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1.
Prev Med ; : 106556, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862033

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) is an important factor in cancer prevention, but positive association between PA and risk of cutaneous melanoma found in recent studies may complicate this strategy. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure during outdoor PA is a plausible explanation for a positive association. We investigated the associations between PA, UVR and melanoma risk in the Norwegian Women and Cancer cohort. Overall PA was reported by 151,710 women, aged 30-75 at inclusion, using a validated 10-point-scale at enrolment and during follow-up, together with recent numbers of sunburns, indoor tanning sessions and weeks on sunbathing vacations. Seasonal outdoor walking and seasonal PAs were recorded in subsamples (n = 102,671 and n = 29,077, respectively). Logistic and Cox regression were used. Mean follow-up was 18.5 years, and 1565 invasive incident melanoma cases were diagnosed. Overall PA was inversely associated with sunburns, while positively associated with sunbathing vacations and indoor tanning. Overall PA was not associated with melanoma risk in all body sites combined (ptrend = 0.61), but reduced risk was found in upper limb melanomas (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.96; high versus low PA). Non-significant reduced risks were found for seasonal outdoor walking >2 h/day versus 30-60 min/day (summer HR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.66-1.00; autumn HR = 0.74, 95%CI 0.55-1.01). Seasonal PAs were not associated with melanoma risk. In conclusion, we found positive associations between overall PA and sunbathing vacations and indoor tanning, and, unlike literature, inverse association between overall PA and sunburns. Our results do not support a positive association between PA and melanoma risk in Norwegian women.

2.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 101(4): adv00446, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880571

RESUMO

Patients' phenotypic characteristics might be associated with melanoma aggressiveness, but the evidence is scarce. This study examined the associations be-tween pigmentary characteristics, naevi and melanoma thickness. Data from the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) study were analysed. By 2014, 1,243 women were diagnosed with a primary melanoma, and 1,140 had information on thickness. Using ordinal logistic regression models, the probability of being diagnosed with a specific thickness category was calculated by pigmentary score and naevi. Fair pigmentary score was associated with thinner trunk melanomas (probabilities of being diagnosed with a tumour ≤1.0 mm thickness were 74%, 66%, and 51% for fair, medium and dark pigmentary scores, respectively), but not the other sites. High number of naevi was associated with thicker nodular melanoma (NM) but not with super-ficial spreading melanoma. These findings suggest the need for greater overall vigilance and skin checks among women with fair pigmentary score. The association between naevi and NM suggest possible biological mechanisms.

3.
Am J Ind Med ; 64(6): 496-510, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased risk of cutaneous melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been reported among petroleum workers, but few studies include females, exposure data on ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and potential confounding factors. We aimed to examine UVR exposure in relation to risk of melanoma and SCC among male and female offshore petroleum workers. We also examined the association between UVR exposure and melanoma (Breslow) thickness. METHODS: The Norwegian Offshore Petroleum Workers (NOPW) cohort (n = 27,917) holds information on sunbathing, indoor tanning, sunburns, sunscreen use, and other lifestyle factors recorded in 1998. Linkage to the Cancer Registry of Norway gave information on cancer diagnosis through 2017. We used Cox and logistic regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of skin cancer and odds ratios (OR) of thick (≥1 mm) melanomas, respectively, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Melanoma risk increased with increasing frequency of sunbathing after age 20 (ptrend = 0.031), sunburn average intensity (ptrend = 0.028), and sunscreen use (HR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.42 -3.27 for almost always vs. never/rarely). The risk of thick melanoma was inversely associated with sunbathing frequency after age 20 (OR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.16 - 0.90 for ≥4 weeks/year vs. 1 week/year). SCC risk increased with increasing frequency of indoor tanning after age 20 (HR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.22 - 6.05 for ≥3 times/months vs. never), sunburn average intensity (ptrend < 0.001), and sunscreen use (ptrend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support associations between UVR exposure and skin cancer risk in male and female offshore petroleum workers. This occupational group may be especially relevant for targeted sun protection advice.

