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1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112731, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075725

RESUMO

Rapid person-to-person transfer of viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and their occasional mutations owing to the human activity and climate/ecological changes by the mankind led to creation of wrecking worldwide challenges. Such fast transferable pathogens requiring practical diagnostic setups to control their transfer chain and stop sever outbreaks in early stages of their appearance. Herein, we have addressed this urgent demand by designing a rapid electrochemical diagnostic kit composed of fixed/screen printed electrodes that can detect pathogenic viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and/or animal viruses through the differentiable fingerprint of their viral glycoproteins at different voltage positions. The working electrode of developed sensor is activated upon coating a layer of coupled graphene oxide (GO) with sensitive chemical compounds along with gold nanostars (Au NS) that can detect the trace of viruses in any aquatic biological media (e.g., blood, saliva and oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal swab) through interaction with active functional groups of their glycoproteins. The method do not require any extraction and/or biomarkers for detection of target viruses and can identify trace of different pathogenic viruses in about 1 min. The nanosensor also demonstrated superior limit of detection (LOD) and sensitivity of 1.68 × 10-22 µg mL-1 and 0.0048 µAµg.mL-1. cm-2, respectively, toward detection of SARS-CoV-2 in biological media, while blind clinical evaluations of 100 suspected samples furtherly confirmed the superior sensitivity/specificity of developed nanosystem toward rapid identification of ill people even at incubation and prodromal periods of illness.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/análise , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Ouro/química , Grafite/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Pandemias
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281911

RESUMO

Kombucha is a valuable traditional natural tea that contains beneficial compounds like organic acids, minerals, different vitamins, proteins, polyphenols, and several anions. Kombucha possesses anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antifungal activity as well as hepatoprotective effects. Considering the unique properties of Kombucha, several investigations have already been conducted on its nutritional properties. In this review, an effort has been devoted to pool recent literature on the biomedical application of Kombucha under the objectives, including the chemical composition of Kombucha and industrial production, and highlight different properties of Kombucha. Finally, we explain its adverse effects and prospect. This review is an active, in-depth, and inclusive report about Kombucha and its health benefits.

3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 5487659, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299871

RESUMO

Background: Treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered one of the public health priorities in the past decade. So far, probiotics have represented promising results in controlling the signs and symptoms of NAFLD. However, attempts to find the ideal probiotic strain are still ongoing. The present study is designed to find the best strain amongst suitable probiotic strains according to their ability to ameliorate histopathological and oxidative stress biomarkers in hepatic steatosis-induced rats. Methods: Initially, four probiotics species, including Lactobacillus (L.) acidophilus, L. casei, L. reuteri, and Bacillus coagulans, were cultured and prepared as a lyophilized powder for animals. The experiment lasted for fifty days. Initially, hepatic steatosis was induced by excessive ingestion of D-fructose in rats for eight weeks, followed by eight weeks of administering probiotics and D-fructose concurrently. Forty-two six-week-old male rats were alienated to different groups and were supplemented with different probiotics (1∗109 CFU in 500 mL drinking water). After eight weeks, blood and liver samples were taken for further evaluation, and plasma and oxidative stress markers corresponding to liver injuries were examined. Results: Administration of probiotics over eight weeks reversed hepatic and blood triglyceride concentration and blood glucose levels. Also, probiotics significantly suppressed markers of oxidative stress in the liver tissue. Conclusions: Although some of the single probiotic formulations were able to mitigate oxidative stress markers, mixtures of probiotics significantly ameliorated more symptoms in the NAFLD animals. This enhanced effect might be due to probiotics' cumulative potential to maintain oxidative stress and deliver improved lipid profiles, liver function markers, and inflammatory markers.

4.
Drug Metab Rev ; : 1-30, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138652

RESUMO

The global spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and increasing rate of mortality among different countries has raised the global concern regarding this disease. This illness is able to infect human beings through person-to-person contact at an extremely high rate. World Health Organization proclaimed that COVID-19 disease is known as the sixth public health emergency of international concern (30 January 2020) and also as one pandemic (12 March 2020). Owing to the rapid outbreak of COVID-19 worldwide, health authorities focused on discovery of effective prevention and treatment techniques for this novel virus. To date, an effective drug for reliable treatment of COVID-19 has not been registered or introduced to the international community. This review aims to provide recently presented techniques and protocols for efficient treatment of COVID-19 and investigate its morphology and treatment/prevention approaches, among which usage of antiviral drugs, anti-malarial drugs, corticosteroids, and traditional medicines, biotechnological drugs (e.g. combination of HCQ and azithromycin, remdesivir, interferons, novaferon, interferon-alpha-1b, thymosin, and monoclonal antibodies) can be mentioned.

