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1.
Toxicol Sci ; 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562762

RESUMO

The airway epithelium is critical for maintaining innate and adaptive immune responses, and occupational exposures that disrupt its immune homeostasis may initiate and amplify airway inflammation. In our previous study, we demonstrated that silver nanoparticles (AgNP), which are engineered nanomaterials used in multiple applications but primarily in the manufacturing of many antimicrobial products, induce toxicity in organotypic cultures derived from murine tracheal epithelial cells (MTEC), and those differentiated toward a "Type 2 [T2]-Skewed" phenotype experienced an increased sensitivity to AgNP toxicity, suggesting that asthmatics could be a sensitive population to AgNP exposures in occupational settings. However, the mechanistic basis for this genotype × phenotype interaction (G×P) has yet to be defined. In the present study, we conducted transcriptional profiling using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to predict the enrichment of specific canonical pathways and upstream transcriptional regulators to assist in defining a mechanistic basis for G×P effects on AgNP toxicity. Organotypic cultures were derived from MTEC across two genetically inbred mouse strains (A/J and C57BL/6J mice), two phenotypes ("Normal" and "T2-Skewed"), and one AgNP exposure (an acute 24 h exposure) to characterize G×P effects on transcriptional response to AgNP toxicity. The "T2-Skewed" phenotype was marked by increased pro-inflammatory T17 responses to AgNP toxicity, which are significant predictors of neutrophilic/difficult-to-control asthma and suggests that asthmatics could be a sensitive population to AgNP exposures in occupational settings. This study highlights the importance of considering G×P effects when identifying these sensitive populations, whose underlying genetics or diseases could directly modify their response to AgNP exposures.

2.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393853

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and fatal lung disease. A maladaptive epithelium due to chronic injury is a prominent feature and contributor to pathogenic cellular communication in IPF. Recent data highlight the concept of a "reprogrammed" lung epithelium as critical in the development of lung fibrosis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are potent mediator of cellular crosstalk, and recent evidence supports their role in lung pathologies such as IPF. Here, we demonstrate that syndecan-1 is overexpressed by the epithelium in the lungs of IPF patients and in murine models after bleomycin injury. Moreover, we find that syndecan-1 is a pro-fibrotic signal that alters alveolar type II (ATII) cell phenotypes by augmenting TGFß and Wnt signaling among other pro-fibrotic pathways. Importantly, we demonstrate that syndecan-1 controls the packaging of several anti-fibrotic microRNAs into EVs that have broad effects over several fibrogenic signaling networks as a mechanism of regulating epithelial plasticity and pulmonary fibrosis. Collectively, our work reveals new insight into how EVs orchestrate cellular signals that promote lung fibrosis and demonstrate the importance of syndecan-1 in coordinating these programs.

4.
Sleep ; 42(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139831

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Daytime sleepiness is a consequence of inadequate sleep, sleep-wake control disorder, or other medical conditions. Population variability in prevalence of daytime sleepiness is likely due to genetic and biological factors as well as social and environmental influences. DNA methylation (DNAm) potentially influences multiple health outcomes. Here, we explored the association between DNAm and daytime sleepiness quantified by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). METHODS: We performed multi-ethnic and ethnic-specific epigenome-wide association studies for DNAm and ESS in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; n = 619) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 483), with cross-study replication and meta-analysis. Genetic variants near ESS-associated DNAm were analyzed for methylation quantitative trait loci and followed with replication of genotype-sleepiness associations in the UK Biobank. RESULTS: In MESA only, we detected four DNAm-ESS associations: one across all race/ethnic groups; three in African-Americans (AA) only. Two of the MESA AA associations, in genes KCTD5 and RXRA, nominally replicated in CHS (p-value < 0.05). In the AA meta-analysis, we detected 14 DNAm-ESS associations (FDR q-value < 0.05, top association p-value = 4.26 × 10-8). Three DNAm sites mapped to genes (CPLX3, GFAP, and C7orf50) with biological relevance. We also found evidence for associations with DNAm sites in RAI1, a gene associated with sleep and circadian phenotypes. UK Biobank follow-up analyses detected SNPs in RAI1, RXRA, and CPLX3 with nominal sleepiness associations. CONCLUSIONS: We identified methylation sites in multiple genes possibly implicated in daytime sleepiness. Most significant DNAm-ESS associations were specific to AA. Future work is needed to identify mechanisms driving ancestry-specific methylation effects.

