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10-3), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791383

RESUMO

A high body mass (BMI) index has repeatedly been associated with non-atopic asthma, but the biological mechanism linking obesity to asthma is still poorly understood. We aimed to test the hypothesis that inflammation and/or innate immunity plays a role in the obesity-asthma link. DNA methylome was measured in blood samples of 61 non-atopic participants with asthma and 146 non-atopic participants without asthma (non-smokers for at least 10 years) taking part in the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) study. Modification by DNA methylation of the association of BMI or BMI change over 10 years with adult-onset asthma was examined at each CpG site and differentially methylated region. Pathway enrichment tests were conducted for genes in a priori curated inflammatory pathways and the NLRP3-IL1B-IL17 axis. The latter was chosen on the basis of previous work in mice. Inflammatory pathways including glucocorticoid/PPAR signaling (p = 0.0023), MAPK signaling (p = 0.013), NF-κB signaling (p = 0.031), and PI3K/AKT signaling (p = 0.031) were enriched for the effect modification of BMI, while NLRP3-IL1B-IL17 axis was enriched for the effect modification of BMI change over 10 years (p = 0.046). DNA methylation measured in peripheral blood is consistent with inflammation as a link between BMI and adult-onset asthma and with the NLRP3-IL1B-IL17 axis as a link between BMI change over 10 years and adult-onset asthma in non-atopic participants.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Metilação de DNA , Inflamação/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , PPAR gama/metabolismo
7.
Int J Cancer ; 144(1): 26-33, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098208

RESUMO

The "delayed infection hypothesis" states that a paucity of infections in early childhood may lead to higher risks of childhood leukemia (CL), especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using prospectively collected data from six population-based birth cohorts we studied the association between birth order (a proxy for pathogen exposure) and CL. We explored whether other birth or parental characteristics modify this association. With 2.2 × 106 person-years of follow-up, 185 CL and 136 ALL cases were ascertained. In Cox proportional hazards models, increasing birth order (continuous) was inversely associated with CL and ALL; hazard ratios (HR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): (0.77-0.99) and 0.85: (0.73-0.99), respectively. Being later-born was associated with similarly reduced hazards of CL and ALL compared to being first-born; HRs = 0.78: 95% CI: 0.58-1.05 and 0.73: 0.52-1.03, respectively. Successive birth orders were associated with decreased CL and ALL risks (P for trend 0.047 and 0.055, respectively). Multivariable adjustment somewhat attenuated the associations. We found statistically significant and borderline interactions between birth weight (p = 0.024) and paternal age (p = 0.067), respectively, in associations between being later-born and CL, with the lowest risk observed for children born at <3 kg with fathers aged 35+ (HR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06-0.50). Our study strengthens the theory that increasing birth order confers protection against CL and ALL risks, but suggests that this association may be modified among subsets of children with different characteristics, notably advanced paternal age and lower birth weight. It is unclear whether these findings can be explained solely by infectious exposures.


Assuntos
Ordem de Nascimento , Peso ao Nascer , Idade Paterna , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(1): 30-44, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic experiences are recognized determinants of health, and recent work has shown that social disadvantages in early life may induce sustained biological changes at molecular level that are detectable later in life. However, the dynamics and persistence of biological embedding of socioeconomic position (SEP) remains vastly unexplored. METHODS: Using the data from the ALSPAC birth cohort, we performed epigenome-wide association studies of DNA methylation changes at three life stages (birth, n = 914; childhood at mean age 7.5 years, n = 973; and adolescence at mean age 15.5 years, n = 974), measured using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 Beadchip, in relation to pregnancy SEP indicators (maternal and paternal education and occupation). RESULTS: Across the four early life SEP metrics investigated, only maternal education was associated with methylation levels at birth, and four CpGs mapped to SULF1, GLB1L2 and RPUSD1 genes were identified [false discovery rate (FDR)-corrected P-value <0.05]. No epigenetic signature was found associated with maternal education in child samples, but methylation levels at 20 CpG loci were found significantly associated with maternal education in adolescence. Although no overlap was found between the differentially methylated CpG sites at different ages, we identified two CpG sites at birth and during adolescence which are 219 bp apart in the SULF1 gene that encodes an heparan sulphatase involved in modulation of signalling pathways. Using data from an independent birth cohort, the ENVIRONAGE cohort, we were not able to replicate these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results suggest that parental SEP, and particularly maternal education, may influence the offspring's methylome at birth and adolescence.

