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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112572, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352571

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have associated chronic exposure to arsenic (As) from drinking water with increased risk of hypertension. However, evidence of an association between As exposure from food and hypertension risks is sparse. To quantify the association between daily As intake from both food (rice, wheat and potatoes) and drinking water (Aswater) along with total exposure (Astotal) and hypertension risks in a study population in Bihar, India, we conducted an individual level cross-sectional analysis between 2017 and 2019 involving 150 participants. Arsenic intake variables and three indicators of hypertension risks (general hypertension, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) were derived, and any relationship was quantified using a series of crude and multivariable log-linear or logistic regression models. The prevalence of general hypertension was 40% for the studied population. The median level of HDL was 45 mg/dL while median value of LDL was 114 mg/dL. Apart from a marginally significant positive relationship between As intake from rice and the changes of LDL (p-value = 0.032), no significant positive association between As intake and hypertension risks could be ascertained. In fact, Astotal was found to be associated with lower risks of general hypertension and higher levels of HDL (p-value = 0.020 and 0.010 respectively) whilst general hypertension was marginally associated with lower Aswater (p-value = 0.043). Due to limitations regarding study design and residual confounding, all observed marginal associations should be treated with caution.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Potável , Hipertensão , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(32): 43923-43934, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840036

RESUMO

Arsenic poisoning through groundwater is the world's greatest normal groundwater catastrophe which got an immense effect on worldwide general wellbeing. India is confronting the outcomes of arsenic poisoning in the zone of Ganga Brahmaputra alluvial plains. In Bihar, out of 38 districts, 18 districts are exceptionally influenced with groundwater arsenic defilement. In the present study, we have assessed the current situation of arsenic exposure in Sabalpur village of Saran district of Bihar after reporting of breast, renal, skin and thyroid cancer cases from this village along with typical symptoms of arsenicosis. Such cancer patients were identified at our institute and were taken for the study. The present investigation deals with the quantification of arsenic in groundwater, hair and nail samples of subjects as well as the survey of entire village to know the overall health status of the village people. A total of n=128 household handpump water samples as well as n=128 human hair and nail samples were collected from over n=520 households. Using the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GF-AAS), all the samples were analysed. The investigation resulted that the 61% of the analysed samples particularly the groundwater had the arsenic levels more than the permissible limit of WHO (> 10 µg/L) with 244.20 µg/L as the highest arsenic contamination in one of the handpump water sample. The exposure effect of hair sample was worst as 88% of all the collected samples were having high arsenic levels more than the permissible limit (> 0.2 mg/Kg). In case of nail samples, 92% of the samples were having high arsenic concentration more than the permissible limit (> 0.5 mg/Kg). The health survey study revealed high magnitude of disease burden in the exposed population with symptoms such as asthma, anaemia, hepatomegaly, diabetes, cardiac problem, skin fungal infections, breathlessness and mental disability. Few cancer cases of renal, skin, breast and cervix were also found among the exposed population of this village. The percentage of cancer cases in this village was 0.94% that was low, but it would be an aggravated situation in the near future if people will continue drinking arsenic-contaminated water. Therefore, a mitigation intervention was carried out in March 2020 by installing an arsenic filter plant. The health situation in the village in the present scenario is hope to improve in the coming years. However, motivation and awareness among the village population are still required.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Arsênico , Arsênio , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Intoxicação por Arsênico/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Polivinil , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802172