5.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(7): 760-764, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020359

RESUMO

AIM: One of the most vital characteristics of an ideal root filling material is the capability to inhibit the growth of the microorganisms. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is one of the most used root repair materials, with approved antibacterial effect. A newly introduced root repair material is nano-fast cement (NFC) which should be investigated. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of NFC were evaluated in the present study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Enterococcus faecalis (PTCC 1394), Escherichia coli (ATTC 15224), and Candida albicans (PTCC 5027) were employed for the antimicrobial assessment. The following were the steps used to conduct the agar diffusion test (ADT): six agar plates were used. 0.5 McFarland concentration of each strain was cultured on two plates by a sterile cotton-tipped swab. Three holes with 5mm diameter were created on each plate. Freshly mixed cement was placed in the holes of the related plate. After two hours, the plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Then, the diameter of the growth inhibition zones were measured, and the mean values were used for the analysis. Direct contact test (DCT) was done by using the following steps: Freshly mixed materials were placed in the 96-well microtiter plate. 10 µL of each bacterial suspension was added to the tested cement. After one-hour incubation at 37°C, 245 µL of BHI broth was added to each well, and the plate was vortexed for 2 minutes. About 15 µL of this bacterial suspension was added to a new well which contained 215 µL of fresh medium. The kinetics of the bacterial outgrowth were measured by the microplate spectrophotometer hourly for 12 hours. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between the diameters of the growth inhibition zones of MTA and NFC groups in ADT. In DCT, the MTA inhibits E. coli more effectively than NFC (p value < 0.001). Both cements had the same inhibitory effect on E. faecalis and C. albicans. CONCLUSION: The MTA and NFC are almost equally effective against the tested microorganisms. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The antibacterial characteristic of any dental material is an important matter. As well, the antibacterial efficacy of the NFC should be evaluated.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Compostos de Alumínio , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos de Cálcio , Combinação de Medicamentos , Óxidos , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Silicatos
6.
Bioorg Chem ; 102: 104091, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717692

RESUMO

This study reports the synthesis and biological investigation of three series of novel monocyclic ß-lactam derivatives bearing a morpholine ring substituent on the nitrogen. The resulting ß-lactam adducts were synthesized via Staudinger's [2 + 2]-ketene-imine cycloaddition reaction. New synthesized products were fully characterized by spectral data and elemental analyses, and then evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity toward human inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cytotoxicity toward HepG2 cell line. The compounds 3e, 3h, 3k, 5c, 5f, 6c, 6d and 6f showed higher activity with anti-inflammatory ratio values of 38, 62, 51, 72, 51, 35, 55 and 99, respectively, in comparison to the reference compound dexamethasone having an anti-inflammatory ratio value of 32. Hence, these compounds can be considered as potent iNOS inhibitors. They also exhibited IC50 values of 0.48 ± 0.04 mM, 0.51 ± 0.01 mM, 0.22 ± 0.02 mM, 0.12 ± 0.00 mM, 0.25 ± 0.05 mM, 0.82 ± 0.07 mM, 0.44 ± 0.04 mM and 0.60 ± 0.04 mM, respectively, in comparison with doxorubicin (IC50 < 0.01 mM) against HepG2 cells, biocompatibility and nontoxic behavior. In silico prediction of drug-likeness characteristic indicated that the compounds are compliant with the Lipinski and Veber rules. Molecular docking experiments showed a good correlation between the experimental activity and the calculated binding affinity to human inducible nitric oxide synthase, the enzymatic target for the anti-inflammatory response.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655668