4.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(4): 997-1015, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612379

RESUMO

AIM: Fermented milk products are suggested as a supplementary therapy to help reduce blood lipid levels. However, the results of clinical studies are conflicting. DATA SYNTHESIS: This study systematically reviewed 39 randomized controlled trials (n = 2237 participants) to investigate the effect of probiotic fermented milk products on blood lipids. A meta-analysis was performed using random effects models, with weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Statistically significant reductions in blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (WMD: -7.34 mg/dL, 95% CI: from -10.04 to -4.65, and P < 0.001) and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations (WMD: -8.30 mg/dL, 95% CI: from -11.42 to -5.18, and P < 0.001) were observed. No statistically significant effect of probiotic fermented milk was observed on blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triacylglycerol (TAG) levels. The effect on TC and LDL-C level was more pronounced in men, and a greater reduction in TAG was observed in trials with longer interventions (≥8 weeks) as compared to their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence suggests that probiotic fermented milk products may help to reduce serum TC and LDL-C cholesterol levels, particularly in men and when they are consumed for ≥8 weeks.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Produtos Fermentados do Leite/microbiologia , Dislipidemias/dietoterapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Regulação para Baixo , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 41, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition is a modifiable risk factor that plays an important role in the prevention or delaying of the onset of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies have focused on NAFLD and individual nutrients, which does not take into account combinations of food that are consumed. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between major dietary patterns and NAFLD. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted on 225 newly diagnosed NAFLD patients and 450 healthy controls. Usual dietary intake over the preceding year was assessed using a validated 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Major dietary patterns were determined by exploratory factor analysis. RESULTS: Three dietary patterns, including "western dietary pattern", "healthy dietary pattern", and "traditional dietary pattern" were identified. Subjects in the highest tertile of healthy dietary pattern scores had a lower odds ratio for NAFLD than those in the lowest tertile. Compared with those in the lowest tertile, people in the highest tertile of "western dietary pattern" scores had greater odds for NAFLD. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, "western dietary pattern" had a positive significant effect on NAFLD occurrence. In contrast, "healthy dietary pattern" was associated with a decreased risk of NAFLD. Furthermore, Higher consumption of the "traditional dietary pattern" was significantly associated with NAFLD, albeit in the crude model only. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that healthy and western dietary patterns may be associated with the risk of NAFLD. The results can be used for developing interventions in order to promote healthy eating for the prevention of NAFLD.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21477, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293634

RESUMO

One of the reasons for high mortality of breast cancer (BC) is long delay in seeking medical care and end stage at presentation. This study was designed to measure the association between a wide range of socio-demographic and clinical factors with diagnostic delay in BC and stage at presentation among Iranian patients. From June 2017 to December 2019, 725 patients with newly diagnosed BC in Shiraz and Kermanshah were selected and information on BC diagnosis delay was obtained from the patient's medical record. Data on socio-economic status was obtained via a structured interview. Our findings suggest that 45.8% of the patients were diagnosed at a late stage (stage 3 or higher). A total of 244 (34%) patients had more than 3 months delay in diagnosis. We found a significant association between stage at diagnosis and place of residence (adjusted odds ratio (aOR rural vs. urban = 1.69, 95% CI 1.49-1.97), marital status (aOR 1.61, 95% CI 1.42-1.88), family history of BC (aOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.13), and history of benign breast disease (BBD) (aOR 1.94, 95% CI 1.39-2.72) or unaware of breast self-examination (BSE) (aOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.42-1.85), delay time (aOR 3.25, 95% CI 1.04-5.21), and left breast tumor (aOR right vs. left 2.64, 95% CI 1.88-3.71) and smoking (aOR no vs. yes 1.59, 95% CI 1.36-1.97). Also, delay in diagnosis was associated with age, family income, health insurance, place of residence, marital status, menopausal status, history of BBD, awareness of breast self-examination, type of first symptoms, tumor histology type, BMI and comorbidity (p < 0.05 for all). Factors including history of BBD, awareness of BSE, and suffering from chronic diseases were factors associated with both delay in diagnosis and end stage of disease. These mainly modifiable factors are associated with the progression of the disease.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20129, 2020 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208828

