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1.
Anal Biochem ; : 114412, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656613

RESUMO

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of whole saliva has provided potential diagnostic biomarkers for numerous human diseases contributing to a better understanding of their mechanisms. However, a comprehensive interpretation of the significance of metabolites in whole, parotid, and submandibular/sublingual saliva subtypes is still missing. Precision and reproducibility of sample preparation is an essential step. Here, we present a simple and efficient protocol for saliva 1H NMR metabolic profiling. This procedure has been specifically designed and optimized for the identification and quantification of low concentration metabolites (as low as 1.1 µM) and is suitable for all the saliva subtypes.

2.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670792

RESUMO

The production of 3D printed safety protection devices (SPD) requires particular attention to the material selection and to the evaluation of mechanical resistance, biological safety and surface roughness related to the accumulation of bacteria and viruses. We explored the possibility to adopt additive manufacturing technologies for the production of respirator masks, responding to the sudden demand of SPDs caused by the emergency scenario of the pandemic spread of SARS-COV-2. In this study, we developed different prototypes of masks, exclusively applying basic additive manufacturing technologies like fused deposition modeling (FDM) and droplet-based precision extrusion deposition (db-PED) to common food packaging materials. We analyzed the resulting mechanical characteristics, biological safety (cell adhesion and viability), surface roughness and resistance to dissolution, before and after the cleaning and disinfection phases. We showed that masks 3D printed with home-grade printing equipment have similar performances compared to the industrial-grade ones, and furthermore we obtained a perfect face fit by customizing their shape. Finally, we developed novel approaches to the additive manufacturing post-processing phases essential to assure human safety in the production of 3D printed custom medical devices.

3.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 121: 111772, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579438

RESUMO

Nanomaterials play a pivotal role in modern regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, due to their peculiar physical, optical and biological properties once they are used in the nanometric size. Many evidences are showing the importance of biomaterial micro- and nano-topography on cellular adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, and hence, tissue regeneration. It is well known that nanowires (NWs) can mimic many different tissues as a result of their shape and their surface characteristics, and that surface hydrophilicity affects early protein adsorption and cellular adhesion. Therefore a material able to induce bone regeneration might be obtained by combining optimal surface topography and hydrophilicity. Based on these evidence, we designed silicon carbide (SiC) and core/shell silicon carbide/silicon dioxide (SiC/SiOx) nanowires with modified wettability in order to analyze cell behavior, using an in-vitro osteoblastic model. First, we synthetized SiC NWs and SiC/SiOx NWs through a chemical-vapour-deposition (CVD) process, and then we used hydrogen plasma to modify their hydrophilicity. Subsequently we evaluated the four types of NWs in terms of their morphology and contact angle, and we studied their behavior in the presence of MC3T3-E1 murine osteoblasts. Cell metabolic activity, viability, morphology and focal adhesions formation were considered. Morphological data showed different dimensions between SiC and SiC/SiOx NWs. SiC NWs before the hydrogen plasma treatment showed a very low contact angle, that was absent after the treatment. Osteoblastic cells appeared healthy on all of the samples. Interestingly, both hydrophilic SiC NWs and SiC/SiOx NWs generated a favorable distribution of focal adhesions around the cell body confirmed also by scanning electron microscopy images. Moreover, osteoblasts grown on hydrogen plasma treated SiC/SiOx NWs showed an increased metabolic activity testified by a significantly higher cell number. In conclusion, we are here demonstrating that hydrogen plasma treatment of SiC and SiC/SiOx NWs induce a better osteoblastic cellular adhesion by increasing NWs wettability. We are therefore suggesting that hydrogen plasma treatment of SiC/SiOx can offer a suitable method to develop scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications.


Assuntos
Nanofios , Animais , Compostos Inorgânicos de Carbono , Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Osteoblastos , Compostos de Silício
4.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 117: 111307, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919668

