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1.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578528

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.

2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6901-6915, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564860

RESUMO

Background: Smart materials capable of responding to external stimuli are noteworthy candidates in designing drug delivery systems. In many of the recent research, temperature and pH have been recognized as the main stimulating factors in designing systems for anti-cancer drugs delivery systems. Purpose: In this study, thermo and pH-responsive character of a nano-carrier drug delivery platform based on lysine modified poly (vinylcaprolactam) hydrogel conjugated with doxorubicin was assessed. Methods: Poly (vinylcaprolactam) cross-linked with poly (ethyleneglycol) diacrylate was prepared via RAFT polymerization, and the prepared structure was linked with lysine through ring-opening. The anti-cancer drug doxorubicin, was linked to lysine moiety of the prepared structure via Schiff-base reaction. The prepared platform was characterized by 1HNMR and FT-IR, while molecular weight characterization was performed by size exclusion chromatography. The temperature-responsive activity was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic light scattering. In vitro release pattern in simulated physiologic pH at 37°C was compared with acidic pH attributed to tumor site and elevated temperature. The anticancer efficiency of the drug-conjugated structure was evaluated in breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in 24 and 48 h, and cell uptake assay was performed on the same cell line. Conclusion: According to the results, well-structure defined smart pH and temperature responsive nano-hydrogel was prepared. The enhanced release rates are observed at acidic pH and elevated temperature. We have concluded that the doxorubicin-conjugated nanoparticle results in higher cellular uptakes and more cytotoxicity.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4130, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511532

RESUMO

Increased levels of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we conduct trans-ethnic (n = 564,257) and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses, and identify 68 UACR-associated loci. Genetic correlation analyses and risk score associations in an independent electronic medical records database (n = 192,868) reveal connections with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, gout, and hypertension. Fine-mapping and trans-Omics analyses with gene expression in 47 tissues and plasma protein levels implicate genes potentially operating through differential expression in kidney (including TGFB1, MUC1, PRKCI, and OAF), and allow coupling of UACR associations to altered plasma OAF concentrations. Knockdown of OAF and PRKCI orthologs in Drosophila nephrocytes reduces albumin endocytosis. Silencing fly PRKCI further impairs slit diaphragm formation. These results generate a priority list of genes and pathways for translational research to reduce albuminuria.

4.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 957-972, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152163

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Testes de Função Renal , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Uromodulina/urina
5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4228, 2018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315176

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels can cause gout, an excruciating disease with suboptimal treatment. Previous GWAS identified common variants with modest effects on serum urate. Here we report large-scale whole-exome sequencing association studies of serum urate and kidney function among ≤19,517 European ancestry and African-American individuals. We identify aggregate associations of low-frequency damaging variants in the urate transporters SLC22A12 (URAT1; p = 1.3 × 10-56) and SLC2A9 (p = 4.5 × 10-7). Gout risk in rare SLC22A12 variant carriers is halved (OR = 0.5, p = 4.9 × 10-3). Selected rare variants in SLC22A12 are validated in transport studies, confirming three as loss-of-function (R325W, R405C, and T467M) and illustrating the therapeutic potential of the new URAT1-blocker lesinurad. In SLC2A9, mapping of rare variants of large effects onto the predicted protein structure reveals new residues that may affect urate binding. These findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of serum urate, and highlight molecular targets in SLC22A12 and SLC2A9 for lowering serum urate and preventing gout.

6.
Nanomedicine ; 13(2): 745-753, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27793790

RESUMO

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles having structure of MCM-41 category with amine and EDTA functional groups in the pores were prepared using a co-condensation reaction. The synthetic steps eventuated in the mesoporous silica nanoparticles with spherical sizes lower than 50nm supposed to have high surface area. The nanoparticles' structure and functionality were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and CHN analysis and the topography were examined by SEM and TEM and hydrodynamic sizes were demonstrated by DLS. The crystallinity and mesoporous pattern were figured out by XRD technique. Then the efficiency of these materials was tested in vitro and in vivo in adsorbing ferrous sulfate which is a supplement normally prescribed in treating iron deficiency and its overdose is potentially lethal, especially in young children. In vivo experiments illustrated that both nanoparticles could efficiently be administrated as an antidote agent against iron overdose, but EDTA-MSN nanoparticles were superior to NH2-MSN nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Antídotos , Ácido Edético , Ferro/envenenamento , Nanopartículas , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Porosidade , Dióxido de Silício
7.
Int J Pharm ; 504(1-2): 110-6, 2016 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26994523