RESUMO

Previous studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in relation to melanoma have shown conflicting results. We conducted a nested case-control study of 708 cases and 708 controls, using prediagnostically collected serum, to study 25(OH)D and melanoma risk in the population-based Janus Serum Bank Cohort. Stratified Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for ultraviolet radiation (UVR) indicators and stratified by ambient UVB of residence and body mass index (BMI). Non-linear associations were studied by restricted cubic splines. Missing data were handled with multiple imputation by chained equations. We found an HR of melanoma risk of 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.04) and an HRimputed of 1.02 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.04) per 5-nmol/L increase. The spline model showed exposure-risk curves with significantly reduced melanoma risk between 60 and 85 nmol/L 25(OH)D (reference 50 nmol/L). Non-significant J-shaped curves were found in sub-analyses of subjects with high ambient UVB of residence and of subjects with BMI < 25 kg/m2. Our data did not yield persuasive evidence for an association between 25(OH)D and melanoma risk overall. Serum levels within the medium range might be associated with reduced risk, an association possibly mediated by BMI.

8.
Nutr J ; 19(1): 113, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated the association between dietary patterns and semen quality indicators, but research on the possible association between animal flesh foods consumption and semen quality is limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the association between animal flesh foods consumption with semen quality. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 400 newly-identified (< 6 months) infertile men, as diagnosed by an andrologist, were recruited into the study. Dietary intake was assessed by using a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. The total meat consumption was defined as the sum of red meat, poultry, fresh fish, canned fish, processed meats, and organ meats in the diet. A linear mixed model was used to assess the relationship between meat consumption and semen quality indicators of participants. RESULTS: Consumption of canned fish was inversely related to sperm immotility. Compared with the men in the lowest quartile of canned fish intake, those in the highest quartile had a lower sperm immotility [lowest quartile: 52.5%; (95% CI: 47-57) vs 47.4%; (95% CI: 43-51) P-trend = 0.026]. Similarly, a trend toward an inverse significant association between fresh fish intake and sperm immotility was observed (P-trend = 0.074). In contrast, fresh and canned fish intake was unrelated to other outcomes of sperm quality (P-trend > 0.05). No association was found between consumption of processed red meat, red meat, poultry, and organ meat, and semen quality indicators (P-trend > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We found that consumption of canned fish is associated with a lower percentage of immotile sperm, whilst a high consumption of fresh fish increased the percentage of immotile sperm in Iranian infertile men. Further studies are recommended in this regard.

9.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 17: 75, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963579

RESUMO

Background and aim: A number of studies have investigated the effects of individual foods and/or nutrients on rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but research focusing on whole dietary patterns remains limited. The association of dietary patterns and rheumatoid arthritis is therefore not well elucidated. This study aims to determine existing relationships between major identified dietary patterns and RA. Methods: This matched case-control study was conducted on 297 individuals in Isfahan, Iran. The presence of RA was determined by an expert rheumatologist, based on the American College of Rheumatology definitions, 2010. A 168-item questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Major dietary patterns were identified using the factor analysis method. Results: Two major dietary patterns, namely, healthy and western dietary patterns, were identified. Lower adherence to the healthy dietary pattern was associated with increased risk of RA (OR = 2.80; 95% CI 1.74-4.67; P < 0.001). The association remained significant even after taking other confounders into account (OR = 2.85; 95% CI 1.12-7.45; P = 0.03). A positively significant association was also observed between adherence to western dietary pattern and RA in the fully-adjusted final model (OR = 2.22; 95% CI 1.04-4.72; P = 0.03). Conclusions: The study suggests that there is an inverse association between adherence to a healthy dietary pattern and the odds of RA, and a positive significant relationship was found between western dietary pattern and RA. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.