RESUMO

In vitro studies have consistently shown that titanium surface wettability affects the response of osteoprogenitors, leading to important advances in the clinical osseointegration of dental implants. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Since surface conditioning by blood components initiates within milliseconds after insertion, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the amount and the type of blood proteins adsorbed influences the interaction between the implant surface and osteoprogenitors. To test this hypothesis, titanium implant surfaces with different characteristics, in terms of topography and wettability, have been conditioned with selected plasma proteins. Pure fibronectin (HFN) and albumin (HSA) solutions, or their mixture at the relative plasma concentrations were allowed to adsorb on titanium surfaces for 60 min. Protein adsorption was monitored by Bradford assay, while the contribution of HSA and HFN in forming the microfilm layer at the interface was studied by Western Blot. Subsequently, the same protein-conditioned surfaces were used to culture C2C12 cells, thus studying their capacity to adhere and to spread after 3 h. Cell viability was evaluated up to 7 days, while the expression of osteogenic genes was assessed after 3 days. Under competitive adsorption conditions, hydrophilicity promotes the selectivity of titanium for HFN regardless of the surface microtopography. As a consequence of selective HFN adsorption, cells on hydrophilic surfaces displayed enhanced adhesion and spreading, as well as increased proliferation. On the other hand, selective HFN adsorption did not appreciably affect cell differentiation. These data suggest that implant surface hydrophilicity plays a key role in guiding the selective adsorption of specific proteins from blood plasma. Moreover, the selective adsorption of HFN, as a consequence of surface hydrophilicity, was found to account for early cell responses amelioration. Thus, titanium surface hydrophilicity contributes to the clinical success of dental implant by selectively controlling protein adsorption at the interface.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Titânio , Adsorção , Albuminas , Fibronectinas , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Propriedades de Superfície
5.
Metabolites ; 10(8)2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781584

RESUMO

The detection of salivary molecules associated with pathological and physiological alterations has encouraged the search of novel and non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for oral health evaluation. While genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic profiles of human saliva have been reported, its metabolic composition is a topic of research: metabolites in submandibular/sublingual saliva have never been analyzed systematically. In this study, samples of whole, parotid, and submandibular/sublingual saliva from 20 healthy donors, without dental or periodontal diseases, were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance. We identified metabolites which are differently distributed within the three saliva subtypes (54 in whole, 49 in parotid, and 36 in submandibular/sublingual saliva). Principal component analysis revealed a distinct cluster for whole saliva and a partial overlap for parotid and submandibular/sublingual metabolites. We found exclusive metabolites for each subtype: 2-hydroxy-3-methylvalerate, 3-methyl-glutarate, 3-phenylpropionate, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, 4-hydroxyphenyllactate, galactose, and isocaproate in whole saliva; caprylate and glycolate in submandibular/sublingual saliva; arginine in parotid saliva. Salivary metabolites were classified into standard and non-proteinogenic amino acids and amines; simple carbohydrates; organic acids; bacterial-derived metabolites. The identification of a salivary gland-specific metabolic composition in healthy people provides the basis to invigorate the search for salivary biomarkers associated with oral and systemic diseases.

6.
Minerva Stomatol ; 69(2): 87-94, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calcium ions levels in bone niches have been demonstrated to severely influence new bone formation. Osteoinductive scaffolds containing calcium have been largely studied to control the release of calcium in bone regeneration and tissue engineering purpose. The aim of the present study was, firstly, to synthesize two different resorbable calcium phosphate-based powders, thought to be reservoirs of calcium ions, and secondary, to investigate their effects on human osteoblasts, in order to develop a suitable titanium coating material. METHODS: Tetracalcium phosphate (A450) and biphasic tetracalcium phosphatae/tricalcium phosphate (A850) powders were prepared with an innovative method. The presence of calcium phosphate structures was chemically confirmed with XRD. Furthermore, powders macroscopic aspect was observed with a stereomicroscope. For in-vitro experiments, human osteoblastic cells were cultured in the presence of A450 and A850, and assayed for viability and metabolic activity through Crystal Violet and MTT, respectively. RESULTS: Our synthesis led to the formation of calcium phosphates in both samples, even though A850 presented a higher level of crystallinity and a more powdery aspects than A450. Both the samples enhanced the viability of cultured cells, inhibiting cell metabolic activity in the case of A850, which furthermore showed to be internalized by cells. CONCLUSIONS: We developed two different kind of calcium phosphate-based powders and we tested their effect on human osteoblasts, underlying the possibility of use calcium phosphate-based coatings to enhance cell response on implantable materials.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio , Osteoblastos , Humanos , Pós , Difração de Raios X
7.
Jpn Dent Sci Rev ; 56(1): 50-55, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31890058

RESUMO

The bioactivity of biomaterials is closely related to cell response in contact with them. However, shortly after their insertion, materials are soon covered with proteins that constitute the biological fluids, and which render the direct surface recognition by cells almost impossible. The control of protein adsorption at the interface is therefore desirable. Extracellular matrix proteins are of particular interest in this sense, due to their well-known ability to modulate cell behavior. Particularly, fibronectin plays a leading role, being present in both healthy and injured tissues undergoing healing and regeneration. The aim of the present work is to give an overview on fibronectin and on its involvement in the control of cell behavior providing evidence of its pivotal role in the control of cell adhesion, spreading, migration, proliferation and differentiation. A deep insight into methods to enrich biomaterials surface with fibronectin will be then discussed, as well as new cues on the possibility to design tailored platforms able to specifically retain fibronectin from the surrounding extracellular milieu.

