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1.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389065

RESUMO

Anaplastic gangliogliomas (AGG) are rare tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) that commonly affect children and young adults, with an unusual infratentorial presentation, which is related to hydrocephalus and a worse prognosis. We report a case of a brainstem AGG in a 2-year-old boy who underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) and later presented peritoneal metastasis. We also reviewed the related literature. Even though rare, disease dissemination through VPS should be sought in patients with CNS tumors and VPS who develop new abdominal symptoms. The early diagnosis and intervention may minimize morbidity and improve quality of life of such patients.

2.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, the authors present the outcomes of 4 patients with a severe form of Crouzon syndrome characterized by mutation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) c.1040 C > G p.Ser347Cys or the pathogenic c.1061C > G p.Ser354Cys variant of FGFR2, who underwent posterior vault distraction osteogenesis (PVDO) to alleviate elevated intracranial pressure. METHODS: Patients with diagnosed Crouzon syndrome who were found by genetic testing to have an FGFR2 c.1040 C > G p.Ser347Cys mutation or the c.1061C > G p.Ser354Cys variant were included. Outcome data and presence of hydrocephalus, Chiari Malformation type I (CMIs), and the presence/absence of a tracheostomy were recorded. RESULTS: Three patients with the FGFR2 c.1040 C > G p.Ser347Cys mutation and 1 with the pathogenic FGFR2 c.1061C > G p.Ser354Cys variant were identified as having characteristics of severe Crouzon syndrome. The mean age at PVDO was 15 months and the mean posterior advancement was 20 mm. All 4 patients experienced sufficient relief of the elevated intracranial pressure from the PVDO to prevent the need for shunt placement, stabilize the ventricular dimensions (n = 2), and resolve the CMIs (n = 2). Intracranial pressure screening ruled out malignant cerebrospinal fluid volume increase. CONCLUSIONS: PVDO effectively prevented hydrocephalus and resolved CMIs, successfully alleviating intracranial pressure and maximizing clinical outcomes for patients with severe Crouzon syndrome.

3.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 9(4): 454-467, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35238489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We compared the proteomic signatures of the hippocampal lesion induced in three different animal models of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE+HS): the systemic pilocarpine model (PILO), the intracerebroventricular kainic acid model (KA), and the perforant pathway stimulation model (PPS). METHODS: We used shotgun proteomics to analyze the proteomes and find enriched biological pathways of the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus (DG) isolated from the hippocampi of the three animal models. We also compared the proteomes obtained in the animal models to that from the DG of patients with pharmacoresistant MTLE+HS. RESULTS: We found that each animal model presents specific profiles of proteomic changes. The PILO model showed responses predominantly related to neuronal excitatory imbalance. The KA model revealed alterations mainly in synaptic activity. The PPS model displayed abnormalities in metabolism and oxidative stress. We also identified common biological pathways enriched in all three models, such as inflammation and immune response, which were also observed in tissue from patients. However, none of the models could recapitulate the profile of molecular changes observed in tissue from patients. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that each model has its own set of biological responses leading to epilepsy. Thus, it seems that only using a combination of the three models may one replicate more closely the mechanisms underlying MTLE+HS as seen in patients.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal , Epilepsia , Animais , Benchmarking , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epilepsia/patologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/patologia , Humanos , Proteoma , Proteômica , Esclerose
4.
J Craniofac Surg ; 33(1): 66-69, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Presenting a wide clinical spectrum and large variety of clinical features, successful treatment of Apert syndrome necessitates performance of sequential multiple surgeries before a patient's facial skeleton growth is complete.The objective of this study is to compare forehead contour asymmetry and clinical outcomes between Apert patients who underwent either fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) or posterior vault distraction osteogenesis (PVDO). METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on consecutive patients with Apert syndrome who underwent either FOA or PVDO between 2007 and 2019, and participated in at least 6 months of follow-up care. Forehead contour asymmetry and surgical outcomes for each of the included patients were verified through medical records, clinical photographs, and interviews with the parents of the patients. The need for additional craniofacial procedures based on the surgical outcomes of each patient was graded from I to IV utilizing the Whitaker outcome classification system. RESULTS: Forehead contour asymmetry for all included patients was rated under the Whitaker grading scale as type II (n = 4) 44.4%, type III (n = 2) 22.2%, and type IV (n = 3) 33.3% for FOA, and type I (n = 5) 35.7%, type II (n = 7) 50%, and type III (n = 2) 14.3%, for PVDO (P < 0.05). The average transfused blood volume was 47.77 ±â€Š9.42 mL/kg for patients who underwent FOA, and 22.75 ±â€Š10.31 mL/kg for patients who underwent PVDO (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who underwent PVDO had lower forehead contour asymmetry as per the Whitaker outcome grading scale than patients who underwent FOA.


