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1.
Cell Rep ; 34(1): 108590, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357411

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated immunologic dysfunction in severely ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. We use single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to analyze the transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy (n = 3) and COVID-19 patients with moderate disease (n = 5), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, n = 6), or recovering from ARDS (n = 6). Our data reveal transcriptomic profiles indicative of defective antigen presentation and interferon (IFN) responsiveness in monocytes from ARDS patients, which contrasts with higher responsiveness to IFN signaling in lymphocytes. Furthermore, genes involved in cytotoxic activity are suppressed in both natural killer (NK) and CD8 T lymphocytes, and B cell activation is deficient, which is consistent with delayed viral clearance in severely ill COVID-19 patients. Our study demonstrates that COVID-19 patients with ARDS have a state of immune imbalance in which dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses may be contributing to a more severe disease course.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apresentação do Antígeno , /patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interferons/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , /patologia
2.
Front Immunol ; 11: 553949, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072094

RESUMO

Background: Sarcoidosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause characterized by granuloma formation. Mechanisms for chronic persistence of granulomas are unknown. Matrix Metalloproteinase-12 (MMP12) degrades extracellular matrix elastin and enables infiltration of immune cells responsible for inflammation and granuloma formation. Previous studies report increased MMP12 in sarcoidosis patients and association between MMP12 expression and disease severity. We also observed elevated MMP12 in our multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) murine model of granulomatous inflammation. Here we hypothesized that MMP12 is important to acute and late phases of granuloma pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed granulomatous and inflammatory responses of Mmp12 knock-out (KO) mice at 10 (acute) and 60 days (late) after MWCNT instillation. Methods: C57BL/6 (wildtype) and Mmp12 KO mice underwent oropharyngeal instillation of MWCNT. Lungs were harvested at 3, 10, 20, and 60 days post instillation for evaluation of MMP12 expression and granulomatous changes. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells were analyzed 60 days after MWCNT instillation for expression of mediators thought to play a role in sarcoid granulomatosis: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and CCL2 (MCP-1). Results: Pulmonary granuloma appearance at 10 days after MWCNT instillation showed no differences between wildtype and Mmp12 KO mice. In contrast, by 60 days after MWCNT instillation, Mmp12 KO mice revealed markedly attenuated granuloma formation together with elevated PPARγ and reduced IFNγ expression in BAL cells compared to wildtype. Unexpectedly, Mmp12 KO mice further demonstrated increased alveolar macrophages with increased CCL2 at 60 days. Conclusions: The striking reduction of granuloma formation at day 60 in Mmp12 KO mice suggests that MMP12 is required to maintain chronic granuloma pathophysiology. The increased PPARγ and decreased IFNγ findings suggest that these mediators also may be involved since previous studies have shown that PPARγ suppresses IFNγ and PPARγ deficiency amplifies granuloma formation. Interestingly, a role of MMP12 in granuloma resolution is also suggested by increases in both macrophage influx and CCL2. Overall, our results strongly implicate MMP12 as a key factor in granuloma persistence and as a possible therapeutic target in chronic pulmonary sarcoidosis.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5182, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057025

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diagnosed by reduced lung function, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. We performed whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis of lung function and COPD in a multi-ethnic sample of 11,497 participants from population- and family-based studies, and 8499 individuals from COPD-enriched studies in the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program. We identify at genome-wide significance 10 known GWAS loci and 22 distinct, previously unreported loci, including two common variant signals from stratified analysis of African Americans. Four novel common variants within the regions of PIAS1, RGN (two variants) and FTO show evidence of replication in the UK Biobank (European ancestry n ~ 320,000), while colocalization analyses leveraging multi-omic data from GTEx and TOPMed identify potential molecular mechanisms underlying four of the 22 novel loci. Our study demonstrates the value of performing WGS analyses and multi-omic follow-up in cohorts of diverse ancestry.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Loci Gênicos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Inibidoras de STAT Ativados/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etnologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Modificadoras Pequenas Relacionadas à Ubiquitina/genética
4.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 1219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013356