RESUMO

The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic has not only resulted in immense loss of human life, but it also rampaged across the global economy and socio-cultural structure. Worldwide, countries imposed stringent mass quarantine and lockdowns to curb the transmission of the pathogen. While the efficacy of such lockdown is debatable, several reports suggest that the reduced human activities provided an inadvertent benefit by briefly improving air and water quality. India observed a 68-days long, nation-wide, stringent lockdown between 24 March and 31 May 2020. Here, we delineate the impact of the lockdown on groundwater and river sourced drinking water sustainability in the arsenic polluted Ganges river basin of India, which is regarded as one of the largest and most polluted river basins in the world. Using groundwater arsenic measurements from drinking water wells and water quality data from river monitoring stations, we have studied ~700 km stretches of the middle and lower reaches of the As (arsenic)-polluted parts of the river for pre-lockdown (January-March 2020), syn-lockdown (April-May), and post-lockdown periods (June-July). We provide the extent of As pollution-free groundwater vis-à-vis river water and examine alleviation from lockdown as an opportunity for sustainable drinking water sources. The overall decrease of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations and increase of pH suggests a general improvement in Ganges water quality during the lockdown in contrast to pre-and-post lockdown periods, potentially caused by reduced effluent. We also demonstrate that land use (agricultural/industrial) and land cover (urban-periurban/rural) in the vicinity of the river reaches seems to have a strong influence on river pollutants. The observations provide a cautious optimistic scenario for potentially developing sustainable drinking water sources in the arsenic-affected Ganges river basin in the future by using these observations as the basis of proper scientifically prudent, spatially adaptive strategies, and technological interventions.


Assuntos
Arsênio , COVID-19 , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Índia , Pandemias , Rios , SARS-CoV-2 , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Biochem Biophys Rep ; 26: 100931, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644420

RESUMO

Changes in mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) copy number in blood/tissue have been linked to increased risk of several cancers; however, studies on their association in breast cancer is still lacking. In this pilot study, we investigated mt-DNA copy number variation in peripheral blood and tissue samples from metastatic breast cancer patients and compared their differences. For the study, peripheral blood samples from non-cancer individuals (control) and breast cancer patients, along with resected tissues from adjacent and tumor sites from same breast cancer patients were collected. Total genomic DNA was isolated and changes in mt-DNA copy number were measured by relative quantification using SYBR green based quantitative real time PCR method. Our results indicated a significant reduction in mt-DNA copy number in blood samples of breast cancer patients compared to control. However, a significantly higher mt-DNA copy number was observed in tumor tissue when compared with paired non tumor tissue. There was no significant difference in mt-DNA copy number between blood and adjacent tumor tissue samples of the breast cancer patients. Overall, our study reports for the first time a comparison of mt-DNA copy number in blood and paired tissue together and suggested that mt-DNA copy number is differentially regulated in blood and tumor tissues in breast cancer.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2376, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504854

RESUMO

Reportedly, 300 million people worldwide are affected by the consumption of arsenic contaminated groundwater. India prominently figures amongst them and the state of Bihar has shown an upsurge in cases affected by arsenic poisoning. Escalated arsenic content in blood, leaves 1 in every 100 human being highly vulnerable to being affected by the disease. Uncontrolled intake may lead to skin, kidney, liver, bladder, or lung related cancer but even indirect forms of cancer are showing up on a regular basis with abnormal arsenic levels as the probable cause. But despite the apparent relation, the etiology has not been understood clearly. Blood samples of 2000 confirmed cancer patients were collected from pathology department of our institute. For cross-sectional design, 200 blood samples of subjects free from cancer from arsenic free pockets of Patna urban agglomeration, were collected. Blood arsenic levels in carcinoma patients as compared to sarcomas, lymphomas and leukemia were found to be higher. The geospatial map correlates the blood arsenic with cancer types and the demographic area of Gangetic plains. Most of the cancer patients with high blood arsenic concentration were from the districts near the river Ganges. The raised blood arsenic concentration in the 2000 cancer patients strongly correlates the relationship of arsenic with cancer especially the carcinoma type which is more vulnerable. The average arsenic concentration in blood of the cancer patients in the Gangetic plains denotes the significant role of arsenic which is present in endemic proportions. Thus, the study significantly correlates and advocates a strong relation of the deleterious element with the disease. It also underlines the need to address the problem by deciphering the root cause of the elevated cancer incidences in the Gangetic basin of Bihar and its association with arsenic poisoning.