Assuntos
Acrocefalossindactilia , Craniossinostoses , Osteogênese por Distração , Acrocefalossindactilia/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Crânio
5.
Brain ; 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34957478

RESUMO

Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a highly epileptogenic cortical malformation with few treatment options. Here we generated human cortical organoids from patients with FCD type II. Using this human model, we mimicked some FCD hallmarks, such as impaired cell proliferation, the presence of dysmorphic neurons and balloon cells, and neuronal network hyperexcitability. Furthermore, we observed alterations in the adherens junctions zonula occludens-1 and partitioning defective 3, reduced polarization of the actin cytoskeleton, and fewer synaptic puncta. FCD cortical organoids showed downregulation of the small GTPase RHO A, a finding that was confirmed in brain tissue resected from these patients. Functionally, both spontaneous and optogenetically-evoked electrical activity revealed hyperexcitability and enhanced network connectivity in FCD organoids. Taken together, our findings suggest a ventricular zone instability in tissue cohesion of neuroepithelial cells, leading to a maturational arrest of progenitors or newborn neurons, which may predispose to cellular and functional immaturity and compromise the formation of neural networks in FCD.

6.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(3): 521-529, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051903

RESUMO

Monobloc and facial bipartition combined with distraction osteogenesis (MFBDO) has gained popularity over the past several years as a treatment of syndromic craniosynostosis, in part because this surgical technique effectively removes many stigmatic clinical features associated with the syndromic face. The objective of this study is to detail the surgical planning used to achieve medialization of the orbits and describe the authors' experience using MFBDO to destigmatize the syndromic face. By using MFBDO, hypertelorism, vertical orbital dystopia, and downslanting of the palpebral fissure were surgically corrected in all patients, thereby destigmatizing the syndromic face.


Assuntos
Acrocefalossindactilia/cirurgia , Disostose Craniofacial/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/métodos , Osteogênese por Distração/métodos , Adulto , Criança , Face/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Osteogênese por Distração/instrumentação
7.
Epilepsia ; 62(6): 1429-1441, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to better characterize the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of mild malformation of cortical development with oligodendroglial hyperplasia (MOGHE), a rare clinicopathological entity associated with pharmacoresistance recently described in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy. METHODS: We studied 12 patients who underwent epilepsy surgery and whose surgical specimens showed histopathological findings of MOGHE, characterized by preserved cortical lamination, blurred gray-white matter interface due to increased number of oligodendrocytes, and heterotopic neurons in the white matter. The age at MRI evaluation ranged from 11 to 58 years, except for one 4.5-year-old patient. RESULTS: Following a detailed MRI analysis using an in-house protocol, we found abnormalities in all cases. The lesion was circumscribed in the frontal lobe in six (50%) and in the temporal lobe in three (25%) patients. In the remaining three patients (25%), the lesion was multilobar (frontotemporal and temporoparieto-occipital). Cortical thickening was mild in all patients, except in the 4.5-year-old patient, who had pronounced cortical thickening and white matter blurring. We also identified cortical/subcortical hyperintense T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal associated with gray/white matter blurring in all but one patient. When present, cleft cortical dimple, and deep sulci aided in localizing the lesion. Overall, the MRI findings were like those in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) Type IIa. Surgical outcome was excellent in five patients (Engel Class I in 25% and II in 17%). The remaining seven patients (58%) had worthwhile seizure reduction (Engle Class III). Incomplete lesion resection was significantly associated with worse outcomes. SIGNIFICANCE: MRI findings associated with MOGHE are similar to those described in FCD Type IIa. Although more frequent in the frontal lobe, MOGHE also occurred in the temporal lobe or involved multiple lobes. Multilobar or extensive MOGHE MRI lesions are associated with less favorable surgical outcomes. Because this is a rare condition, multicenter studies are necessary to characterize MOGHE further.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia do Lobo Frontal/patologia , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/patologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/cirurgia , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia do Lobo Frontal/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurônios/patologia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 37(6): 2001-2009, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866411

