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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(32): 43923-43934, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840036

RESUMO

Arsenic poisoning through groundwater is the world's greatest normal groundwater catastrophe which got an immense effect on worldwide general wellbeing. India is confronting the outcomes of arsenic poisoning in the zone of Ganga Brahmaputra alluvial plains. In Bihar, out of 38 districts, 18 districts are exceptionally influenced with groundwater arsenic defilement. In the present study, we have assessed the current situation of arsenic exposure in Sabalpur village of Saran district of Bihar after reporting of breast, renal, skin and thyroid cancer cases from this village along with typical symptoms of arsenicosis. Such cancer patients were identified at our institute and were taken for the study. The present investigation deals with the quantification of arsenic in groundwater, hair and nail samples of subjects as well as the survey of entire village to know the overall health status of the village people. A total of n=128 household handpump water samples as well as n=128 human hair and nail samples were collected from over n=520 households. Using the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GF-AAS), all the samples were analysed. The investigation resulted that the 61% of the analysed samples particularly the groundwater had the arsenic levels more than the permissible limit of WHO (> 10 µg/L) with 244.20 µg/L as the highest arsenic contamination in one of the handpump water sample. The exposure effect of hair sample was worst as 88% of all the collected samples were having high arsenic levels more than the permissible limit (> 0.2 mg/Kg). In case of nail samples, 92% of the samples were having high arsenic concentration more than the permissible limit (> 0.5 mg/Kg). The health survey study revealed high magnitude of disease burden in the exposed population with symptoms such as asthma, anaemia, hepatomegaly, diabetes, cardiac problem, skin fungal infections, breathlessness and mental disability. Few cancer cases of renal, skin, breast and cervix were also found among the exposed population of this village. The percentage of cancer cases in this village was 0.94% that was low, but it would be an aggravated situation in the near future if people will continue drinking arsenic-contaminated water. Therefore, a mitigation intervention was carried out in March 2020 by installing an arsenic filter plant. The health situation in the village in the present scenario is hope to improve in the coming years. However, motivation and awareness among the village population are still required.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Arsênico , Arsênio , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Intoxicação por Arsênico/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Polivinil , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água
2.
Biochem Biophys Rep ; 26: 100931, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644420

RESUMO

Changes in mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) copy number in blood/tissue have been linked to increased risk of several cancers; however, studies on their association in breast cancer is still lacking. In this pilot study, we investigated mt-DNA copy number variation in peripheral blood and tissue samples from metastatic breast cancer patients and compared their differences. For the study, peripheral blood samples from non-cancer individuals (control) and breast cancer patients, along with resected tissues from adjacent and tumor sites from same breast cancer patients were collected. Total genomic DNA was isolated and changes in mt-DNA copy number were measured by relative quantification using SYBR green based quantitative real time PCR method. Our results indicated a significant reduction in mt-DNA copy number in blood samples of breast cancer patients compared to control. However, a significantly higher mt-DNA copy number was observed in tumor tissue when compared with paired non tumor tissue. There was no significant difference in mt-DNA copy number between blood and adjacent tumor tissue samples of the breast cancer patients. Overall, our study reports for the first time a comparison of mt-DNA copy number in blood and paired tissue together and suggested that mt-DNA copy number is differentially regulated in blood and tumor tissues in breast cancer.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2376, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504854

RESUMO

Reportedly, 300 million people worldwide are affected by the consumption of arsenic contaminated groundwater. India prominently figures amongst them and the state of Bihar has shown an upsurge in cases affected by arsenic poisoning. Escalated arsenic content in blood, leaves 1 in every 100 human being highly vulnerable to being affected by the disease. Uncontrolled intake may lead to skin, kidney, liver, bladder, or lung related cancer but even indirect forms of cancer are showing up on a regular basis with abnormal arsenic levels as the probable cause. But despite the apparent relation, the etiology has not been understood clearly. Blood samples of 2000 confirmed cancer patients were collected from pathology department of our institute. For cross-sectional design, 200 blood samples of subjects free from cancer from arsenic free pockets of Patna urban agglomeration, were collected. Blood arsenic levels in carcinoma patients as compared to sarcomas, lymphomas and leukemia were found to be higher. The geospatial map correlates the blood arsenic with cancer types and the demographic area of Gangetic plains. Most of the cancer patients with high blood arsenic concentration were from the districts near the river Ganges. The raised blood arsenic concentration in the 2000 cancer patients strongly correlates the relationship of arsenic with cancer especially the carcinoma type which is more vulnerable. The average arsenic concentration in blood of the cancer patients in the Gangetic plains denotes the significant role of arsenic which is present in endemic proportions. Thus, the study significantly correlates and advocates a strong relation of the deleterious element with the disease. It also underlines the need to address the problem by deciphering the root cause of the elevated cancer incidences in the Gangetic basin of Bihar and its association with arsenic poisoning.