Assuntos
Arsênio/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Arsênio/sangue , Intoxicação por Arsênico/complicações , Intoxicação por Arsênico/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Adulto Jovem
6.
Environ Pollut ; 274: 116512, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516954

RESUMO

Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been an unprecedented cessation of outdoor anthropogenic activities leading to a significant improvement of the environment across the world. However, the positive impacts on the environment are not expected to last long as countries have started to gradually come out of lockdown and engage in aggressive measures to regain the pre-COVID-19 levels of economic activity. The present study provides for an assessment of air quality changes during the period of lockdown and unlocking across 9 major cities in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, including three cities (Ghaziabad, Noida, and Greater Noida) in the national capital region, which have frequently been included among the most polluted cities in the world. The pollutant load in a vertical column of air during March-July 2020 has been analyzed and compared with the corresponding period's pollution load in 2019. In addition, a detailed analysis of the ground-level changes in pollution load for Ghaziabad, Noida, and Greater Noida is also presented, along with the changes in local meteorology. A significant reduction in the total column density of NO2, CO and ground-level pollution load of PM10, PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 have been observed. In contrast, an increase in total column density of SO2 across all the cities (except Kanpur) and ground-level concentration of CO (in Noida and Greater Noida) and O3 (in Noida) was evident. The improvement in air quality (with respect to particulate matter) can primarily be attributed to the restrictions on construction and demolition activities, reduced re-suspension of roadside dust, and the restrictions on the movement of vehicles. A significant decline in the average summer temperature was recorded, and it can plausibly be attributed to lower radiative forcing due to reduced pollutant load in the atmosphere.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 762: 144400, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385790

RESUMO

Meandering-river geomorphology, forming abandoned channels/lakes with organic carbon-burial and microbial reductive dissolution, play many crucial roles in controlling arsenic (As) fluxes in sinks such as contaminated aquifers of riverine alluvial plains across the world. Suhiya oxbow-lake in the middle alluvial plain of the River Ganga, was selected as the natural laboratory. A top-down multidisciplinary approach was chosen employing satellite imagery to analyse the annual oxbow-lake surface vegetation dynamics (Eichhornia and Hydrilla). Side-scan sonar profiles across two oxbow lakes along with River Ganga core data and vintage topographical maps, estimated the lake-sedimentation rate of 9.6 cm/yr. Organic carbon [amino acids, aromatics, lingo-phenols and lipids hydrocarbons] infiltration-based on hydrophobicity and molecular-mass was detected at different depths along the water and sedimentary column. Elemental analysis showed lake surface to groundwater the As conc. varied from (0.37 to 185 µg/l). A microbial diversity based study showed that large sized photoautotrophs Nostoc, Anabaena are replaced by Fe-oxido-reducing As-metabolizing bacteria e.g. Acidovorax, Dechloromonas and enteric organisms e.g. Enterobacter, Salmonella at bottom of water column. Based on these inferences, a conceptual organic carbon transport model was constructed to understand the preferential preservation and microbial diagenesis resulting in mobilization of As and other geogenic elements.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 115765, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038633

RESUMO

Aquatic pollution from emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) is of key environmental importance in India and globally, particularly due to concerns of antimicrobial resistance, ecotoxicity and drinking water supply vulnerability. Here, using a broad screening approach, we characterize the composition and distribution of EOCs in groundwater in the Gangetic Plain around Patna (Bihar), as an exemplar of a rapidly developing urban area in northern India. A total of 73 EOCs were detected in 51 samples, typically at ng.L-1 to low µg.L-1 concentrations, relating to medical and veterinary, agrochemical, industrial and lifestyle usage. Concentrations were often dominated by the lifestyle chemical and artificial sweetener sucralose. Seventeen identified EOCs are flagged as priority compounds by the European Commission, World Health Organisation and/or World Organisation for Animal Health: namely, herbicides diuron and atrazine; insecticides imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, clothianidin and acetamiprid; the surfactant perfluorooctane sulfonate (and related perfluorobutane sulfonate, perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluoropentane sulfonate); and medical/veterinary compounds sulfamethoxazole, sulfanilamide, dapson, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine and diclofenac. The spatial distribution of EOCs varies widely, with concentrations declining with depth, consistent with a strong dominant vertical flow control. Groundwater EOC concentrations in Patna were found to peak within ∼10 km distance from the River Ganges, indicating mainly urban inputs with some local pollution hotspots. A heterogeneous relationship between EOCs and population density likely reflects confounding factors including varying input types and controls (e.g. spatial, temporal), wastewater treatment infrastructure and groundwater abstraction. Strong seasonal agreement in EOC concentrations was observed. Co-existence of limited transformation products with associated parent compounds indicate active microbial degradation processes. This study characterizes key controls on the distribution of groundwater EOCs across the urban to rural transition near Patna, as a rapidly developing Indian city, and contributes to the wider understanding of the vulnerability of shallow groundwater to surface-derived contamination in similar environments.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Estilo de Vida , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142082, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919317