RESUMO

Background: CFTR modulators decrease some etiologies of CF airway inflammation; however, data indicate that non-resolving airway infection and inflammation persist in individuals with CF and chronic bacterial infections. Thus, identification of therapies that diminish airway inflammation without allowing unrestrained bacterial growth remains a critical research goal. Novel strategies for combatting deleterious airway inflammation in the CFTR modulator era require better understanding of cellular contributions to chronic CF airway disease, and how inflammatory cells change after initiation of CFTR modulator therapy. Peripheral blood monocytes, which traffic to the CF airway, can develop both pro-inflammatory and inflammation-resolving phenotypes, represent intriguing cellular targets for focused therapies. This therapeutic approach, however, requires a more detailed knowledge of CF monocyte cellular programming and phenotypes. Material and Methods: In order to characterize the inflammatory phenotype of CF monocytes, and how these cells change after initiation of CFTR modulator therapy, we studied adults (n=10) with CF, chronic airway infections, and the CFTR-R117H mutations before and 7 days after initiation of ivacaftor. Transcriptomes of freshly isolated blood monocytes were interrogated by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) followed by pathway-based analyses. Plasma concentrations of cytokines and chemokines were evaluated by multiplex ELISA. Results: RNAseq identified approximately 50 monocyte genes for which basal expression was significantly changed in all 10 subjects after 7 days of ivacaftor. Of these, the majority were increased in expression post ivacaftor, including many genes traditionally associated with enhanced inflammation and immune responses. Pathway analyses confirmed that transcriptional programs were overwhelmingly up-regulated in monocytes after 7 days of ivacaftor, including biological modules associated with immunity, cell cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and the unfolded protein response. Ivacaftor increased plasma concentrations of CXCL2, a neutrophil chemokine secreted by monocytes and macrophages, and CCL2, a monocyte chemokine. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that ivacaftor causes acute changes in blood monocyte transcriptional profiles and plasma chemokines, and suggest that increased monocyte inflammatory signals and changes in myeloid cell trafficking may contribute to changes in airway inflammation in people taking CFTR modulators. To our knowledge, this is the first report investigating the transcriptomic response of circulating blood monocytes in CF subjects treated with a CFTR modulator.

5.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(5): L825-L832, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936024

RESUMO

The cellular communication network factor 1 (CCN1) is a matricellular protein that can modulate multiple tissue responses, including inflammation and repair. We have previously shown that adenoviral overexpression of Ccn1 is sufficient to cause acute lung injury in mice. We hypothesized that CCN1 is present in the airspaces of lungs during the acute phase of lung injury, and higher concentrations are associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) severity. We tested this hypothesis by measuring 1) CCN1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung homogenates from mice subjected to ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI), 2) Ccn1 gene expression and protein levels in MLE-12 cells (alveolar epithelial cell line) subjected to mechanical stretch, and 3) CCN1 in BALF from mechanically ventilated humans with and without ARDS. BALF CCN1 concentrations and whole lung CCN1 protein levels were significantly increased in mice with VILI (n = 6) versus noninjured controls (n = 6). Ccn1 gene expression and CCN1 protein levels were increased in MLE-12 cells cultured under stretch conditions. Subjects with ARDS (n = 77) had higher BALF CCN1 levels compared with mechanically ventilated subjects without ARDS (n = 45) (P < 0.05). In subjects with ARDS, BALF CCN1 concentrations were associated with higher total protein, sRAGE, and worse [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] ratios (all P < 0.05). CCN1 is present in the lungs of mice and humans during the acute inflammatory phase of lung injury, and concentrations are higher in patients with increased markers of severity. Alveolar epithelial cells may be an important source of CCN1 under mechanical stretch conditions.

7.
medRxiv ; 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743611

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly become the most serious pandemic since the 1918 flu pandemic. In extreme situations, patients develop a dysregulated inflammatory lung injury called acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that causes progressive respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilatory support. Recent studies have demonstrated immunologic dysfunction in severely ill COVID-19 patients. To further delineate the dysregulated immune response driving more severe clinical course from SARS-CoV-2 infection, we used single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) to analyze the transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from hospitalized COVID-19 patients having mild disease (n = 5), developing ARDS (n = 6), and recovering from ARDS (n = 6). Our data demonstrated an overwhelming inflammatory response with select immunodeficiencies within various immune populations in ARDS patients. Specifically, their monocytes had defects in antigen presentation and deficiencies in interferon responsiveness that contrasted the higher interferon signals in lymphocytes. Furthermore, cytotoxic activity was suppressed in both NK and CD8 lymphocytes whereas B cell activation was deficient, which is consistent with the delayed viral clearance in severely ill COVID-19 patients. Finally, we identified altered signaling pathways in the severe group that suggests immunosenescence and immunometabolic changes could be contributing to the dysfunctional immune response. Our study demonstrates that COVID-19 patients with ARDS have an immunologically distinct response when compared to those with a more innocuous disease course and show a state of immune imbalance in which deficiencies in both the innate and adaptive immune response may be contributing to a more severe disease course in COVID-19.