10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(11): 1057-1067, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710289

RESUMO

Citrus intake has been suggested to increase the risk of skin cancer. Although this relation is highly plausible biologically, epidemiologic evidence is lacking. We aimed to examine the potential association between citrus intake and skin cancer risk. EPIC is an ongoing multi-center prospective cohort initiated in 1992 and involving ~ 520,000 participants who have been followed-up in 23 centers from 10 European countries. Dietary data were collected at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During a mean follow-up of 13.7 years, 8448 skin cancer cases were identified among 270,112 participants. We observed a positive linear dose-response relationship between total citrus intake and skin cancer risk (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.18 in the highest vs. lowest quartile; Ptrend = 0.001), particularly with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (HR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.20, Ptrend = 0.007) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.47, Ptrend = 0.01). Citrus fruit intake was positively associated with skin cancer risk (HR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16, Ptrend = 0.01), particularly with melanoma (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48; Ptrend = 0.01), although with no heterogeneity across skin cancer types (Phomogeneity = 0.21). Citrus juice was positively associated with skin cancer risk (Ptrend = 0.004), particularly with BCC (Ptrend = 0.008) and SCC (Ptrend = 0.004), but not with melanoma (Phomogeneity = 0.02). Our study suggests moderate positive linear dose-response relationships between citrus intake and skin cancer risk. Studies with available biomarker data and the ability to examine sun exposure behaviors are warranted to clarify these associations and examine the phototoxicity mechanisms of furocoumarin-rich foods.

11.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 67: 101738, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence rate of breast cancer (BC) is increasing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including Iran. We investigated the association between BC risk and physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), and reproductive history among Iranian women. METHODS: We conducted a large hospital-based case-control study and compared 958 BC cases with 967 controls at the Cancer Institute of Iran during 2011-2016. We used multiple logistic regression models and adjusted for potential confounders to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for the associations between BC and different risk factors, including low physical activity. RESULTS: Women with high levels of physical activity had a lower risk of BC compared to those who were inactive (OR = 0.55, 95%CI: 0.41, 0.75). In premenopausal women, the association was observed only in normal-weight women (OR = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.13, 0.75), while it was limited to obese women in the postmenopausal group (OR = 0.29, 95%CI: 0.12, 0.66). We found a high risk of postmenopausal BC among overweight (OR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.01, 2.81) and obese women (OR = 1.9; 95%CI: 1.14, 3.14) compared to women with a normal BMI. We observed an inverse association among postmenopausal women who had between three and five children (OR = 0.31, 95%CI 0.14, 0.64) and more than six children (OR = 0.21, 95%CI 0.12, 0.42) compared to nulliparous women. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of physical activity, low parity, and being overweight or obese were major risk factors for BC. For the first time, we report a strong association between physical activity and BC risk in Iranian women.

12.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 20(4): e516-e528, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362500

RESUMO

The histopathologic subtypes of breast cancer, including invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), differ in terms of risk factors, progression, and response to treatment. The PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched up to February 2020 for published studies on the association between dietary patterns (Western diet [WD] or Mediterranean diet [WD]) and the risk of IDC/ILC of breast. Multivariable adjusted relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing the highest and lowest categories of WD and MD patterns were combined by using the random-effects meta-analyses. After searching the databases, 10 eligible studies on the association of diet and IDC (7 articles) and ILC (3 articles) were included in the analysis. A statistically significant adverse association was observed between MD and IDC in case-control studies (RR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.39-0.55; I2 = 85.1%; P < .001). However, the association was nonsignificant in cohort studies (RR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.92-1.05; I2 = 88.8%; P = .003). The pooled analysis also suggested a significant and direct association between the WD and the risk of IDC (RR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.18-1.53; I2 = 63.7%; P = .017). The risk of ILC for the highest compared to the lowest category of MD was highly protective (RR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64-0.87; I2 = 89.2%; P < .001), and a marginally significant association was found between the WD and risk of ILC (RR = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.04-1.86), with no heterogeneity (I2 = 0; P = .52). This meta-analysis provides supporting evidence for the association between MD decreased risk of IDC and ILC of the breast and the association between WD and increased risk of IDC and ILC. Further investigations are needed to better understand the reasons behind the etiologic mechanisms of how dietary patterns affect patients differently by common breast cancer subtypes, including IDC and ILC.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4521, 2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161338