RESUMO

Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: groups 1, 2, and 3 received vehicle, Cd (100 mg/L/day by drinking water), and A. hirtifolium extract (200 mg/kg/day; orally), respectively. Groups 4, 5, and 6 were Cd groups which were treated with A. hirtifolium extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively). After 2 weeks, liver enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and also oxidative stress biomarkers including lipid peroxidation (LPO), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total thiol molecule (TTM), and the histopathological changes were determined using standard procedure. Results: The findings showed that Cd caused a remarkable rise in levels of serum hepatic enzymes such as ALT (P < 0.001), AST (P < 0.01) and ALP (P < 0.001) compared with the control group. In addition, Cd led to the decreasing of the levels of TTM (P < 0.001) and TAC (P < 0.001) and increasing of LPO (P < 0.001) in liver tissue in comparison with the control group. In this regard, remarkable vascular congestion, hepatocellular degeneration, and vacuolization were observed in hepatic tissue of Cd-treated rats. Following the administration of A. hirtifolium extract, a significant improvement was observed in the functional and oxidative stress indices of hepatic tissue alongside histopathologic changes. Conclusion: The current study indicated that the A. hirtifolium extract might prevent hepatic oxidative injury by improving oxidant/antioxidant balance in rats exposed to Cd.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 158: 894-902, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387614

RESUMO

Hagfish exudate is a natural biological macromolecule made of keratin intermediate filament protein skeins and mucin vesicles. Here, we successfully examined this remarkable biomaterial as a substrate for three-dimensional (3D) cell culturing purposes. After the sterilization with chloroform vapor, Dulbecco's modified eagle medium was mixed with the exudate to rupture the vesicles and skeins; a highly soft, adherent, fibrous and biocompatible hydrogel was formed. A variety of cells, including Hela-FUCCI, NMuMG-FUCCI, 10T1/2 and C2C12, was cultured on the hagfish exudate. A remarkable 3D growth by ~2.5 folds after day 3, ~5 folds after day 5, ~10 folds after day 7 and ~15 folds after day 14 were seen compared to day one of culturing in the hagfish exudate scaffold. In addition, the phase contrast, fluorescent and confocal microscopy observations confirmed the organoid shape formation within the three-week culture. The viability of cells was almost 100% indicating the great in vitro and in vivo potential of this exceptional biomaterial with no cytotoxic effect.

9.
IET Nanobiotechnol ; 14(2): 155-160, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433033

RESUMO

In modern medicine, major attention has been paid to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Recent studies have shown the antibacterial properties of SPIONs against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. These nanoparticles (NPs) can bind to bacterial membranes via hydrophobic or electrostatic interactions and pass through cell barriers. In this study, the authors evaluated the antibacterial activity of magnetic NPs in comparison with ferrous and ferric ions. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the treated Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria were directly measured by fluorometric detection. The results showed that iron ions and SPIONs had significant dependent antimicrobial activities. SPIONs showed greater inhibitory effects than ferrous and ferric ions against the growth of treated bacterial strains under anaerobic conditions, while in aerobic conditions, ferrous showed the strongest antibacterial activity. In anaerobic conditions, they observed the greatest ROS formation and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration in the SPION-treated group in comparison with the other groups. It seems that the release of iron ions from SPIONs and subsequent activation of ROS pathway are the main antibacterial mechanisms of action. Nevertheless, the greater antibacterial effect of SPIONs in anaerobic conditions represents other mechanisms involved in the antibacterial activity of these NPs.

10.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 21(11): 1016-1027, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188383

RESUMO

Graphene Derivatives (GDs) have captured the interest and imagination of pharmaceutical scientists. This review exclusively provides pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics information with a particular focus on biopharmaceuticals. GDs can be used as multipurpose pharmaceutical delivery systems due to their ultra-high surface area, flexibility, and fast mobility of charge carriers. Improved effects, targeted delivery to tissues, controlled release profiles, visualization of biodistribution and clearance, and overcoming drug resistance are examples of the benefits of GDs. This review focuses on the application of GDs for the delivery of biopharmaceuticals. Also, the pharmacokinetic properties and the advantage of using GDs in pharmaceutics will be reviewed to achieve a comprehensive understanding about the GDs in pharmaceutical sciences.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/farmacologia , Grafite/farmacologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/tendências , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Grafite/química , Grafite/farmacocinética , Humanos , Cinética , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Distribuição Tecidual
11.
Drug Metab Rev ; 52(2): 299-318, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150480

RESUMO

Gold Nanostars (GNS) have attracted tremendous attention toward themselves owing to their multi-branched structure and unique properties. These state of the art metallic nanoparticles possess intrinsic features like remarkable optical properties and exceptional physiochemical activities. These star-shaped gold nanoparticles can predominantly be utilized in biosensing, photothermal therapy, imaging, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and target drug delivery applications due to their low toxicity and extraordinary optical features. In the current review, recent approaches in the matter of GNS in case of diagnosis, bioimaging and biomedical applications were summarized and reported. In this regard, first an overview about the structure and general properties of GNS were reported and thence detailed information regarding the diagnostic, bioimaging, photothermal therapy, and drug delivery applications of such novel nanomaterials were presented in detail. Summarized information clearly highlighting the superior capability of GNS as potential multi-functional materials for biomedical applications.