9.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 32(6): 568-583, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer is a rare but leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Established risk factors, accounting for <10% of incidence, have been identified primarily from case-control studies. However, recall, selection and other potential biases impact interpretations particularly, for modest associations. A consortium of pregnancy and birth cohorts (I4C) was established to utilise prospective, pre-diagnostic exposure assessments and biological samples. METHODS: Eligibility criteria, follow-up methods and identification of paediatric cancer cases are described for cohorts currently participating or planning future participation. Also described are exposure assessments, harmonisation methods, biological samples potentially available for I4C research, the role of the I4C data and biospecimen coordinating centres and statistical approaches used in the pooled analyses. RESULTS: Currently, six cohorts recruited over six decades (1950s-2000s) contribute data on 388 120 mother-child pairs. Nine new cohorts from seven countries are anticipated to contribute data on 627 500 additional projected mother-child pairs within 5 years. Harmonised data currently includes over 20 "core" variables, with notable variability in mother/child characteristics within and across cohorts, reflecting in part, secular changes in pregnancy and birth characteristics over the decades. CONCLUSIONS: The I4C is the first cohort consortium to have published findings on paediatric cancer using harmonised variables across six pregnancy/birth cohorts. Projected increases in sample size, expanding sources of exposure data (eg, linkages to environmental and administrative databases), incorporation of biological measures to clarify exposures and underlying molecular mechanisms and forthcoming joint efforts to complement case-control studies offer the potential for breakthroughs in paediatric cancer aetiologic research.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361985

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This systematic review evaluated existing evidence linking air pollution exposure in humans to major epigenetic mechanisms: DNA methylation, microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs, and chromatin regulation. RECENT FINDINGS: Eighty-two manuscripts were eligible, most of which were observational (85%), conducted in adults (66%) and based on DNA methylation (79%). Most observational studies, except panel, demonstrated modest effects of air pollution on the methylome. Panel and experimental studies revealed a relatively large number of significant methylome alterations, though based on smaller sample sizes. Particulate matter levels were positively associated in several studies with global or LINE-1 hypomethylation, a hallmark of several diseases, and with decondensed chromatin structure. Several air pollution species altered the DNA methylation clock, inducing accelerated biological aging. The causal nature of identified associations is not clear, however, especially that most originate from countries with low air pollution levels. Existing evidence, gaps, and perspectives are highlighted herein.

11.
Environ Int ; 120: 11-21, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the potential mechanisms linking air pollution to health effects is through changes in DNA-methylation, which so far has mainly been analyzed globally or at candidate sites. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of personal and ambient air pollution exposure measures with genome-wide DNA-methylation changes. METHODS: We collected repeated 24-hour personal and ambient exposure measurements of particulate matter (PM2.5), PM2.5 absorbance, and ultrafine particles (UFP) and peripheral blood samples from a panel of 157 healthy non-smoking adults living in four European countries. We applied univariate mixed-effects models to investigate the association between air pollution and genome-wide DNA-methylation perturbations at single CpG (cytosine-guanine dinucleotide) sites and in Differentially Methylated Regions (DMRs). Subsequently, we explored the association of air pollution-induced methylation alterations with gene expression and serum immune marker levels measured in the same subjects. RESULTS: Personal exposure to PM2.5 was associated with methylation changes at 13 CpG sites and 69 DMRs. Two of the 13 identified CpG sites (mapped to genes KNDC1 and FAM50B) were located within these DMRs. In addition, 42 DMRs were associated with personal PM2.5 absorbance exposure, 16 DMRs with personal exposure to UFP, 4 DMRs with ambient exposure to PM2.5, 16 DMRs with ambient PM2.5 absorbance exposure, and 15 DMRs with ambient UFP exposure. Correlation between methylation levels at identified CpG sites and gene expression and immune markers was generally moderate. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for an association between 24-hour exposure to air pollution and DNA-methylation at single sites and regional clusters of CpGs. Analysis of differentially methylated regions provides a promising avenue to further explore the subtle impact of environmental exposures on DNA-methylation.