RESUMO

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is a leading cause of skin cancers and an ubiquitous environmental exposure. However, the molecular mechanisms relating UVR exposure to melanoma is not fully understood. We aimed to investigate if lifetime UVR exposure could be robustly associated to DNA methylation (DNAm). We assessed DNAm in whole blood in three data sets (n = 183, 191, and 125) from the Norwegian Woman and Cancer cohort, using Illumina platforms. We studied genome-wide DNAm, targeted analyses of CpG sites indicated in the literature, global methylation, and accelerated aging. Lifetime history of UVR exposure (residential ambient UVR, sunburns, sunbathing vacations and indoor tanning) was collected by questionnaires. We used one data set for discovery and the other two for replication. One CpG site showed a genome-wide significant association to cumulative UVR exposure (cg01884057) (pnominal = 3.96e-08), but was not replicated in any of the two replication sets (pnominal ≥ 0.42). Two CpG sites (cg05860019, cg00033666) showed suggestive associations with the other UVR exposures. We performed extensive analyses of the association between long-term UVR exposure and DNAm. There was no indication of a robust effect of past UVR exposure on DNAm.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/efeitos da radiação , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , Adulto , Idoso , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética
14.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res ; : 1-12, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156220

RESUMO

Objective: While it has been reported that both foods and nutrients for individuals are connected with sleep, there is no evidence regarding the association of dietary patterns, identified by factor analysis, with primary insomnia. The present study sought to evaluate the association between major dietary patterns and the chance of having primary insomnia. Methods: The present case-control study was performed using 444 people (111 cases and 333 control), aged 18 to 60 years, referred to Isfahan health centers. Dietary intake was assessed via a food frequency questionnaire in a case-control study in Isfahan, Iran. Principal component analysis was used to determine major dietary patterns. The presence of primary insomnia was measured via the insomnia severity index questionnaire, and the subjects were grouped as healthy or insomniac. Results: Three major dietary patterns were recognized, and named; Western, Iranian Traditional and Healthy, respectively. The cumulative percentage of variance explained by three dietary patterns was 48.2%. Those in second (OR = 0.30; 95%CI: 0.2-0.46) and third (OR = 0.22; 95%CI: 0.15-0.35) tertiles of healthy dietary pattern were less likely suffer with insomnia. This association remained significant only in the highest tertile after adjusting potential confounders (OR = 0.45; 95%CI: 0.32-0.95). We found no significant association between greater adherence to Western or Iranian traditional dietary patterns and primary insomnia. Conclusions: The findings showed that although no statistically significant association was observed between both Western and Iranian traditional dietary patterns with primary insomnia, people with greater adherence to the healthy dietary pattern are less likely to have primary insomnia.

15.
Int J Prev Med ; 11: 8, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089808

RESUMO

Background: There is some separate evidence that probiotic soy milk and Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum) have positive effects on the prevention and reduction of diabetic complications. While the impact of probiotic soymilk mixed with herbal essential oils has not been investigated so far, the objective of this study is to examine the effects of probiotic soy milk using Lactobacillus plantarum A7 (KC 355240) added with essential oil of C. cyminum on diabetic rats. Methods: 50 streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) induced diabetic Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Control group (C group), soy milk group (SM group), probiotic soy milk group (PSM group), soy milk containing essential oil of C. cyminum group (SMC group) and probiotic soy milk containing essential oil of C. cyminum group (PSMC group). The animals consumed these products (1 ml/day) for 30 days. The fasting blood glucose (FBS), the serum lipid levels, and body weight variation were analyzed in 10-day intervals. Results: FBS, total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased significantly, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased in the PSMC group compared with that of other groups (P < 0.05). This product also led to weight gain (P < 0.05). Conclusions: A mixture of probiotic soy milk and herbal essential oil consumption could impose a positive effect on reducing FBS as well as serum lipid profile in STZ- NA diabetes-induced rat. Also, it results in an increase in their weight gain.