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The most commonly occurring syndromic craniosynostoses are Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, and Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. There is insufficient data regarding postoperative syndrome-related outcomes following the posterior vault distraction osteogenesis (PVDO) procedure, as well as data addressing whether or not additional procedures will be subsequently necessary to comprehensively treat children who undergo PVDO. Thus, the objective of this study is to describe and compare syndrome-related potential complications and outcomes associated with the PVDO procedure. METHODS: An observational retrospective study was performed on consecutive patients (n=24) with Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, or Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, respectively, who underwent PVDO between 2012 and 2019. Demographic data (patient gender and age when the PVDO procedure was performed), diagnosis, surgery-related data, and outcome data (perioperative and midterm complications and need for additional surgery) were verified. RESULTS: Total relative blood transfusion volumes per kilogram for the patients were as follows: 22.75 ± 9.30 ml for Apert syndrome, 10.73 ± 2.28 ml for Crouzon syndrome (Apert versus Crouzon, p<0.05), 18.53 ± 8.08 ml for Pfeiffer syndrome, and 19.74 ± 9.12 ml for Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. None of the patients required a secondary procedure to alleviate intracranial pressure except for a Saethre-Chotzen patient. CONCLUSION: PVDO is an effective technique to address elevated intracranial pressure in SC patients that alleviates the need for secondary procedures at midterm follow-up. Apert syndrome patients presented relatively higher total blood transfusion rates than Crouzon syndrome patients who were operated on at a later age and weighed more.


Assuntos
Acrocefalossindactilia , Disostose Craniofacial , Craniossinostoses , Osteogênese por Distração , Acrocefalossindactilia/cirurgia , Criança , Disostose Craniofacial/cirurgia , Humanos , Osteogênese por Distração/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 37(9): 2873-2878, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Craniofrontonasal dysplasia (CFND) is a rare congenital craniofacial syndrome characterized by single suture synostosis, hypertelorism, other clinical facial features, and abnormalities in the upper extremities. There are only a few studies in the applicable literature that address hypertelorism management for CFND patients and outcomes and complication rates. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on consecutive late presenting CFND patients referred to our hospital with substantially completed craniofacial skeleton growth, who underwent hypertelorism correction between 2007 and 2019 following intracranial pressure screening, and who received at least 1 year of follow-up care. None of the patients in this study underwent prior craniofacial surgery. Only those patients with a confirmed mutation of the EFNB1 gene were included in this study. All patients in this study underwent hypertelorism correction by facial bipartition or box osteotomy. RESULTS: A total of ten late presenting CFND patients (all female) were treated at our hospital during the study period. None of the patients presented signs of elevated intracranial pressure. The average patient age at hypertelorism correction was 13.4 ± 7.68 years of age. Major complications, defined as complications requiring a return to the operating room, were limited to infection of the frontal bone, which required partial bone removal, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, which was completely resolved by insertion of a lumbar shunt for a 7-day period. CONCLUSION: The absence of elevated intracranial pressure enables hypertelorism correction in late presenting CFND patients via facial bipartition or box osteotomy without the need for additional operations that provide for cranial expansion.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais , Hipertelorismo , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/complicações , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/cirurgia , Feminino , Osso Frontal , Humanos , Hipertelorismo/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(7): e638-e642, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770026

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We present here the unique case of a patient with a Tessier 1-13 rare facial cleft accompanied by cleft lip and palate and Tessier grade 2 hypertelorism. The patient described in this article has a twin brother who shares a number of genetic traits and physical features but does not present facial cleft or hypertelorism. The 45-year follow-up in this case is believed to be the longest follow-up to date to have been reported in the literature, and sheds significant light on the importance of extended longitudinal follow-up to maximize patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Hipertelorismo , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 37(7): 2391-2397, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404724

RESUMO

Crouzon syndrome is a rare form of syndromic craniosynostosis (SC) characterized by premature fusion of the cranial and facial sutures, elevated intracranial pressure, varying degrees of ocular exposure due to exorbitism, and airway compromise caused by midface retrusion. Craniolacunae and upper and lower extremity anomalies are not frequently found in Crouzon syndrome. We present a girl with Crouzon syndrome caused by c.1040 C > G, p.Ser347Cys, a pathogenic mutation in the FGFR2 gene with atypical characteristics, including craniolacunae resembling severe Swiss cheese type of bone formation, and upper and lower extremity anomalies which are more commonly associated with Pfeiffer syndrome patients. Distinguishing between severe Crouzon syndrome patients and patients who have mild and/or moderate Pfeiffer syndrome can be challenging even for an experienced craniofacial surgeon. An accurate genotype diagnosis is essential to distinguishing between these syndromes, as it provides predictors for neurosurgical complications and facilitates appropriate family counseling related to long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Acrocefalossindactilia , Disostose Craniofacial , Craniossinostoses , Disostose Craniofacial/diagnóstico por imagem , Disostose Craniofacial/genética , Craniossinostoses/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética
12.
Epilepsia ; 62(2): 439-449, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449366