8.
Circ Res ; 127(8): 997-1022, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762496

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Plaque rupture is the proximate cause of most myocardial infarctions and many strokes. However, the molecular mechanisms that precipitate plaque rupture are unknown. OBJECTIVE: By applying proteomic and bioinformatic approaches in mouse models of protease-induced plaque rupture and in ruptured human plaques, we aimed to illuminate biochemical pathways through which proteolysis causes plaque rupture and identify substrates that are cleaved in ruptured plaques. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed shotgun proteomics analyses of aortas of transgenic mice with macrophage-specific overexpression of urokinase (SR-uPA+/0 mice) and of SR-uPA+/0 bone marrow transplant recipients, and we used bioinformatic tools to evaluate protein abundance and functional category enrichment in these aortas. In parallel, we performed shotgun proteomics and bioinformatics studies on extracts of ruptured and stable areas of freshly harvested human carotid plaques. We also applied a separate protein-analysis method (protein topography and migration analysis platform) to attempt to identify substrates and proteolytic fragments in mouse and human plaque extracts. Approximately 10% of extracted aortic proteins were reproducibly altered in SR-uPA+/0 aortas. Proteases, inflammatory signaling molecules, as well as proteins involved with cell adhesion, the cytoskeleton, and apoptosis, were increased. ECM (Extracellular matrix) proteins, including basement-membrane proteins, were decreased. Approximately 40% of proteins were altered in ruptured versus stable areas of human carotid plaques, including many of the same functional categories that were altered in SR-uPA+/0 aortas. Collagens were minimally altered in SR-uPA+/0 aortas and ruptured human plaques; however, several basement-membrane proteins were reduced in both SR-uPA+/0 aortas and ruptured human plaques. Protein topography and migration analysis platform did not detect robust increases in proteolytic fragments of ECM proteins in either setting. CONCLUSIONS: Parallel studies of SR-uPA+/0 mouse aortas and human plaques identify mechanisms that connect proteolysis with plaque rupture, including inflammation, basement-membrane protein loss, and apoptosis. Basement-membrane protein loss is a prominent feature of ruptured human plaques, suggesting a major role for basement-membrane proteins in maintaining plaque stability.