16.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(5): 833-842, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common cyclic psychological and somatic disorder which reduces women's quality of life. Evidence regarding the association between dietary patterns (DPs) and PMS is rare. The study aimed to determine the relationship between dietary patterns and PMS. DESIGN: The case-control study was conducted among women with confirmed PMS and healthy individuals recruited from healthcare centres. SETTING: Dietary data were collected using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and DPs were derived using principal component analysis. The association between DPs and likelihood of PMS was determined using logistic regression. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 225 women with PMS and 334 healthy participants aged 20-46 years took part in the study. RESULTS: Three major DPs were identified: (i) 'western DP' characterized by high intake of fast foods, soft drink, and processed meats; (ii) 'traditional DP' in which eggs, tomato sauce, fruits, and red meat were highly loaded; and (iii) 'healthy DP' high in dried fruits, condiments and nuts. After taking all possible confounders into account, individuals in the highest tertile of the western DP were more likely to experience PMS (odds ratio (OR) = 1·49; 95 % CI: 1·01, 3·52), P < 0·001), whilst both healthy and traditional DP was inversely associated with the syndrome (OR = 0·31; 95 % CI: 0·17, 0·72, P = 0·02; OR = 0·33; 95 % CI: 0·14, 0·77, P = 0·01, respectively). CONCLUSION: The western dietary patterns were positively associated with PMS, whilst the healthy and traditional dietary patterns were inversely associated with it. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm our findings.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 146(12): 3267-3280, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506954

RESUMO

Evidence suggests an influence of sex hormones on cutaneous melanoma risk, but epidemiologic findings are conflicting. We examined the associations between use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and melanoma risk in women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a prospective cohort study initiated in 1992 in 10 European countries. Information on exogenous hormone use at baseline was derived from country-specific self-administered questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Over 1992-2015, 1,696 melanoma cases were identified among 334,483 women, whereof 770 cases among 134,758 postmenopausal women. There was a positive, borderline-significant association between OC use and melanoma risk (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.00-1.26), with no detected heterogeneity across countries (phomogeneity = 0.42). This risk increased linearly with duration of use (ptrend = 0.01). Among postmenopausal women, ever use of MHT was associated with a nonsignificant increase in melanoma risk overall (HR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.97-1.43), which was heterogeneous across countries (phomogeneity = 0.05). Our findings do not support a strong and direct association between exogenous hormone use and melanoma risk. In order to better understand these relations, further research should be performed using prospectively collected data including detailed information on types of hormone, and on sun exposure, which may act as an important confounder or effect modifier on these relations.

18.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 34: 45-49, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677710

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although dietary intakes, especially micronutrients, can be associated with the severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), investigations on the amount of vitamins and antioxidants consumption and their relationship with NAFLD are very limited and incomplete. Therefore, we decided to investigate the relationship between antioxidant compounds intake and physical activity rate with NAFLD. METHODS: In this study, 200 patients with NAFLD for the case group and 400 healthy subjects for the control group were selected. Patients were diagnosed as NAFLD after giving blood tests and performing Ultrasonography by a radiology specialist. Dietary intakes were evaluated through a validated 168-items semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Physical activity rate was estimated by a validated short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Short IPAQ). RESULTS: The study population was between 20 and 60 years old and 46% of them were women. Weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, and BMI in the cases were higher than the controls. Physical activity comparisons showed that controls had higher physical activity rate than cases. Mean consumption of vitamins C, A, D and alpha-tocopherol in case group was less than the other group. After adjustment for all potential confounder, subjects who were in highest tertile of vitamin A intake -in comparison to those in the lowest tertile of intake-decreased risk of NAFLD (OR = 0.40, 95%CI: 0.30-0.55). The same finding was obtained for vitamin D; [Top category vs. bottom category of vitamin D of intake (OR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.20-0.61)]. CONCLUSIONS: We found that more intakes of vitamins A and D are related to lower risk of NAFLD in this group of Iranian adults. Physical activity rate in cases was less than the controls. Further prospective studies are required to confirm causal association between antioxidant compounds intake and NAFLD.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Vitaminas , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
19.
JAMA Dermatol ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577329