5.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(6): 732-741, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990758

RESUMO

Rationale: Serial measurements of alveolar macrophage (AM) transcriptional changes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) could identify cell-specific biological programs that are associated with clinical outcomes.Objectives: To determine whether AM transcriptional programs are associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and 28-day mortality in individuals with ARDS.Methods: We performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of AMs purified from BAL fluid collected from 35 subjects with ARDS. Cells were obtained at baseline (Day 1), Day 4, and Day 8 after ARDS onset (N = 68 total samples). We identified biological pathways that were enriched at each time point in subjects alive and extubated within 28 days after ARDS onset (alive/extubatedDay28) versus those dead or persistently supported on mechanical ventilation at Day 28 (dead/intubatedDay28).Measurements and Main Results: "M1-like" (classically activated) and proinflammatory gene sets such as IL-6/JAK/STAT5 (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5) signaling were significantly enriched in AMs isolated on Day 1 in alive/extubatedDay28 versus dead/intubatedDay28 subjects. In contrast, by Day 8, many of these same proinflammatory gene sets were enriched in AMs collected from dead/intubatedDay28 compared with alive/extubatedDay28 subjects. Serially sampled alive/extubatedDay28 subjects were characterized by an AM temporal expression pattern of Day 1 enrichment of innate immune programs followed by prompt downregulation on Days 4 and 8. Dead/intubatedDay28 subjects exhibited an opposite pattern, characterized by progressive upregulation of proinflammatory programs over the course of ARDS. The relationship between AM expression profiles and 28-day clinical status was distinct in subjects with direct (pulmonary) versus indirect (extrapulmonary) ARDS.Conclusions: Clinical outcomes in ARDS are associated with highly distinct AM transcriptional programs.

6.
PLoS Genet ; 15(4): e1007739, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990817

RESUMO

Sleep disordered breathing (SDB)-related overnight hypoxemia is associated with cardiometabolic disease and other comorbidities. Understanding the genetic bases for variations in nocturnal hypoxemia may help understand mechanisms influencing oxygenation and SDB-related mortality. We conducted genome-wide association tests across 10 cohorts and 4 populations to identify genetic variants associated with three correlated measures of overnight oxyhemoglobin saturation: average and minimum oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep and the percent of sleep with oxyhemoglobin saturation under 90%. The discovery sample consisted of 8,326 individuals. Variants with p < 1 × 10(-6) were analyzed in a replication group of 14,410 individuals. We identified 3 significantly associated regions, including 2 regions in multi-ethnic analyses (2q12, 10q22). SNPs in the 2q12 region associated with minimum SpO2 (rs78136548 p = 2.70 × 10(-10)). SNPs at 10q22 were associated with all three traits including average SpO2 (rs72805692 p = 4.58 × 10(-8)). SNPs in both regions were associated in over 20,000 individuals and are supported by prior associations or functional evidence. Four additional significant regions were detected in secondary sex-stratified and combined discovery and replication analyses, including a region overlapping Reelin, a known marker of respiratory complex neurons.These are the first genome-wide significant findings reported for oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep, a phenotype of high clinical interest. Our replicated associations with HK1 and IL18R1 suggest that variants in inflammatory pathways, such as the biologically-plausible NLRP3 inflammasome, may contribute to nocturnal hypoxemia.


Assuntos
Hexoquinase/genética , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-18/genética , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Sono/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Biologia Computacional , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipóxia/sangue , Hipóxia/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Oxigênio/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/sangue , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/genética , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17870, 2018 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552397