RESUMO

Extensive evidence of elevated arsenic (As) in the food-chain, mainly rice, wheat and vegetables exists. Nevertheless, the importance of exposure from food towards total As exposure and associated health risks in areas with natural occurring As in drinking water is still often neglected, and accordingly mitigations are largely focused on drinking water only. In this study, the contribution of food over drinking water to overall As exposure was estimated for As exposed populations in Bihar, India. Increased lifetime cancer risk was predicted using probabilistic methods with input parameters based on detailed dietary assessment and estimation of As in drinking water, cooked rice, wheat flour and potato collected from 91 households covering 19 villages. Median total exposure was 0.83 µg/kgBW/day (5th and 95th percentiles were 0.21 and 11.1 µg/kgBW/day) and contribution of food (median = 49%) to overall exposure was almost equal to that from drinking water (median = 51%). More importantly and contrary to previous studies, food was found to contribute more than drinking water to As exposure, even when drinking water As was above the WHO provisional guide value of 10 µg/L. Median and 95th percentile excess lifetime cancer risks from food intake were 1.89 × 10-4 and 7.32 × 10-4 respectively when drinking water As was below 10 µg/L and 4.00 × 10-4 and 1.83 × 10-3 respectively when drinking water As was above 10 µg/L. Our results emphasise the importance of food related exposure in As-endemic areas, and, perhaps surprisingly, particularly in areas with high As concentrations in drinking water - this being partly ascribed to increases in food As due to cooking in high As water. These findings are timely to stress the importance of removing As from the food chain and not just drinking water in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Potável , Oryza , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Farinha , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Índia/epidemiologia , Triticum , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268538

RESUMO

Chronic exposure to groundwater containing elevated concentrations of geogenic contaminants such as arsenic (As) and uranium (U) can lead to detrimental health impacts. In this study, we have undertaken a groundwater survey of representative sites across all districts of the State of Bihar, in the Middle Gangetic Plain of north-eastern India. The aim is to characterize the inorganic major and trace element aqueous geochemistry in groundwater sources widely used for drinking in Bihar, with a particular focus on the spatial distribution and associated geochemical controls on groundwater As and U. Concentrations of As and U are highly heterogeneous across Bihar, exceeding (provisional) guideline values in ~16% and 7% of samples (n = 273), respectively. The strongly inverse correlation between As and U is consistent with the contrasting redox controls on As and U mobility. High As is associated with Fe, Mn, lower Eh and is depth-dependent; in contrast, high U is associated with HCO3-, NO3- and higher Eh. The improved understanding of the distribution and geochemical controls on As and U in Bihar has important implications on remediation priorities and selection, and may contribute to informing further monitoring and/or representative characterization efforts in Bihar and elsewhere in India.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Potável , Água Subterrânea , Urânio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 134774, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734495