12.
Drug Metab Rev ; 52(1): 205-224, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083952

RESUMO

Nowadays, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been rapidly investigated and attracted worldwide attention due to their great potential as mediators of heat for treating hyperthermia and their possibility to deliver drugs at specific locations, which can thereby limit systematic effects. Cancer therapy via MNPs proposes novel properties rather than normal methods such as almost zero side effects and a high-efficiency rate of effectiveness. The key aim of targeted drug delivery is to reduce side effects of the main cancer treatment that other usual chemotherapies will attend to the body, and thus controlling the effectiveness of the drug on a specific location that tumoral tissue exist. Herein, the high potential of MNPs has been studied, and different examples of their effectiveness on drug delivery and hypothermia therapy have been provided.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/química , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of pneumonia, mostly in children less than five years and elderly people. Although the pneumoniae polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) and pneumonia conjugate vaccines (PCV) are the efficient pneumococcal vaccine in adult and children groups, but the serotype replacement of S. pneumoniae strains causes the reduction in the efficacy of PPV and PCV vaccines. Epitope-based vaccines are a promising alternative to the present capsular antigen vaccines. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated cellular and humoral immune responses induced by our novel designed multi-epitope vaccine in BALB/c mice. CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) epitopes were selected from PspA and CbpA antigens, and CD4+ helper T lymphocytes (HTLs) epitopes were chosen from PhtD and PiuA antigens. PorB, the TLR2 agonist, as an adjuvant, was employed to increase the immunogenicity of the vaccine. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The high levels of specific anti-peptide vaccine IgG and an increase in the level of IgG2 in the vaccinated group demonstrated our vaccine could elicit a robust antibody production. The significant increase in IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, and decrease in IL-10 showed that, the designed vaccine could be proposed as the efficient preventative pneumococcal vaccine in the mouse model.

15.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 37(13): 3524-3535, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634893

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of some diseases such as pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis mostly in children less than 5 years of age. Presently, two types of pneumococcal vaccine are available on the market: polysaccharide vaccines (PPV) that are based on capsular polysaccharides of at least 92 different serotypes, and protein-conjugated polysaccharide vaccine (PCV). The PPVs such as PPV23 do not stimulate efficient protective immunity in children under 2 years old, while the PCVs such as PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 that cover 7, 10, and 13 serotypes, respectively, highly protect newborns, but have some disadvantages such as complications in manufacturing, costly production, and also requires refrigeration and multiple injections. Epitope-based vaccines, including varied mixtures of conserved virulence proteins, are a promising alternative to the existing capsular antigen vaccines. In this study, it has been tried to design an efficient subunit vaccine in order to elicit both CTL and HTL responses. The immunodominant epitopes from highly protective antigens of S. pneumoniae (PspA, CbpA, PiuA, and PhtD) were selected from different databanks, such as IEDB, PROPRED, RANKPEP, and MHCPRED. The PspA and CbpA were chosen as CTL epitope stimulants, and PhtD and PiuA were defined as helper epitopes. Because of low immunogenicity of epitope vaccines, PorB protein as a TLR2 agonist was employed to increase the immunogenicity of the vaccine. All the peptide segments were fused to each other by proper linkers, and the physicochemical, structural, and immunological characteristics of the construct were also evaluated. To achieve a high-quality 3 D structure of the protein, modeling, refinement, and validation of the final construct were done. Docking and molecular dynamics analyses demonstrated an appropriate and stable interaction between the vaccine and TLR2 during the simulation period. The computational studies suggested the designed vaccine as a novel construct, capable to elicit efficient humoral and cellular immunities, which are crucial for protection against S. pneumoniae. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Humanos , Infecções Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Conformação Proteica , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia
16.
Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins ; 11(4): 1145-1154, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014348