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are considered early and late phases of a pathologic continuum of interconnected disease states. Although changes in gene expression patterns have recently been elucidated for the transition of AKI to CKD, the epigenetic regulation of key kidney injury related genes remains poorly understood. We used multiplex RT-qPCR, ChIP-qPCR and integrative analysis to compare transcriptional and epigenetic changes at renal disease-associated genes across mouse AKI and CKD models. These studies showed that: (i) there are subsets of genes with distinct transcriptional and epigenetically profiles shared by AKI and CKD but also subsets that are specific to either the early or late stages of renal injury; (ii) differences in expression of a small number of genes is sufficient to distinguish AKI from CKD; (iii) transcription plays a key role in the upregulation of both AKI and CKD genes while post-transcriptional regulation appears to play a more significant role in decreased expression of both AKI and CKD genes; and (iv) subsets of transcriptionally upregulated genes share epigenetic similarities while downregulated genes do not. Collectively, our study suggests that identified common transcriptional and epigenetic profiles of kidney injury loci could be exploited for therapeutic targeting in AKI and CKD.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macrophage plasticity allows cells to adopt different phenotypes, a property with important implications in disorders such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and asthma. OBJECTIVE: To examine the transcriptional and functional significance of macrophage repolarization from an "M1" towards an "M2" phenotype, and assess the role of a common human genetic disorder (CF) and a prototypical allergic disease (asthma) in this transformation. METHODS: Monocyte-derived macrophages were collected from healthy and CF subjects and polarized to an M2 state using IL-4, IL-10, glucocorticoids, apoptotic PMNs, or azithromycin. We performed transcriptional profiling and pathway analysis for each stimulus. We assessed the ability of M2-repolarized macrophages to respond to LPS re-challenge and clear apoptotic neutrophils, and used murine models to determine conserved functional responses to IL-4 and IL-10. We investigated whether M2 signatures were associated with alveolar macrophage phenotypes in asthma. RESULTS: We found that macrophages exhibit highly diverse responses to distinct M2-polarizing stimuli. Specifically, IL-10 activated pro-inflammatory pathways and abrogated LPS-tolerance allowing for rapid restoration of LPS responsiveness. In contrast, IL-4 enhanced LPS-tolerance, dampening pro-inflammatory responses after repeat LPS challenge. A common theme observed across all M2 stimuli was suppression of interferon-associated pathways. We found that CF macrophages had intact reparative and transcriptional responses, suggesting that macrophage contributions to CF lung disease are primarily shaped by their environment. Finally, we leveraged in vitro-derived signatures to show that allergen provocation induces distinct M2-state transcriptional patterns in alveolar macrophages. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the diversity of macrophage polarization, attribute functional consequences to different "M2" stimuli, and provide a framework to phenotype macrophages in disease states.

10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403821

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Its prevalence and severity vary across ancestral background. Although OSA traits are heritable, few genetic associations have been identified. To identify genetic regions associated with OSA and improve statistical power, we applied admixture mapping on three primary OSA traits (the apnea hypopnea index [AHI], overnight average oxyhemoglobin saturation [SaO2] and percentage time SaO2<90%) and a secondary trait (respiratory event duration) in a Hispanic/Latino American population study of 11,575 individuals with significant variation in ancestral background. Linear mixed models were performed using previously inferred African, European and Amerindian local genetic ancestry markers. Global African ancestry was associated with a lower AHI, higher oxyhemoglobin saturation and shorter event duration. Admixture mapping analysis of the primary OSA traits identified local African ancestry at the chromosomal region 2q37 as genome-wide significantly associated with AHI (P<5.7×10-5), and European and Amerindian ancestries at 18q21 suggestively associated with both AHI and percentage time SaO2<90% (P<10-3). Follow-up joint ancestry-SNP association analyses identified novel variants in ferrochelatase (FECH), significantly associated with AHI and percentage time SaO2<90% after adjusting for multiple tests (P<8×10-6). These signals contributed to the admixture mapping associations and were replicated in independent cohorts. In this first admixture mapping study of OSA, novel associations with variants in the iron/heme metabolism pathway suggest a role for iron in influencing respiratory traits underlying OSA.

11.
Br J Nutr ; 120(10): 1159-1170, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205856

RESUMO

The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)-pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D-pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (P race difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (P race difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D-FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199657

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory properties that could benefit adults with comprised pulmonary health. OBJECTIVE: To investigate n-3 PUFA associations with spirometric measures of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and determine underlying genetic susceptibility. METHODS: Associations of n-3 PUFA biomarkers (alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid [DPA], and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) were evaluated with PFTs (forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and [FEV1/FVC]) in meta-analyses across seven cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (N=16,134 of European or African ancestry). PFT-associated n-3 PUFAs were carried forward to genome-wide interaction analyses in the four largest cohorts (N=11,962) and replicated in one cohort (N=1,687). Cohort-specific results were combined using joint 2 degree-of-freedom (2df) meta-analyses of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations and their interactions with n-3 PUFAs. RESULTS: DPA and DHA were positively associated with FEV1 and FVC (P<0.025), with evidence for effect modification by smoking and by sex. Genome-wide analyses identified a novel association of rs11693320-an intronic DPP10 SNP-with FVC when incorporating an interaction with DHA, and the finding was replicated (P2df=9.4×10-9 across discovery and replication cohorts). The rs11693320-A allele (frequency~80%) was associated with lower FVC (PSNP=2.1×10-9; ßSNP= -161.0mL), and the association was attenuated by higher DHA levels (PSNP×DHA interaction=2.1×10-7; ßSNP×DHA interaction=36.2mL). CONCLUSIONS: We corroborated beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs on pulmonary function. By modeling genome-wide n-3 PUFA interactions, we identified a novel DPP10 SNP association with FVC that was not detectable in much larger studies ignoring this interaction.