8.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(12)2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795174

RESUMO

Surface topography is one of the main factors controlling cell responses on implanted devices and a proper definition of the characteristics that optimize cell behavior may be crucial to improve the clinical performances of these implants. Substrate geometry is known to affect cell shape, as cells try to optimize their adhesion by adapting to the irregularities beneath, and this in turn profoundly affects their activity. In the present study, we cultured murine calvaria MC3T3-E1 cells on surfaces with pillars arranged as hexagons with two different spacings and observed their morphology during adhesion and growth. Cells on these highly ordered substrates attached and proliferated effectively, showing a marked preference for minimizing the inter-pillar distance, by following specific pathways across adjacent pillars and displaying consistent morphological modules. Moreover, cell behavior appeared to follow tightly controlled patterns of extracellular protein secretion, which preceded and matched cells and, on a sub-cellular level, cytoplasmic orientation. Taken together, these results outline the close integration of surface features, extracellular proteins alignment and cell arrangement, and provide clues on how to control and direct cell spatial order and cell morphology by simply acting on inter-pillar spacing.

9.
Med Hypotheses ; 132: 109388, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491678

RESUMO

Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition that can induce significant destruction of the periodontium, the set of specialized tissues that provide nourishment and support to the teeth. According to the guided tissue regeneration principles, the periodontium can be regenerated if the spatiotemporal control of wound healing is obtained, namely the tune control of cell response. After material implantation, protein adsorption at the interface is the first occurring biological event, which influences subsequent cell response. With the regard of this, we hypothesize that the control of selective adsorption of biological cues from the surrounding milieu may be a key-point to control selective cell colonization of scaffolds for periodontal tissue regeneration.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Periodontite/metabolismo , Periodontite/terapia , Proteínas/química , Regeneração , Adsorção , Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inflamação , Ligamento Periodontal , Tecidos Suporte , Cicatrização
10.
J Mater Sci Mater Med ; 30(4): 43, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929122

RESUMO

Robust cell adhesion is known to be necessary to promote cell colonization of biomaterials and differentiation of progenitors. In this paper, we propose the functionalization of Silicon Oxycarbide (SiOxCy) nanowires (NWs) with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), a molecule containing a terminal -SH group. The aim of this functionalization was to develop a surface capable to adsorb proteins and promote cell adhesion, proliferation and a better deposition of extracellular matrix. This functionalization can be used to anchor other structures such as nanoparticles, proteins or aptamers. It was observed that surface functionalization markedly affected the pattern of protein adsorption, as well as the in vitro proliferation of murine osteoblastic cells MC3T3-E1, which was increased on functionalized nanowires (MPTMS-NWs) compared to bare NWs (control) (p < 0.0001) after 48 h. The cells showed a better adhesion on MPTMS-NWs than on bare NWs, as confirmed by immunofluorescence studies on the cytoskeleton, which showed a more homogeneous vinculin distribution. Gene expression analysis showed higher expression levels for alkaline phosphatase and collagen I, putative markers of the osteoblast initial differentiation stage. These results suggest that functionalization of SiOxCy nanowires with MPTMS enhances cell growth and the expression of an osteoblastic phenotype, providing a promising strategy to improve the biocompatibility of SiOxCy nanowires for biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanofios/química , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Silício/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfidrila/farmacologia , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Teste de Materiais , Camundongos , Nanofios/efeitos adversos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Silanos/química , Silanos/farmacologia , Compostos de Silício/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Tecidos Suporte/efeitos adversos
11.
J Mater Sci Mater Med ; 27(10): 159, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27637929

RESUMO

We report on the synthesis and characterization of a composite nanostructure based on the coupling of cerium fluoride (CeF3) and zinc oxide (ZnO) for applications in self-lighted photodynamic therapy. Self-lighted photodynamic therapy is a novel approach for the treatment of deep cancers by low doses of X-rays. CeF3 is an efficient scintillator: when illuminated by X-rays it emits UV light by fluorescence at 325 nm. In this work, we simulate this effect by exciting directly CeF3 fluorescence by UV radiation. ZnO is photo-activated in cascade, to produce reactive oxygen species. This effect was recently demonstrated in a physical mixture of distinct nanoparticles of CeF3 and ZnO [Radiat. Meas. (2013) 59:139-143]. Oxide surface provides a platform for rational functionalization, e.g., by targeting molecules for specific tumors. Our composite nanostructure is stable in aqueous media with excellent optical coupling between the two components; we characterize its uptake and its good cell viability, with very low intrinsic cytotoxicity in dark.


Assuntos
Cério/química , Fluoretos/química , Nanocompostos/química , Neoplasias/terapia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Óxido de Zinco/química , Células A549 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Luz , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanopartículas/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Óxidos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Análise Espectral Raman , Raios X
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