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study's objective was to compare the transinsular (TI-AH), transuncus (TU-AH), and temporopolar (TP-AH) amygdalohippocampectomy approaches regarding seizure control, temporal stem (TS) damage, and neurocognitive decline. METHODS: We included 114 consecutive patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) who underwent TI-AH, TU-AH, or TP-AH between 2002 and 2017. We evaluated seizure control using Engel classification. We used diffusion tensor imaging and postoperative Humphrey perimetry to assess the damage of the TS. We also performed pre- and postoperative memory performance and intelligence quotient (IQ). RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the proportion of patients free of disabling seizures (Engel IA+IB) among the three surgical approaches in the survival analysis. However, more patients were free of disabling seizures (Engel IA+IB) at 2 years of postsurgical follow-up with TP-AH (69.5%) and TI-AH (76.7%) as compared to the TU-AH (43.5%) approach (p = .03). The number of fibers of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus postoperatively was reduced in the TI-AH group compared with the TU-AH and TP-AH groups (p = .001). The rate of visual field defects was significantly higher with TI-AH (14/19, 74%) in comparison to the TU-AH (5/15, 33%) and TP-AH (13/40, 32.5%) approaches (p = .008). Finally, there was a significant postoperative decline in verbal memory in left-sided surgeries (p = .019) and delayed recall for both sides (p < .001) regardless of the surgical approach. However, TP-AH was the only group that showed a significant improvement in visual memory (p < .001) and IQ (p < .001) for both right- and left-sided surgeries. SIGNIFICANCE: The TP-AH group had better short-term seizure control than TU-AH, a lower rate of visual field defects than TI-AH, and improved visual memory and IQ compared to the other groups. Our findings suggest that TP-AH is a better surgical approach for temporal lobe epilepsy with HS than TI-AH and TU-AH.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/cirurgia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/cirurgia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Hipocampo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Lobectomia Temporal Anterior , Córtex Cerebral , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Giro Para-Hipocampal , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Esclerose , Lobo Temporal , Resultado do Tratamento , Campos Visuais
13.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(1): 55-57, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are paucity of studies focused on the long-term assessment of the craniofacial changes after a pi-plasty procedure and self-reported quality of life outcomes. Thus, this study aimed to assess long-term morphologic changes and quality of life of patients with sagittal synostosis who underwent surgery with a modified pi-plasty. METHODS: Consecutive patients with sagittal synostosis who underwent surgery and had more than 5 years of follow-up and standard preoperative and 1, 3, and 5 years right profile view photographs were included. Nasofrontal angle and angle of total facial convexity were evaluated using computerized photogrammetric measurements. Additionally, quality of life outcome was evaluated by the Quality of Life Scale Short Form. RESULTS: The total facial convexity angle and nasofrontal angle increased significantly (P < 0.05), with a P-value of 0.013 and 0.012, respectively. Patients had quality of life scores >80 in all of the 4 domains, with the highest scores being: physical health domain 80.0 ±â€Š0, psychologic domain 85.0 ±â€Š5, social relationships domain 86.6 ± 0, and environmental domain 98.13 ±â€Š2.42. CONCLUSION: Facial angles significantly changed over 5 years of follow-up. Self-reported quality of life instrument showed that patients are satisfied with their own appearance, contributing positively to their quality of life.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses , Qualidade de Vida , Craniossinostoses/cirurgia , Craniotomia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Front Neurol ; 12: 801195, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35002940