RESUMO

In this work, novel hydroxyl-modified magnetite nanocarriers are introduced as efficient host for methotrexate conjugation. The modification was based on the Micheal type addition reaction between tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane and acrylamidopropyl functionalized, silica-coated magnetite nanoparticle. The chemical structure characterization was carried out by FT-IR and the organic content was determined by CHN analysis. The topography was studied by SEM, TEM, AFM. DLS was performed to show particles' mean diameter. Furthermore, the magnetite properties of modified particles were evaluated by VSM and the crystallinity was proved by XRD. To illustrate the efficiency of the modified particles, the anti-cancer drug methotrexate was conjugated to hydroxyl groups through estric bond formation. The controlled release activity of established nanoparticles was evaluated in simulated cellular fluid. Later, the anti-cancer behavior of drug conjugated nanoparticles was evaluated in vitro in MCF-7 cell line which showed enhanced toxicity after 48 h. Conclusively, the modified nanoparticles have remarked as powerful carrier to be applied as an anti-cancer agent.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Hidróxidos/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Hidróxidos/química , Células MCF-7 , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Metotrexato/química , Dióxido de Silício/administração & dosagem , Dióxido de Silício/química
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25280162

RESUMO

Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is widely used as an antiknock additive for increasing octane number of gasoline. Recently, the in vivo studies demonstrated that MTBE has genotoxic potential and able to form adducts with DNA. In the work, the interactions of MTBE with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) and the Na(+) form of G-quadruplex DNA (wtTel22) were studied by using of head space-solid phase microextraction technique coupled to gas chromatography. The binding equilibrium constants were measured through the equilibriums of a four phase system. In addition, the MTBE Henry's law constants for two different buffers in the temperature range of 283-303K were measured. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the complexation of MTBE to both DNAs is enthalpy favored and entropy disfavored. The thermodynamic results revealed that MTBE may have interaction with ct-DNA via the minor groove of DNA. Also, MTBE may be complexed into the basket of G-quadruplex structure. In addition, the low difference in the binding constants of MTBE for both different DNA targets may confirm that MTBE is poorly selective for different conformations of DNA.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , DNA/metabolismo , Quadruplex G , Éteres Metílicos/metabolismo , Telômero/química , Animais , Bovinos , Dicroísmo Circular , DNA/química , Humanos , Éteres Metílicos/química , Termodinâmica
9.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 27(2): 641-50, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23153512

RESUMO

In this work we proposed a model for in vitro interaction of fenitrothion (FEN) with calf thymus-DNA by combination of multispectroscopic and two dimensional molecular modeling (ONIOM) methods. The circular dichroism results showed that FEN changes the conformation of B-DNA and caused some changes to C-DNA form. The FT-IR results confirmed a partial intercalation between FEN and edges of all base pairs. The competitive fluorescence, using methylene blue as fluorescence probe, in the presence of increasing amounts of FEN, revealed that FEN is able to release the non-intercalated methylene blue from the DNA. The weak chemical shift and peak broadening of (1)H NMR spectrum of FEN in the presence of DNA confirmed a non-intercalation mode. The (31)P NMR showed that FEN interacts more with DNA via its -NO2 moiety. The ONIOM, based on the hybridization of QM/MM (DFT, 6.31++G (d,p)/UFF) methodology, was also performed by Gaussian 2003 package. The results revealed that the interaction is base sequence dependent, and FEN interacts more with AT base sequences.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Fenitrotion/química , Inseticidas/química , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Dicroísmo Circular , Fluorescência , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
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