13.
JCI Insight ; 3(10)2018 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769438

RESUMO

Studies in human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro have shown clear evidence that multiple macrophage polarization states exist. The extent to which different alveolar macrophage (AM) polarization states exist in homeostasis or in the setting of severe injury such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is largely unknown. We applied single-cell cytometry TOF (CyTOF) to simultaneously measure 36 cell-surface markers on CD45+ cells present in bronchoalveolar lavage from healthy volunteers, as well as mechanically ventilated subjects with and without ARDS. Visualization of the high-dimensional data with the t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding algorithm demonstrated wide diversity of cell-surface marker profiles among CD33+CD71+CD163+ AMs. We then used a κ-nearest neighbor density estimation algorithm to statistically identify distinct alveolar myeloid subtypes, and we discerned 3 AM subtypes defined by CD169 and PD-L1 surface expression. The percentage of AMs that were classified into one of the 3 AM subtypes was significantly different between healthy and mechanically ventilated subjects. In an independent cohort of subjects with ARDS, PD-L1 gene expression and PD-L1/PD-1 pathway-associated gene sets were significantly decreased in AMs from patients who experienced prolonged mechanical ventilation or death. Unsupervised CyTOF analysis of alveolar leukocytes from human subjects has potential to identify expected and potentially novel myeloid populations that may be linked with clinical outcomes.

14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 10(4): 606-621, 2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676999

RESUMO

Renin expressing cells in the kidney's juxta-glomeruluar compartment likely also serve as progenitors for adult glomerular cells in disease. Although these cells of renin lineage (CoRL) decrease in number with advancing kidney age, accompanied by less responsiveness to typical stimuli such as ACE-inhibition, mechanisms and the impact of sex as a biological variable with age are not known. Accordingly, labeled CoRL were sorted from individual young (2m) and aged (27m) male and female Ren1cCre|ZsGreen reporter mice, and their transcriptomic profiles analyzed by RNA seq. When both aged female and male mice were combined, there were 48 differentially expressed genes (DEG) compared to young mice. However, when compared to their young sex-matched mice, aged female and male mice had 159 and 503 DEGs respectively. In addition to marked differences in individual genes between aged female and male mice, gene ontology analysis showed major pathway differences by sex. The majority of DEGs in one sex did not significantly change or changed in the opposite direction in the other sex. These results show that in CoRL of advanced age, individual genes and gene ontologies change, but differ between female and male mice, highlighting sex related differences the aging process.

15.
Matrix Biol ; 73: 34-51, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29406250

RESUMO

Several studies have implicated a causative role for specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the development and progression of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its severe sequela, emphysema. However, the precise function of any given MMP in emphysema remains an unanswered question. Emphysema results from the degradation of alveolar elastin - among other possible mechanisms - a process that is often thought to be caused by elastolytic proteinases made by macrophages. In this article, we discuss the data suggesting, supporting, or refuting causative roles of macrophage-derived MMPs, with a focus on MMPs-7, -9, -10, -12, and 28, in both the human disease and mouse models of emphysema. Findings from experimental models suggest that some MMPs, such as MMP-12, may directly breakdown elastin, whereas others, particularly MMP-10 and MMP-28, promote the development of emphysema by influencing the proteolytic and inflammatory activities of macrophages.

16.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 46(4): 380-386, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343610

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 2J2 isoform (CYP2J2) is a drug-metabolizing enzyme that is highly expressed in adult ventricular myocytes. It is responsible for the bioactivation of arachidonic acid (AA) into epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). EETs are biologically active signaling compounds that protect against disease progression, particularly in cardiovascular diseases. As a drug-metabolizing enzyme, CYP2J2 is susceptible to drug interactions that could lead to cardiotoxicity. CYP2J2 has been shown to be resistant to induction by canonical CYP inducers such as phenytoin and rifampin. It is, however, unknown how cellular stresses augment CYP2J2 expression. Here, we determine the effects of oxidative stress on gene expression in adult ventricular myocytes. Further, we assess the consequences of CYP2J2 inhibition and CYP2J2 silencing on cells when levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are elevated. Findings indicate that CYP2J2 expression increases in response to external ROS or when internal ROS levels are elevated. In addition, cell survival decreases with ROS exposure when CYP2J2 is chemically inhibited or when CYP2J2 expression is reduced using small interfering RNA. These effects are mitigated with external addition of EETs to the cells. Finally, we determined the results of external EETs on gene expression and show that only two of the four regioisomers cause an increase in HMOX1 expression. This work is the first to determine the consequence of cellular stress, specifically high ROS levels, on CYP2J2 expression in human ventricular myocytes and discusses how this enzyme may play an important role in response to cardiac oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Adulto , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Interações de Medicamentos/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
17.
Am J Pathol ; 188(4): 1094-1103, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355516