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a major health problem that occurs as a result of an imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption. Different approaches have been established for treating osteoporosis. Recently, because of their health benefits and also low adverse reaction, probiotics have been receiving considerable attention. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of five probiotic strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bacillus coagulans, in protecting rats from ovariectomized (OVX)-induced bone loss. Forty-nine adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into seven groups as follows: group 1, control; group 2, OVX; group 3, OVX + Lactobacillus acidophilus; group 4, OVX + Lactobacillus casei; group 5, OVX + Bacillus coagulans; group 6, OVX + Bifidobacterium longum; and group 7, OVX + Lactobacillus reuteri. Probiotics were fed to OVX groups at the concentration of (1 × 109 CFU/ml/day) for 4 weeks. Then, biochemical parameters, including vitamin D, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were assessed. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were used that assess bone mineral density (BMD), bone marrow concentration (BMC), and area of global, femur, spine, and tibia. Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei significantly increased Ca and ALP and decreased P in treated groups. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Bifidobacterium longum increased vitamin D significantly. Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei indicated the most effects on BMD. In terms of BMC, and bone area, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus casei demonstrated the significant enhancement in OVX groups treated with. Among the probiotics used in this study, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei showed the most effects in terms of BMD, BMC, bone area, and biochemical parameters. It seems that probiotics effects on bone health are strain dependent, but further studies should be done to prove these findings.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Osso Cortical/química , Osso Cortical/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillus acidophilus/metabolismo , Lactobacillus casei/metabolismo , Lactobacillus reuteri/metabolismo , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Vitamina D/metabolismo
17.
Int Ophthalmol ; 39(2): 281-286, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29274024

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of trabeculectomy on corneal topography, corneal sensitivity and aberrations. METHODS: Twenty-four eyes of 24 subjects with open-angle glaucoma who required glaucoma filtration surgery were assessed. The evaluation of corneal topography, corneal sensitivity and aberrations were done before the trabeculectomy procedure, 1 week and 1 month after the trabeculectomy. RESULTS: There were significant differences in cylindrical power (P = 0.02), contrast sensitivity at 12 cycle/degree spatial frequency (P = 0.04) as well as high order aberration (P = 0.04) and high order without spherical component (P = 0.02) following trabeculectomy. However, significant differences were found for keratometric results and Fourier index in 3 and 6 mm pupil diameters between pre- and post-trabeculectomy (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: According to the findings of the current study, trabeculectomy affects contrast sensitivity at 12 cycle/degree spatial frequency, higher-order aberration and higher order without spherical component aberration 1 month after trabeculectomy. Being knowledgeable about these changes may lead to some advancement in post-surgical management of patients particularly in early stages following trabeculectomy.


Assuntos
Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Córnea/patologia , Topografia da Córnea/métodos , Aberrações de Frente de Onda da Córnea/diagnóstico , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/cirurgia , Trabeculectomia , Aberrações de Frente de Onda da Córnea/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Acuidade Visual
18.
Pharm Nanotechnol ; 6(4): 276-286, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The combination of nano-metals and antibacterial agents could improve the efficacy of antibiotics against pathogens. This study suggested a combination method for increasing the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of ampicillin and gentamicin using iron oxide nanoparticles. METHOD: The synthesis of lipoamino acid-coated IONs (LION14) was done by co-precipitation method. The LION14s were characterized by several techniques. The antimicrobial and biofilm inhibitory activities of nanoparticles at three-time intervals were investigated alone and in combination with ampicillin and gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In-vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed to assess potential toxic effects of LION14 on mammalian cell line. RESULTS: Detailed characterization of the LION14 confirmed the presence of about 7 nm sized magnetic nanoparticles coated with lipo-amino acid. The antimicrobial and biofilm inhibitory effects of ampicillin and gentamicin were increased in the presence of the appropriate concentration of LION14s against tested microorganisms. The highest synergistic effect was observed for ampicillin against Escherichia coli. Also in the presence of antibiotics, the antibacterial and biofilm inhibitory effect of LION14 was significantly increased. The cytotoxicity results of LION14 showed the minimum cytotoxicity on the L929 cell line. CONCLUSION: The result showed that the combination of antibiotics with LION14 provides enhanced antimicrobial and anti-biofilm results for antibiotics along with acceptable biocompatibility. This synergistic effect could be used against biofilm forming bacteria and resistant microorganisms in the future.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
19.
Iran Endod J ; 12(4): 481-487, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29225645