RESUMO

Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is a common cause of pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. Here, we (1) performed a histological approach to the anterior temporal pole of patients with HS to evaluate cortical and white matter (WM) cell populations, alteration of myelin integrity and markers of neuronal activity, and (2) correlated microscopic data with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Our aim was to contribute with the understanding of neuroimaging and pathophysiological mechanisms of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) associated with HS. We examined MRIs and surgical specimens from the anterior temporal pole from TLE-HS patients (n = 9) and compared them with 10 autopsy controls. MRIs from healthy volunteers (n = 13) were used as neuroimaging controls. Histological techniques were performed to assess oligodendrocytes, heterotopic neurons, cellular proliferative index, and myeloarchitecture integrity of the WM, as well as markers of acute (c-fos) and chronic (ΔFosB) activities of neocortical neurons. Microscopic data were compared with neuroimaging findings, including T2-weighted/FLAIR MRI temporopolar blurring and values of fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion-weighed imaging (DWI). We found a significant increase in WM oligodendrocyte number, both in hematoxylin and eosin, and in Olig2-stained sections. The frequencies of oligodendrocytes in perivascular spaces and around heterotopic neurons were significantly higher in patients with TLE-HS compared with controls. The percentage of 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase; a marker of myeloarchitecture integrity) immunopositive area in the WM was significantly higher in TLE-HS, as well as the numbers of c-fos- and ΔFosB-immunostained neocortical neurons. Additionally, we demonstrated a decrease in axonal bundle integrity on neuroimaging, with a significant reduction in the FA in the anterior temporal pole. No differences were detected between individuals with and without temporopolar blurring on visual MRI analysis, considering the number of oligodendroglial cells and percentage of WM CNPase-positive areas. Also, there was no relationship between T2 relaxometry and oligodendrocyte count. In conclusion, our histopathological data support the following: (1) the hypothesis that repetitive neocortical neuronal activity could induce changes in the WM cellular constitution and myelin remodeling in the anterior temporal pole from patients with TLE-HS, (2) that oligodendroglial hyperplasia is not related to temporal blurring or T2 signal intensity on MRI, and (3) that reduced FA is a marker of increase in Olig2-immunopositive cells in superficial temporopolar WM from patients with TLE-HS.

16.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 39(4): 294-299, 15/12/2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362338

RESUMO

Introduction Spinal cord injury (SCI) is common in polytrauma patients. The standard exam for the initial evaluation is computed tomography (CT), due to its higher sensitivity and specificity when compared with plain radiographs. However, CT is insufficient for themanagement of some cases, especially to evaluate ligamentous and spinal cord injuries. The objective of the present study is to describe clinical scenarios in which the CT scan was insufficient to guide the treatment of SCIs. Methods We present the cases of four polytrauma patients with normal CT scans at admission and with unstable or surgically-treated lesions. Discussion The cases reported evidence the need for ongoing neurological surveillance with serial physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cases of neurological injury not explained by CT or occult instability. Conclusion Computed tomography is not always sufficient to determine the management of SCIs. A comprehensive evaluation of the clinical data, CT findings and, occasionally, MRI findings is crucial in order to choose the best conduct.

17.
J Craniovertebr Junction Spine ; 11(3): 210-216, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the various treatment protocols available, survival evaluation is a fundamental criterion for the definition of surgical management; there are still many inconsistencies in the literature on this topic, especially in terms of the value of surgery and its morbidity in patients with very short survival. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to analyze the association of clinical, oncological, and surgical factors in the survival of patients undergoing spinal surgery for spinal metastases (SM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort of forty patients who were surgically treated at our institution for SM between 2010 and 2018 were included in the study. We applied the prognostic scales of Tomita and Tokuhashi in each patient and evaluated the systemic status using Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Scale. Survival rate in months was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curve, with death considered as primary outcome and, for the evaluation of the association between the variables, the Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, or Fisher-Freeman-Halton test was applied for better survival. The level of statistical significance was considered as 5% (P ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: The mean survival was 8.4 months. Patients with KPS <70 had a mean survival of 6.36 months, while those with KPS >70 had a mean survival of 14.48 months (P = 0.04). The mean survival of patients classified as ECOG 2 was 7.05 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4-10.7), and that of patients classified as ECOG 3 and 4 was 1.24 months (95% CI: 0.8-1.59). The mean survival rate among the patients with unresectable metastases in other organs was 6.3 months (95% CI: 3.9-8.9), while the survival rate of those who did not have metastases was 13.8 months (95% CI: 10.0-17.68; P = 0.022). CONCLUSION: Survival was associated with the preoperative functional status defined by the KPS and ECOG scales and with the presence of nonresectable visceral metastases.