9.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 696-708, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, but the individual variants that have been identified have small effects. We hypothesised that a polygenic risk score using additional variants would predict COPD and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We constructed a polygenic risk score using a genome-wide association study of lung function (FEV1 and FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC]) from the UK Biobank and SpiroMeta. We tested this polygenic risk score in nine cohorts of multiple ethnicities for an association with moderate-to-severe COPD (defined as FEV1/FVC <0·7 and FEV1 <80% of predicted). Associations were tested using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, height, smoking pack-years, and principal components of genetic ancestry. We assessed predictive performance of models by area under the curve. In a subset of studies, we also studied quantitative and qualitative CT imaging phenotypes that reflect parenchymal and airway pathology, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FINDINGS: The polygenic risk score was associated with COPD in European (odds ratio [OR] per SD 1·81 [95% CI 1·74-1·88] and non-European (1·42 [1·34-1·51]) populations. Compared with the first decile, the tenth decile of the polygenic risk score was associated with COPD, with an OR of 7·99 (6·56-9·72) in European ancestry and 4·83 (3·45-6·77) in non-European ancestry cohorts. The polygenic risk score was superior to previously described genetic risk scores and, when combined with clinical risk factors (ie, age, sex, and smoking pack-years), showed improved prediction for COPD compared with a model comprising clinical risk factors alone (AUC 0·80 [0·79-0·81] vs 0·76 [0·75-0·76]). The polygenic risk score was associated with CT imaging phenotypes, including wall area percent, quantitative and qualitative measures of emphysema, local histogram emphysema patterns, and destructive emphysema subtypes. The polygenic risk score was associated with a reduced lung growth pattern. INTERPRETATION: A risk score comprised of genetic variants can identify a small subset of individuals at markedly increased risk for moderate-to-severe COPD, emphysema subtypes associated with cigarette smoking, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital
10.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 284, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously identified two acute kidney injury (AKI) sub-phenotypes (AKI-SP1 and AKI-SP2) with different risk of poor clinical outcomes and response to vasopressor therapy. Plasma biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction (tumor necrosis factor receptor-1, angiopoietin-1 and 2) differentiated the AKI sub-phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether these biomarkers are simply markers or causal mediators in the development of AKI sub-phenotypes. METHODS: We tested for associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the Angiopoietin-1, Angiopoietin-2, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1A genes and AKI- SP2 in 421 critically ill subjects of European ancestry. Top performing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (FDR < 0.05) were tested for cis-biomarker expression and whether genetic risk for AKI-SP2 is mediated through circulating biomarkers. We also completed in vitro studies using human kidney microvascular endothelial cells. Finally, we calculated the renal clearance of plasma biomarkers using 20 different timed urine collections. RESULTS: A genetic variant, rs2920656C > T, near ANGPT2 was associated with reduced risk of AKI-SP2 (odds ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.31-0.66; adjusted FDR = 0.003) and decreased plasma angiopoietin-2 (p = 0.002). Causal inference analysis showed that for each minor allele (T) the risk of developing AKI-SP2 decreases by 16%. Plasma angiopoietin-2 mediated 41.5% of the rs2920656 related risk for AKI-SP2. Human kidney microvascular endothelial cells carrying the T allele of rs2920656 produced numerically lower levels of angiopoietin-2 although this was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). Finally, analyses demonstrated that angiopoietin-2 is minimally renally cleared in critically ill subjects. CONCLUSION: Genetic mediation analysis provides supportive evidence that angiopoietin-2 plays a causal role in risk for AKI-SP2.

11.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(4): e002766, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation patterns associated with habitual diet have not been well studied. METHODS: Diet quality was characterized using a Mediterranean-style diet score and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index score. We conducted ethnicity-specific and trans-ethnic epigenome-wide association analyses for diet quality and leukocyte-derived DNA methylation at over 400 000 CpGs (cytosine-guanine dinucleotides) in 5 population-based cohorts including 6662 European ancestry, 2702 African ancestry, and 360 Hispanic ancestry participants. For diet-associated CpGs identified in epigenome-wide analyses, we conducted Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to examine their relations to cardiovascular disease risk factors and examined their longitudinal associations with all-cause mortality. RESULTS: We identified 30 CpGs associated with either Mediterranean-style diet score or Alternative Healthy Eating Index, or both, in European ancestry participants. Among these CpGs, 12 CpGs were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (Bonferroni corrected P<1.6×10-3). Hypermethylation of cg18181703 (SOCS3) was associated with higher scores of both Mediterranean-style diet score and Alternative Healthy Eating Index and lower risk for all-cause mortality (P=5.7×10-15). Ten additional diet-associated CpGs were nominally associated with all-cause mortality (P<0.05). MR analysis revealed 8 putatively causal associations for 6 CpGs with 4 cardiovascular disease risk factors (body mass index, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus; Bonferroni corrected MR P<4.5×10-4). For example, hypermethylation of cg11250194 (FADS2) was associated with lower triglyceride concentrations (MR, P=1.5×10-14).and hypermethylation of cg02079413 (SNORA54; NAP1L4) was associated with body mass index (corrected MR, P=1×10-6). CONCLUSIONS: Habitual diet quality was associated with differential peripheral leukocyte DNA methylation levels of 30 CpGs, most of which were also associated with multiple health outcomes, in European ancestry individuals. These findings demonstrate that integrative genomic analysis of dietary information may reveal molecular targets for disease prevention and treatment.