RESUMO

Introduction: The antibacterial efficacy and toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) depends on their physicochemical properties including size, shape, surface charge and surface coatings. The Objectives of this study were: i) To synthesize and characterize positively charged AgNPs coated by different ionic-liquids with different alkyl chain lengths, ii) To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of these nanoparticles against Enterococcus faecalis compared to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX), iii) To compare the cytocompatibility of these solutions against L929 mouse fibroblasts. Methods and Materials: AgNPs with positive surface charges capped by two different ionic liquids [imidazolium (Im) and pyridinium (Py)] with two alkyl chain lengths (C12 and C18) were synthesized. Im and Py were also tested as control groups. The characterization revealed synthesis of spherical NPs in the size range of 6.7-18.5 nm with a surface charge ranging from +25 to +58 mV. To standardize the comparisons, the surface charge to radius ratio of each nanoparticle was calculated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the AgNP solutions, NaOCl and CHX were determined against E. faecalis by a microdilution test. An MTT-based cytotoxicity assay evaluated the cytotoxicity of the solutions in different concentrations on L929 fibroblasts. One-way and two-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Results: All tested AgNPs reached MIC90 in significantly lower concentrations compared to CHX and NaOCl. C12 Py-coated AgNPs had the lowest MIC90 value. CHX and NaOCl were more toxic on fibroblasts than all tested AgNPs. Im-coated AgNPs had better compatibility with fibroblasts than Py-coated particles; and C12 Im AgNPs had the best biocompatibility. Variations in alkyl chain length had no effects on the biocompatibility of AgNPs. Conclusion: Py improved the antibacterial efficacy of AgNPs compared to Im; however, it had a negative effect on cytocompatibility. Alkyl chain length had no effects on AgNPs' bioactivity.

20.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 10(2): 130-134, abr.-jun. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-161849

RESUMO

Purpose: This study was performed to investigate whether occupationally related color vision deficiency can occur from welding. Methods: A total of 50 male welders, who had been working as welders for at least 4 years, were randomly selected as case group, and 50 age matched non-welder men, who lived in the same area, were regarded as control group. Color vision was assessed using the Lanthony desatured panel D-15 test. The test was performed under the daylight fluorescent lamp with a spectral distribution of energy with a color temperature of 6500K and a color rendering index of 94 that provided 1000lx on the work plane. The test was carried out monocularly and no time limit was imposed. All data analysis were performed using SPSS, version 22. Results: The prevalence of dyschromatopsia among welders was 15% which was statistically higher than that of nonwelder group (2%) (p=0.001). Among welders with dyschromatopsia, color vision deficiency in 72.7% of cases was monocular. There was positive relationship between the employment length and color vision loss (p=0.04). Similarly, a significant correlation was found between the prevalence of color vision deficiency and average working hours of welding a day (p=0.025). Conclusions: Chronic exposure to welding light may cause color vision deficiency. The damage depends on the exposure duration and the length of their employment as welders (AU)


Objetivo: Este estudio se realizó para investigar si se puede producir una deficiencia de la visión del color relacionada con la profesión de soldador. Métodos: Se seleccionó como grupo del caso a un total de 50 soldadores que habían ejercido la profesión durante un mínimo de cuatro años, y se les comparó con 50 varones no soldadores que vivían en la misma zona, como grupo de control. Se evaluó la visión del color utilizando el test Lanthony D-15 desaturado. La prueba se llevó a cabo bajo la lámpara fluorescente de luz de día, con una distribución energética espectral con temperatura cromática de 6.500K y un índice de representación de 94 que aportaba 1000 lux en el plano de trabajo. La prueba se realizó de forma monocular, no imponiéndose ningún límite de tiempo. Los análisis de los datos se realizaron utilizando el software SPSS, versión 22. Resultados: La prevalencia de la discromatopsia entre los soldadores fue del 15%, lo cual fue estadísticamente superior al grupo de no soldadores (2%) (p=0,001). Entre los soldadores con discromatopsia, la deficiencia de la visión del color en el 72,7% de los casos fue monocular. Se produjo una relación positiva entre la duración del empleo y la pérdida de la visión del color (p=0,04). De forma similar, hallamos una correlación entre la prevalencia de la deficiencia de la visión del color y la media de horas laborales de una jornada de soldadura (p=0,025). Conclusiones: La exposición crónica a la luz de la soldadura puede causar una deficiencia de la visión del color. El daño depende de la duración de la exposición, y del tiempo en la profesión como soldadores (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Defeitos da Visão Cromática/epidemiologia , Soldagem , Luz/efeitos adversos , Defeitos da Visão Cromática/etiologia , Testes de Percepção de Cores/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles
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