12.
Environ Int ; 119: 334-345, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29990954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence indicates common risk factors, including air pollution exposure, for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, suggesting the involvement of common altered molecular pathways. OBJECTIVES: The goal was to find intermediate metabolites or metabolic pathways that could be associated with both air pollutants and health outcomes ("meeting-in-the-middle"), thus shedding light on mechanisms and reinforcing causality. METHODS: We applied a statistical approach named 'meet-in-the-middle' to untargeted metabolomics in two independent case-control studies nested in cohorts on adult-onset asthma (AOA) and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD). We compared the results to identify both common and disease-specific altered metabolic pathways. RESULTS: A novel finding was a strong association of AOA with ultrafine particles (UFP; odds ratio 1.80 [1.26, 2.55] per increase by 5000 particles/cm3). Further, we have identified several metabolic pathways that potentially mediate the effect of air pollution on health outcomes. Among those, perturbation of Linoleate metabolism pathway was associated with air pollution exposure, AOA and CCVD. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest common pathway perturbations may occur as a consequence of chronic exposure to air pollution leading to increased risk for both AOA and CCVD.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human exposure to environmental pollutants is widespread. It was suggested that exposure to non-essential heavy metals may adversely affect semen development in men. PURPOSE: To evaluate associations between non-essential heavy metals in blood and seminal fluid and semen quality parameters in men. METHODS: Male partners of heterosexual couples were included. The following elements were measured in blood and seminal fluid: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), mercury (Hg), and uranium (U) using ion-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. SETTING: The fertility clinic at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Semen quality parameters (volume, concentration, total count, progressive motility, viability, and normal morphology). RESULTS: We found that participants with low-quality semen had significantly higher Cd and Ba concentrations in the seminal fluid than participants with normal-quality semen. We also observed significant associations between low sperm viability and higher blood Cd and Ba, as well as higher seminal Pb, Cd, Ba, and U. Furthermore, U concentrations in the seminal fluid were associated with increased odds ratios for below-reference progressive sperm motility and normal morphology. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental exposures to Pb, Cd, Ba, and U appear to adversely influence sperm development in men. In non-occupationally exposed men, measurements of heavy metals in the seminal fluid may be more predictive of below-reference sperm quality parameters than in blood.

14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(9): 5427-5437, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29597345

RESUMO

Maternal exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been associated with restricted fetal growth and reduced birthweight. Here, we performed methylome-wide analyses of cord and children's blood DNA in relation to residential exposure to PM smaller than 10 µm (PM10). This study included participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC, cord blood, n = 780; blood at age 7, n = 757 and age 15-17, n = 850) and the EXPOsOMICS birth cohort consortium including cord blood from ENVIR ONAGE ( n = 197), INMA ( n = 84), Piccolipiù ( n = 99) and Rhea ( n = 75). We could not identify significant CpG sites, by meta-analyzing associations between maternal PM10 exposure during pregnancy and DNA methylation in cord blood, nor by studying DNA methylation and concordant annual exposure at 7 and 15-17 years. The CpG cg21785536 was inversely associated with PM10 exposure using a longitudinal model integrating the three studied age groups (-1.2% per 10 µg/m3; raw p-value = 3.82 × 10-8). Pathway analyses on the corresponding genes of the 100 strongest associated CpG sites of the longitudinal model revealed enriched pathways relating to the GABAergic synapse, p53 signaling and NOTCH1. We provided evidence that residential PM10 exposure in early life affects methylation of the CpG cg21785536 located on the EGF Domain Specific O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Transferase gene.