12.
EBioMedicine ; 56: 102803, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) is associated with a wide range of pathophysiological changes due, in part, to hypoxemia during sleep. We sought to identify gene transcription associations with measures of SDB and hypoxemia during sleep, and study their response to treatment. METHODS: In two discovery cohorts, Framingham Offspring Study (FOS; N = 571) and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; N = 580), we studied gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in association with three measures of SDB: Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI); average oxyhemoglobin saturation (avgO2) during sleep; and minimum oxyhemoglobin saturation (minO2) during sleep. Associated genes were used for analysis of gene expression in the blood of 15 participants with moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) from the Heart Biomarkers In Apnea Treatment (HeartBEAT) trial. These genes were studied pre- and post-treatment (three months) with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We also performed Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) on all traits and cohort analyses. FINDINGS: Twenty-two genes were associated with SDB traits in both MESA and FOS. Of these, lower expression of CD1D and RAB20 was associated with lower avgO2 in MESA and FOS. CPAP treatment increased the expression of these genes in HeartBEAT participants. Immunity and inflammation pathways were up-regulated in subjects with lower avgO2; i.e., in those with a more severe SDB phenotype (MESA), whereas immuno-inflammatory processes were down-regulated following CPAP treatment (HeartBEAT). INTERPRETATION: Low oxygen saturation during sleep is associated with alterations in gene expression and transcriptional programs that are partially reversed by CPAP treatment.

13.
Biomedicines ; 8(6)2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486275

RESUMO

Elevated cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are known to be cardioprotective during ischemia-reperfusion injury in cardiomyocyte-specific overexpressing cytochrome P450 2J2 (CYP2J2) transgenic (Tr) mice. Using the same Tr mice, we measured changes in cardiac and erythrocyte membranes EETs following myocardial infarction (MI) to determine if they can serve as reporters for cardiac events. Cardiac function was also assessed in Tr vs. wild-type (WT) mice in correlation with EET changes two weeks following MI. Tr mice (N = 25, 16 female, nine male) had significantly higher cardiac cis- and trans-EETs compared to their WT counterparts (N=25, 18 female, seven male). Total cardiac cis-EETs in Tr mice were positively correlated with total cis-EETs in erythrocyte membrane, but there was no correlation with trans-EETs or in WT mice. Following MI, cis- and trans-EETs were elevated in the erythrocyte membrane and cardiac tissue in Tr mice, accounting for the improved cardiac outcomes observed. Tr mice showed significantly better myocardial remodeling following MI, evidenced by higher % fractional shortening, smaller infarct size, lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, reduced fibrosis and apoptosis, and lower pulmonary edema. A positive correlation between total cardiac cis-EETs and total erythrocyte membrane cis-EETs in a Tr mouse model suggests that erythrocyte cis-EETs may be used as predictive markers for cardiac events. All cis-EET regioisomers displayed similar trends following acute MI; however, the magnitude of change for each regioisomer was markedly different, warranting measurement of each individually.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5329, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210298

RESUMO

CYP2J2, a member of the Cytochrome P450 family of enzymes, is the most abundant epoxygenase in the heart and has multifunctional properties including bioactivation of arachidonic acid to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, which, in turn, have been implicated in mediating several cardiovascular conditions. Using a proteomic approach, we found that CYP2J2 expression is lower in cardiac tissue from patients with cardiomyopathy compared to controls. In order to better elucidate the complex role played by CYP2J2 in cardiac cells, we performed targeted silencing of CYP2J2 expression in human adult ventricular cardiomyocytes and interrogated whole genome transcriptional responses. We found that knockdown of CYP2J2 elicits widespread alterations in gene expression of ventricular cardiomyocytes and leads to the activation of a diverse repertoire of programs, including those involved in ion channel signaling, development, extracellular matrix, and metabolism. Several members of the differentially up-regulated ion channel module have well-known pathogenetic roles in cardiac dysrhythmias. By leveraging causal network and upstream regulator analysis, we identified several candidate drivers of the observed transcriptional response to CYP2J2 silencing; these master regulators have been implicated in aberrant cardiac remodeling, heart failure, and myocyte injury and repair. Collectively, our study demonstrates that CYP2J2 plays a central and multifaceted role in cardiomyocyte homeostasis and provides a framework for identifying critical regulators and pathways influenced by this gene in cardiovascular health and disease.