Assuntos
Arsênio/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Arsênio/sangue , Intoxicação por Arsênico/complicações , Intoxicação por Arsênico/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Adulto Jovem
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 134774, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734495

RESUMO

In arsenic (As) endemic areas of south-east Asia, where a subsistence rice-based diet is prevalent, As exposure from food is mainly focused on rice intake. However, consumption of wheat is substantial and increasing. We present a probabilistic assessment of increased cancer risk from wheat-based food intake in a study population of rural Bihar, India where As exposure is endemic. Total As in wheat grains (43.64 ±â€¯48.19 µg/kg, n = 72) collected from 77 households across 19 villages was found to be lower than reported As in wheat grains from other south-east Asian countries but higher than a previous study from Bihar. This is the first study where As concentration in wheat flour was used for risk estimation, bearing in mind that it was the flour obtained after indigenous household processing of the grains that was used for making the home-made bread (chapati) which contributed 95% of wheat intake for the studied population. Interestingly, while 78% of the surveyed participants (n = 154) consumed rice every day, chapati was consumed every day by 99.5% of the participants. In contrast to previous studies, where As concentration in wheat grains was found to be lower than the flour due to the removal of the bran on grinding, we did not find any appreciable lowering of arsenic in the wheat flour (49.80 ±â€¯74.08 µg/kg, n = 58), most likely due to external contamination during processing and grinding. Estimated gender adjusted excess lifetime cancer risk of 1.23 × 10-4 for the studied rural population of Bihar indicated risk higher than the 10-4-10-6 range, typically used by the USEPA as a threshold to guide regulatory values. Hence, our findings suggest As exposure from wheat-based food intake to be of concern not only in As endemic areas of rural Bihar but also in non-endemic areas with similar wheat-based diet due to public distribution of the wheat across India.


Assuntos
Triticum , Arsênio , Farinha , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Índia , Oryza
5.
Indian J Occup Environ Med ; 23(3): 126-132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920262

RESUMO

Background: In the entire world, about 200 million populations are exposed to arsenic poisoning in groundwater. In Bihar, India about 50 million people are drinking arsenic contaminated water. This has caused various health related problems in the population like skin diseases, anemia, bronchitis, gastrointestinal problems, hormonal imbalance and cancer. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 323 water samples were analyzed for the arsenic levels from the entire Simri village of Buxar district of Bihar and a total of 170 blood samples from the same household's subjects were collected for blood arsenic estimation through Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Pinnacle 900T, Perkin Elmer, Singapore). Apart from this the correlation coefficient study between blood arsenic levels, age of the subjects, groundwater arsenic levels and depth of the handpumps were carried out. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with statistical software (GraphPad Prism 5) and while scattered graphs were plotted through statistical software SPSS- 16.0. Results and Conclusion: The maximum arsenic concentration in the groundwater sample found during the study was 1929µg/L and in blood sample was 664.7µg/L. The study denotes high arsenic concentration in the drinking water of the village Simri with the highest concentration ever reported in this part of India. Furthermore, the blood samples have also been observed with high arsenic concentration in the village population which is also the highest reporting ever done in this area. The ill health of the village population also correlates our study.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(10): e0005060, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27776123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), with the squeal of Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), is a global threat for health. Studies have shown sodium stibogluconate (SSG) resistance in VL patients with chronic arsenic exposure. Here, we assessed the association between arsenic exposure and risk of developing PKDL in treated VL patients. METHODS: In this retrospective study, PKDL patients (n = 139), earlier treated with SSG or any other drug during VL, were selected from the study cohort. Trained physicians, unaware of arsenic exposure, interviewed them and collected relevant data in a questionnaire format. All probable water sources were identified around the patient's house and water was collected for evaluation of arsenic concentration. A GIS-based village-level digital database of PKDL cases and arsenic concentration in groundwater was developed and individual point location of PKDL cases were overlaid on an integrated GIS map. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess odds ratios (ORs) for association between arsenic exposure and PKDL development. RESULTS: Out of the 429 water samples tested, 403 had arsenic content of over 10 µg/L, with highest level of 432 µg/L among the seven study villages. Multivariate adjusted ORs for risk of PKDL development in comparison of arsenic concentrations of 10.1-200 µg/L and 200.1-432.0 µg/L were 1.85 (1.13-3.03) and 2.31 (1.39-3.8) respectively. Interestingly, similar results were found for daily dose of arsenic and total arsenic concentration in urine sample of the individual. The multivariate-adjusted OR for comparison of high baseline arsenic exposure to low baseline arsenic exposure of the individuals in the study cohort was 1.66 (95% CI 1.02-2.7; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate the need to consider environmental factors, like long time arsenic exposure, as an additional influence on treated VL patients towards risk of PKDL development in Bihar.


Assuntos
Arsênio/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental , Leishmaniose Cutânea/etiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Gluconato de Antimônio e Sódio/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Arsênio/urina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Água Potável/química , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Prev Med ; 7: 100, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27625765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. METHODS: In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: This study shows novel findings ever done in this area. Halwa Patti and Doodhi Patti strips were the most affected strips with high-arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. CONCLUSIONS: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

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