15.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10: 38, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29588806

RESUMO

Background: Methylation measures quantified by microarray techniques can be affected by systematic variation due to the technical processing of samples, which may compromise the accuracy of the measurement process and contribute to bias the estimate of the association under investigation. The quantification of the contribution of the systematic source of variation is challenging in datasets characterized by hundreds of thousands of features.In this study, we introduce a method previously developed for the analysis of metabolomics data to evaluate the performance of existing normalizing techniques to correct for unwanted variation. Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K was used to acquire methylation levels in over 421,000 CpG sites for 902 study participants of a case-control study on breast cancer nested within the EPIC cohort. The principal component partial R-square (PC-PR2) analysis was used to identify and quantify the variability attributable to potential systematic sources of variation. Three correcting techniques, namely ComBat, surrogate variables analysis (SVA) and a linear regression model to compute residuals were applied. The impact of each correcting method on the association between smoking status and DNA methylation levels was evaluated, and results were compared with findings from a large meta-analysis. Results: A sizeable proportion of systematic variability due to variables expressing 'batch' and 'sample position' within 'chip' was identified, with values of the partial R2 statistics equal to 9.5 and 11.4% of total variation, respectively. After application of ComBat or the residuals' methods, the contribution was 1.3 and 0.2%, respectively. The SVA technique resulted in a reduced variability due to 'batch' (1.3%) and 'sample position' (0.6%), and in a diminished variability attributable to 'chip' within a batch (0.9%). After ComBat or the residuals' corrections, a larger number of significant sites (k = 600 and k = 427, respectively) were associated to smoking status than the SVA correction (k = 96). Conclusions: The three correction methods removed systematic variation in DNA methylation data, as assessed by the PC-PR2, which lent itself as a useful tool to explore variability in large dimension data. SVA produced more conservative findings than ComBat in the association between smoking and DNA methylation.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 143(3): 597-609, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574700

RESUMO

The large geographic variations in the incidence of gastric cancer (GC) are likely due to differential environmental exposures, in particular to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. We aimed to investigate the impact of H. pylori on the epigenome in normal gastric mucosa and methylation changes associated with cancer risk independent of H. pylori. A discovery set of normal gastric mucosa from GC cases (n = 42) and controls (n = 42), nested in a large case-control study and stratified by H. pylori status, were subjected to genome-wide methylation profiling. Single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays from peripheral blood leukocytes were used to conduct methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTL) analysis. A validation set of gastric mucosa samples (n = 180) was used in the replication phase. We found 1,924 differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and 438 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with H. pylori infection, most of which were hypermethylated. Significant methylation alterations identified in the initial set were successfully replicated. Furthermore, the H. pylori-associated DMP/Rs showed marked stability ('epigenetic memory') after H. pylori clearance. Interestingly, we found 152 DMRs associated with cancer risk independent of the H. pylori status in normal gastric mucosa. The methylation score derived from three biomarkers was a strong predictor of GC. Finally, the mQTL analysis indicated that the H. pylori- and cancer-specific methylation signatures were minimally affected by genetic variation. The comprehensively characterized methylome changes associated with H. pylori infection and GC risk in our study might serve as potential biomarkers for early cancer progression in tumour-free gastric mucosa.

17.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 2, 2018 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monozygotic twins have long been studied to estimate heritability and explore epigenetic influences on phenotypic variation. The phenotypic and epigenetic similarities of monozygotic twins have been assumed to be largely due to their genetic identity. RESULTS: Here, by analyzing data from a genome-scale study of DNA methylation in monozygotic and dizygotic twins, we identified genomic regions at which the epigenetic similarity of monozygotic twins is substantially greater than can be explained by their genetic identity. This "epigenetic supersimilarity" apparently results from locus-specific establishment of epigenotype prior to embryo cleavage during twinning. Epigenetically supersimilar loci exhibit systemic interindividual epigenetic variation and plasticity to periconceptional environment and are enriched in sub-telomeric regions. In case-control studies nested in a prospective cohort, blood DNA methylation at these loci years before diagnosis is associated with risk of developing several types of cancer. CONCLUSIONS: These results establish a link between early embryonic epigenetic development and adult disease. More broadly, epigenetic supersimilarity is a previously unrecognized phenomenon that may contribute to the phenotypic similarity of monozygotic twins.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/sangue , Metilação de DNA , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Neoplasias/genética , Gêmeos Dizigóticos
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1708: 605-619, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29224166