15.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(3): 670-681, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mice genetically deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Nos3-/-) have fasting hyperinsulinemia and hepatic insulin resistance, indicating the importance of Nos3 (nitric oxide synthase) in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Although the current paradigm holds that these metabolic effects are derived specifically from the expression of Nos3 in the endothelium, it has been established that bone marrow-derived cells also express Nos3. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bone marrow-derived cell Nos3 is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Approach and Results: To test the hypothesis that bone marrow-derived cell Nos3 contributes to metabolic homeostasis, we generated chimeric male mice deficient or competent for Nos3 expression in circulating blood cells. These mice were placed on a low-fat diet for 5 weeks, a time period which is known to induce hepatic insulin resistance in global Nos3-deficient mice but not in wild-type C57Bl/6 mice. Surprisingly, we found that the absence of Nos3 in the bone marrow-derived component is associated with hepatic insulin resistance and that restoration of Nos3 in the bone marrow-derived component in global Nos3-deficient mice is sufficient to restore hepatic insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of Nos3 in bone marrow-derived component in wild-type mice attenuates the development of hepatic insulin resistance during high-fat feeding. Finally, compared with wild-type macrophages, the loss of macrophage Nos3 is associated with increased inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharides and reduced anti-inflammatory responses to IL-4, a macrophage phenotype associated with the development of hepatic and systemic insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: These results would suggest that the metabolic and hepatic consequences of high-fat feeding are mediated by loss of Nos3/nitric oxide actions in bone marrow-derived cells, not in endothelial cells.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/enzimologia , Macrófagos/enzimologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Animais , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/enzimologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/transplante , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/deficiência , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética
16.
Toxicol Sci ; 173(1): 131-143, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562762

RESUMO

The airway epithelium is critical for maintaining innate and adaptive immune responses, and occupational exposures that disrupt its immune homeostasis may initiate and amplify airway inflammation. In our previous study, we demonstrated that silver nanoparticles (AgNP), which are engineered nanomaterials used in multiple applications but primarily in the manufacturing of many antimicrobial products, induce toxicity in organotypic cultures derived from murine tracheal epithelial cells (MTEC), and those differentiated toward a "Type 2 [T2]-Skewed" phenotype experienced an increased sensitivity to AgNP toxicity, suggesting that asthmatics could be a sensitive population to AgNP exposures in occupational settings. However, the mechanistic basis for this genotype × phenotype (G × P) interaction has yet to be defined. In this study, we conducted transcriptional profiling using RNA-sequencing to predict the enrichment of specific canonical pathways and upstream transcriptional regulators to assist in defining a mechanistic basis for G × P effects on AgNP toxicity. Organotypic cultures were derived from MTEC across 2 genetically inbred mouse strains (A/J and C57BL/6J mice), 2 phenotypes ("Normal" and "T2-Skewed"), and 1 AgNP exposure (an acute 24 h exposure) to characterize G × P effects on transcriptional response to AgNP toxicity. The "T2-Skewed" phenotype was marked by increased pro-inflammatory T17 responses to AgNP toxicity, which are significant predictors of neutrophilic/difficult-to-control asthma and suggests that asthmatics could be a sensitive population to AgNP exposures in occupational settings. This study highlights the importance of considering G × P effects when identifying these sensitive populations, whose underlying genetics or diseases could directly modify their response to AgNP exposures.

17.
Sleep ; 43(6)2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872261

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been linked to dysregulated metabolic states, and treatment of sleep apnea may improve these conditions. Subcutaneous adipose tissue is a readily samplable fat depot that plays an important role in regulating metabolism. However, neither the pathophysiologic consequences of OSA nor the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in altering this compartment's molecular pathways are understood. This study aimed to systematically identify subcutaneous adipose tissue transcriptional programs modulated in OSA and in response to its effective treatment with CPAP. Two subject groups were investigated: Study Group 1 was comprised of 10 OSA and 8 controls; Study Group 2 included 24 individuals with OSA studied at baseline and following CPAP. For each subject, genome-wide gene expression measurement of subcutaneous fat was performed. Differentially activated pathways elicited by OSA (Group 1) and in response to its treatment (Group 2) were determined using network and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). In Group 2, treatment of OSA with CPAP improved apnea-hypopnea index, daytime sleepiness, and blood pressure, but not anthropometric measures. In Group 1, GSEA revealed many up-regulated gene sets in OSA subjects, most of which were involved in immuno-inflammatory (e.g. interferon-γ signaling), transcription, and metabolic processes such as adipogenesis. Unexpectedly, CPAP therapy in Group 2 subjects was also associated with up-regulation of several immune pathways as well as cholesterol biosynthesis. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that OSA alters distinct inflammatory and metabolic programs in subcutaneous fat, but these transcriptional signatures are not reversed with short-term effective therapy.