RESUMO

Syndecan-1 is a transmembrane proteoglycan expressed prominently by lung epithelium and has pleiotropic functions such as regulating cell migration, proliferation, and survival. Loss of syndecan-1 expression by lung cancer cells is associated with higher-grade cancers and worse clinical prognosis. We evaluated the effects of syndecan-1 in various cell-based and animal models of lung cancer and found that lung tumorigenesis was moderated by syndecan-1. We also demonstrate that syndecan-1 (or lack thereof) alters the miRNA cargo carried within exosomes exported from lung cancer cells. Analysis of the changes in miRNA expression identified a distinct shift toward augmented procancer signaling consistent with the changes found in lung adenocarcinoma. Collectively, our work identifies syndecan-1 as an important factor in lung cancer cells that shapes the tumor microenvironment through alterations in miRNA packaging within exosomes.

18.
Nat Genet ; 50(1): 42-53, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273806

RESUMO

We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known asthma loci, established asthma associations at two loci previously implicated in the comorbidity of asthma plus hay fever, and confirmed nine known loci. Investigation of pleiotropy showed large overlaps in genetic variants with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The enrichment in enhancer marks at asthma risk loci, especially in immune cells, suggested a major role of these loci in the regulation of immunologically related mechanisms.

19.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 314(4): L617-L625, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212802

RESUMO

Mohan A, Malur A, McPeek M, Barna BP, Schnapp LM, Thomassen MJ, Gharib SA. Transcriptional survey of alveolar macrophages in a murine model of chronic granulomatous inflammation reveals common themes with human sarcoidosis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 314: L617-L625, 2018. First published December 6, 2017; doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00289.2017 . To advance our understanding of the pathobiology of sarcoidosis, we developed a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-based murine model that shows marked histological and inflammatory signal similarities to this disease. In this study, we compared the alveolar macrophage transcriptional signatures of our animal model with human sarcoidosis to identify overlapping molecular programs. Whole genome microarrays were used to assess gene expression of alveolar macrophages in six MWCNT-exposed and six control animals. The results were compared with the transcriptional profiles of alveolar immune cells in 15 sarcoidosis patients and 12 healthy humans. Rigorous statistical methods were used to identify differentially expressed genes. To better elucidate activated pathways, integrated network and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed. We identified over 1,000 differentially expressed between control and MWCNT mice. Gene ontology functional analysis showed overrepresentation of processes primarily involved in immunity and inflammation in MCWNT mice. Applying GSEA to both mouse and human samples revealed upregulation of 92 gene sets in MWCNT mice and 142 gene sets in sarcoidosis patients. Commonly activated pathways in both MWCNT mice and sarcoidosis included adaptive immunity, T-cell signaling, IL-12/IL-17 signaling, and oxidative phosphorylation. Differences in gene set enrichment between MWCNT mice and sarcoidosis patients were also observed. We applied network analysis to differentially expressed genes common between the MWCNT model and sarcoidosis to identify key drivers of disease. In conclusion, an integrated network and transcriptomics approach revealed substantial functional similarities between a murine model and human sarcoidosis particularly with respect to activation of immune-specific pathways.

20.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 58(3): 391-401, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29077507

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common heritable disorder displaying marked sexual dimorphism in disease prevalence and progression. Previous genetic association studies have identified a few genetic loci associated with OSA and related quantitative traits, but they have only focused on single ethnic groups, and a large proportion of the heritability remains unexplained. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is a commonly used quantitative measure characterizing OSA severity. Because OSA differs by sex, and the pathophysiology of obstructive events differ in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep, we hypothesized that additional genetic association signals would be identified by analyzing the NREM/REM-specific AHI and by conducting sex-specific analyses in multiethnic samples. We performed genome-wide association tests for up to 19,733 participants of African, Asian, European, and Hispanic/Latino American ancestry in 7 studies. We identified rs12936587 on chromosome 17 as a possible quantitative trait locus for NREM AHI in men (N = 6,737; P = 1.7 × 10-8) but not in women (P = 0.77). The association with NREM AHI was replicated in a physiological research study (N = 67; P = 0.047). This locus overlapping the RAI1 gene and encompassing genes PEMT1, SREBF1, and RASD1 was previously reported to be associated with coronary artery disease, lipid metabolism, and implicated in Potocki-Lupski syndrome and Smith-Magenis syndrome, which are characterized by abnormal sleep phenotypes. We also identified gene-by-sex interactions in suggestive association regions, suggesting that genetic variants for AHI appear to vary by sex, consistent with the clinical observations of strong sexual dimorphism.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/genética , Sono REM/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatidiletanolamina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteínas ras/genética
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