RESUMO

Importance: No study, to our knowledge, has prospectively investigated a dose-response association between lifetime indoor tanning and risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Objective: To investigate the dose-response association between lifetime indoor tanning and SCC risk, the association between duration of use and age at initiation with SCC risk, and the association between age at initiation and age at diagnosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included data from women born from 1927 to 1963 from the Norwegian Women and Cancer study, established in 1991 with follow-up through December 31, 2015. Baseline questionnaires were issued to participants from 1991 to 2007, with follow-up questionnaires given every 5 to 7 years. Data analysis was performed from January 2, 2018, to March 2, 2019. Exposures: Participants reported pigmentation factors. Sunburns, sunbathing vacations, and indoor tanning were reported for childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Main Outcomes and Measures: Information on all cancer diagnoses and dates of emigration or death were obtained through linkage to the Cancer Registry of Norway, using the unique personal identification number of Norwegian citizens. Results: A total of 159 419 women (mean [SD] age at inclusion, 49.9 [8.3] years) were included in the study. During follow-up (mean [SD], 16.5 [6.4] years), 597 women were diagnosed with SCC. Risk of SCC increased with increasing cumulative number of indoor tanning sessions. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for highest use vs never use was 1.83 (95% CI, 1.38-2.42; P < .001 for trend). A significantly higher risk of SCC was found among women with 10 years or less of use (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.08-1.85) and more than 10 years of use (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.16-1.76) and among women with age at initiation of 30 years or older (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.11-1.67) and younger than 30 years (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.18-1.92) vs never users. No significant association was found between age at initiation and age at diagnosis (estimated regression coefficient, -0.09 [95% CI, -1.11 to 0.94] for age at initiation of ≥30 years and -0.02 [95% CI, -1.27 to 1.22] for <30 years vs never use). Conclusion and Relevance: The findings provide supporting evidence that there is a dose-response association between indoor tanning and SCC risk among women. The association between cumulative exposure to indoor tanning and SCC risk was the same regardless of duration of use and age at initiation. These results support development of policies that regulate indoor tanning.

20.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581605

RESUMO

Since Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM) extract reduced specific IgE and ameliorated a skewed Th1/Th2 balance in a mouse allergy model, it was tested in blood donors with self-reported, IgE-positive, birch pollen allergy and/or asthma. Sixty recruited donors were randomized in a placebo-controlled, double-blinded study with pre-seasonal, 7-week, oral supplementation with the AbM-based extract AndosanTM. Before and after the pollen season, questionnaires were answered for allergic rhino-conjunctivitis, asthma, and medication; serum IgE was measured, and Bet v 1-induced basophil activation was determined by CD63 expression. The reported general allergy and asthma symptoms and medication were significantly reduced in the AbM compared to the placebo group during pollen season. During the season, there was significant reduction in specific IgE anti-Bet v 1 and anti-t3 (birch pollen extract) levels in the AbM compared with the placebo group. While the maximal allergen concentrations needed for eliciting basophil activation before the season, changed significantly in the placebo group to lower concentrations (i.e., enhanced sensitization) after the season, these concentrations remained similar in the AndosanTM AbM extract group. Hence, the prophylactic effect of oral supplementation before the season with the AbM-based AndosanTM extract on aeroallergen-induced allergy was associated with reduced specific IgE levels during the season and basophils becoming less sensitive to allergen activation.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Antialérgicos/administração & dosagem , Betula/imunologia , Doadores de Sangue , Misturas Complexas/administração & dosagem , Conjuntivite Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pólen/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antialérgicos/efeitos adversos , Antialérgicos/isolamento & purificação , Basófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Basófilos/imunologia , Misturas Complexas/efeitos adversos , Misturas Complexas/isolamento & purificação , Conjuntivite Alérgica/diagnóstico , Conjuntivite Alérgica/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/diagnóstico , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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