RESUMO

Blood represents an easily accessible human tissue for numerous research and clinical applications, including surrogate roles for biomarkers of other tissues. Dried blood spots (DBS) are space- and cost-efficient storage forms of blood while stably retaining many of its chemical constituents. Consequently, neonatal DBS are routinely collected in many countries, and their biobanks represent gold mines for research. However, the utility of DBS is restricted by the limited amount and quality of extractable biomolecules (including DNA), especially for genome-wide profiling. In particular, DNA methylome analysis in DBS has proven to be technically challenging, mainly due to the requirement for stringent preprocessing, such as bisulfite conversion. Moreover, DNA amplification, required to increase its yield, often leads to a bias in the analysis, particularly in methylome profiles. Thus, it is important to develop methodologies that maximize both the yield and quality of DNA from DBS for downstream analyses. Using a combination of in-house-derived and modified commercial extraction methods, we developed two robust protocols that produced increased DNA yield and quality from DBS. Though both protocols are more efficient relative to other published methods, one protocol yields less DNA compared to the other, but shows improved 260/280 spectrophotometric ratios, which are useful for sample quality assessment. Both protocols consist of two sequential phases, each involving several critical steps. Phase I comprises blood extraction off the filter papers, cell lysis, and protein digestion. Phase II involves DNA precipitation, purification, and elution. Results from subsequent locus-specific and genome-wide DNA methylation analyses demonstrate the high quality, reproducibility, and consistency of the data. This work may prove useful to meet the increased demand for research on DBS, particularly with a focus on the epigenetic origins of human diseases and newborn screening programs.


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Metilação de DNA , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA/normas , Epigenômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Int J Cancer ; 142(5): 874-882, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28836271

RESUMO

The interaction between the (epi)genetic makeup of an individual and his/her environmental exposure record (exposome) is accepted as a determinant factor for a significant proportion of human malignancies. Recent evidence has highlighted the key role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating gene-environment interactions and translating exposures into tumorigenesis. There is also growing evidence that epigenetic changes may be risk factor-specific ("fingerprints") that should prove instrumental in the discovery of new biomarkers in cancer. Here, we review the state of the science of epigenetics associated with environmental stimuli and cancer risk, highlighting key developments in the field. Critical knowledge gaps and research needs are discussed and advances in epigenomics that may help in understanding the functional relevance of epigenetic alterations. Key elements required for causality inferences linking epigenetic changes to exposure and cancer are discussed and how these alterations can be incorporated in carcinogen evaluation and in understanding mechanisms underlying epigenome deregulation by the environment.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Neoplasias/etiologia , Animais , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 59(3): 234-246, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29114965

RESUMO

Air pollution is associated with a broad range of adverse health effects, including mortality and morbidity due to cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD), but the molecular mechanisms involved are not entirely understood. This study aims to investigate the involvement of oxidative stress and inflammation in the causal chain, and to identify intermediate biomarkers that are associated retrospectively with the exposure and prospectively with the disease. We designed a case-control study on CCVD nested in a cohort of 18,982 individuals from the EPIC-Italy study. We measured air pollution, inflammatory biomarkers, and whole-genome DNA methylation in blood collected up to 17 years before the diagnosis. The study sample includes all the incident CCVD cases among former- and never-smokers, with available stored blood sample, that arose in the cohort during the follow-up. We identified enrichment of altered DNA methylation in "ROS/Glutathione/Cytotoxic granules" and "Cytokine signaling" pathways related genes, associated with both air pollution (multiple comparisons adjusted p for enrichment ranging from 0.01 to 0.03 depending on pollutant) and with CCVD risk (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03, respectively). Also, Interleukin-17 was associated with higher exposure to NO2 (P = 0.0004), NOx (P = 0.0005), and CCVD risk (OR = 1.79; CI 1.04-3.11; P = 0.04 comparing extreme tertiles). Our findings indicate that chronic exposure to air pollution can lead to oxidative stress, which in turn activates a cascade of inflammatory responses mainly involving the "Cytokine signaling" pathway, leading to increased risk of CCVD. Inflammatory proteins and DNA methylation alterations can be detected several years before CCVD diagnosis in blood samples, being promising preclinical biomarkers. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:234-246, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/complicações , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação/metabolismo , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar
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