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 1057-1068, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668705

RESUMO

Average arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep (AvSpO2S) is a clinically relevant measure of physiological stress associated with sleep-disordered breathing, and this measure predicts incident cardiovascular disease and mortality. Using high-depth whole-genome sequencing data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) project and focusing on genes with linkage evidence on chromosome 8p23,1,2 we observed that six coding and 51 noncoding variants in a gene that encodes the GTPase-activating protein (DLC1) are significantly associated with AvSpO2S and replicated in independent subjects. The combined DLC1 association evidence of discovery and replication cohorts reaches genome-wide significance in European Americans (p = 7.9 × 10-7). A risk score for these variants, built on an independent dataset, explains 0.97% of the AvSpO2S variation and contributes to the linkage evidence. The 51 noncoding variants are enriched in regulatory features in a human lung fibroblast cell line and contribute to DLC1 expression variation. Mendelian randomization analysis using these variants indicates a significant causal effect of DLC1 expression in fibroblasts on AvSpO2S. Multiple sources of information, including genetic variants, gene expression, and methylation, consistently suggest that DLC1 is a gene associated with AvSpO2S.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Oxiemoglobinas/genética , Sono/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ligação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
19.
Commun Biol ; 2: 326, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508501

RESUMO

The kidney's inherent complexity has made identifying cell-specific pathways challenging, particularly when temporally associating them with the dynamic pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI). Here, we combine renal cell-specific luciferase reporter mice using a chemoselective luciferin to guide the acquisition of cell-specific transcriptional changes in C57BL/6 background mice. Hydrogen peroxide generation, a common mechanism of tissue damage, was tracked using a peroxy-caged-luciferin to identify optimum time points for immunoprecipitation of labeled ribosomes for RNA-sequencing. Together, these tools revealed a profound impact of AKI on mitochondrial pathways in the collecting duct. In fact, targeting the mitochondria with an antioxidant, ameliorated not only hydrogen peroxide generation, but also significantly reduced oxidative stress and the expression of the AKI biomarker, LCN2. This integrative approach of coupling physiological imaging with transcriptomics and drug testing revealed how the collecting duct responds to AKI and opens new venues for cell-specific predictive monitoring and treatment.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/genética , Imageamento Tridimensional , Isquemia/genética , Isquemia/patologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Coletores/lesões , Túbulos Renais Coletores/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Néfrons/metabolismo , Néfrons/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/complicações , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia
20.
JCI Insight ; 52019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393853

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and fatal lung disease. A maladaptive epithelium due to chronic injury is a prominent feature and contributor to pathogenic cellular communication in IPF. Recent data highlight the concept of a "reprogrammed" lung epithelium as critical in the development of lung fibrosis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are potent mediator of cellular crosstalk, and recent evidence supports their role in lung pathologies such as IPF. Here, we demonstrate that syndecan-1 is overexpressed by the epithelium in the lungs of IPF patients and in murine models after bleomycin injury. Moreover, we find that syndecan-1 is a pro-fibrotic signal that alters alveolar type II (ATII) cell phenotypes by augmenting TGFß and Wnt signaling among other pro-fibrotic pathways. Importantly, we demonstrate that syndecan-1 controls the packaging of several anti-fibrotic microRNAs into EVs that have broad effects over several fibrogenic signaling networks as a mechanism of regulating epithelial plasticity and pulmonary fibrosis. Collectively, our work reveals new insight into how EVs orchestrate cellular signals that promote lung fibrosis and demonstrate the importance of syndecan-1 in coordinating these programs.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/metabolismo , Sindecana-1/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Animais , Bleomicina/efeitos adversos , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vesículas Extracelulares/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Lesão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sindecana-1/genética , Transcriptoma , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
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