18.
J Neurosurg ; 134(3): 1044-1053, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413857

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a modified surgical approach for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy secondary to hippocampal sclerosis (HS). This modified approach, called temporopolar amygdalohippocampectomy (TP-AH), includes a transsylvian resection of the temporal pole and subsequent amygdalohippocampectomy utilizing the limen insula as an anatomical landmark. METHODS: A total of 61 patients who were diagnosed with HS and underwent TP-AH between 2013 and 2017 were enrolled. Patients performed pre- and postoperative diffusion tensor imaging and were classified according to Engel's scale for seizure control. To evaluate the functional preservation of the temporal stem white-matter fiber tracts, the authors analyzed postoperative Humphrey perimetries and pre- and postoperative neurocognitive performance (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [RAVLT], Weschler Memory Scale-Revised [WMS-R], intelligence quotient [IQ], Boston Naming Test [BNT], and semantic and phonemic fluency). Demographic data and surgical complications were also recorded and described. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 36 ± 16 months, 46 patients (75.4%) achieved Engel class I, of whom 37 (60.6%) were Engel class IA. No significant changes in either the inferior frontooccipital fasciculus and optic radiation tractography were observed postoperatively for both left- and right-side surgeries. Reliable perimetry was obtained in 40 patients (65.6%), of whom 27 (67.5%) did not present any visual field defects (VFDs) attributable to surgery, while 12 patients (30%) presented with quadrant VFD, and 1 patient (2.5%) presented with hemifield VFD. Despite a significant decline in verbal memory (p = 0.007 for WMS-R, p = 0.02 for RAVLT recognition), there were significant improvements in both IQ (p < 0.001) and visual memory (p = 0.007). Semantic and phonemic fluency, and scores on the BNT, did not change postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: TP-AH provided seizure control similar to historical temporal lobe approaches, with a tendency to preserve the temporal stem and a satisfactory incidence of VFD. Despite a significant decline in verbal memory, there were significant improvements in both IQ and visual memory, along with preservation of executive function. This approach can be considered a natural evolution of the selective transsylvian approach.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/cirurgia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/cirurgia , Hipocampo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Convulsões/cirurgia , Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Lobectomia Temporal Anterior , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Convulsões/diagnóstico por imagem , Fala , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Campos Visuais , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 8(4): e2788, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) is a very rare condition with a wide clinical spectrum. There are only a few studies that address the classification and treatment of PS and take into account the most commonly presented clinical features. Thus, the objectives of this study are to propose an algorithm for PS management based on a modified severity scale and correlate PS severity with tracheostomy placement. METHODS: An observational retrospective study was performed on consecutive patients with PS (n = 12), who underwent surgery between 2008 and 2018. Clinical features and findings of all included patients with PS were classified as types A, B, and C, which guided treatment workflow. The Fisher test was used to correlate the severity of patients with PS with tracheostomy placement. RESULTS: There were 12 patients, classified as type A (n = 3), type B (n = 6), and type C (n = 3). All patients who received tracheostomies (n = 6) were stratified into the severe category (n = 9; types B and C) (P < 0.05). There were 4 minor complications, and 1 major complication according to a modified Clavien-Dindo surgical complication scale. CONCLUSION: A treatment algorithm based on the 3 different Pfeiffer types was proposed. Severity of PS statistically correlates to tracheostomy placement.

20.
Neurosurg Focus ; 48(4): E14, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most common type of focal epilepsy in adolescents and adults, and in 65% of cases, it is related to hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Selective surgical approaches to the treatment of MTLE have as their main goal resection of the amygdala and hippocampus with minimal damage to the neocortex, temporal stem, and optic radiations (ORs). The object of this study was to evaluate late postoperative imaging findings on the temporal lobe from a structural point of view. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective evaluation of all patients with refractory MTLE who had undergone transsylvian selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) in the period from 2002 to 2015. A surgical group was compared to a control group (i.e., adults with refractory MTLE with an indication for surgical treatment of epilepsy but who did not undergo the surgical procedure). The inferior frontooccipital fasciculus (IFOF), uncinate fasciculus (UF), and ORs were evaluated on diffusion tensor imaging analysis. The temporal pole neocortex was evaluated using T2 relaxometry. RESULTS: For the IFOF and UF, there was a decrease in anisotropy, voxels, and fibers in the surgical group compared with those in the control group (p < 0.001). An increase in relaxometry time in the surgical group compared to that in the control group (p < 0.001) was documented, suggesting gliosis and neuronal loss in the temporal pole. CONCLUSIONS: SAH techniques do not seem to totally preserve the temporal stem or even spare the neocortex of the temporal pole. Therefore, although the transsylvian approaches have been considered to be anatomically selective, there is evidence that the temporal pole neocortex suffers structural damage and potentially functional damage with these approaches.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/cirurgia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Hipocampo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos
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