RESUMO

In arsenic (As) endemic areas of south-east Asia, where a subsistence rice-based diet is prevalent, As exposure from food is mainly focused on rice intake. However, consumption of wheat is substantial and increasing. We present a probabilistic assessment of increased cancer risk from wheat-based food intake in a study population of rural Bihar, India where As exposure is endemic. Total As in wheat grains (43.64 ±â€¯48.19 µg/kg, n = 72) collected from 77 households across 19 villages was found to be lower than reported As in wheat grains from other south-east Asian countries but higher than a previous study from Bihar. This is the first study where As concentration in wheat flour was used for risk estimation, bearing in mind that it was the flour obtained after indigenous household processing of the grains that was used for making the home-made bread (chapati) which contributed 95% of wheat intake for the studied population. Interestingly, while 78% of the surveyed participants (n = 154) consumed rice every day, chapati was consumed every day by 99.5% of the participants. In contrast to previous studies, where As concentration in wheat grains was found to be lower than the flour due to the removal of the bran on grinding, we did not find any appreciable lowering of arsenic in the wheat flour (49.80 ±â€¯74.08 µg/kg, n = 58), most likely due to external contamination during processing and grinding. Estimated gender adjusted excess lifetime cancer risk of 1.23 × 10-4 for the studied rural population of Bihar indicated risk higher than the 10-4-10-6 range, typically used by the USEPA as a threshold to guide regulatory values. Hence, our findings suggest As exposure from wheat-based food intake to be of concern not only in As endemic areas of rural Bihar but also in non-endemic areas with similar wheat-based diet due to public distribution of the wheat across India.


Assuntos
Triticum , Arsênio , Farinha , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Índia , Oryza
12.
Indian J Occup Environ Med ; 23(3): 126-132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920262

RESUMO

Background: In the entire world, about 200 million populations are exposed to arsenic poisoning in groundwater. In Bihar, India about 50 million people are drinking arsenic contaminated water. This has caused various health related problems in the population like skin diseases, anemia, bronchitis, gastrointestinal problems, hormonal imbalance and cancer. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 323 water samples were analyzed for the arsenic levels from the entire Simri village of Buxar district of Bihar and a total of 170 blood samples from the same household's subjects were collected for blood arsenic estimation through Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Pinnacle 900T, Perkin Elmer, Singapore). Apart from this the correlation coefficient study between blood arsenic levels, age of the subjects, groundwater arsenic levels and depth of the handpumps were carried out. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with statistical software (GraphPad Prism 5) and while scattered graphs were plotted through statistical software SPSS- 16.0. Results and Conclusion: The maximum arsenic concentration in the groundwater sample found during the study was 1929µg/L and in blood sample was 664.7µg/L. The study denotes high arsenic concentration in the drinking water of the village Simri with the highest concentration ever reported in this part of India. Furthermore, the blood samples have also been observed with high arsenic concentration in the village population which is also the highest reporting ever done in this area. The ill health of the village population also correlates our study.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 574: 901-913, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27665450

RESUMO

Pollution of groundwater with natural (geogenic) arsenic occurs on an enormous, world-wide scale, and causes wide-spread, serious health risks for an estimated more than hundred million people who depend on the use of shallow aquifers for drinking and irrigation water. A literature review of key studies on arsenic concentration levels yields that Holocene fluvial and deltaic flood basins are the hotspots of arsenic pollution, and that the dominant geomorphological setting of the arsenic-polluted areas consists of shallow-depth meandering-river deposits with sand-prone fluvial point-bar deposits surrounded by clay-filled (clay plug) abandoned meander bends (oxbow lakes). Analysis of the lithofacies distribution and related permeability contrasts of the geomorphological elements in two cored wells in a point bar and adjacent clay plug along the Ganges River, in combination with data of arsenic concentrations and organic matter content reveals that the low-permeable clay-plug deposits have a high organic matter content and the adjacent permeable point-bar sands show high but spatially very variable arsenic concentrations. On the basis of the geomorphological juxtaposition, the analysis of fluvial depositional processes and lithofacies characteristics, inherent permeability distribution and the omnipresence of the two geomorphological elements in Holocene flood basins around the world, a generic model is presented for the wide-spread arsenic occurrence. The anoxic deeper part (hypolimnion) of the oxbow lake, and the clay plugs are identified as the loci of reactive organic carbon and microbial respiration in an anoxic environment that triggers the reductive dissolution of iron oxy-hydroxides and the release of arsenic on the scale of entire fluvial floodplains and deltaic basins. The adjacent permeable point-bar sands are identified as the effective trap for the dissolved arsenic, and the internal permeability heterogeneity is the cause for aquifer compartmentalization, with large arsenic concentration differences between neighboring compartments.

15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(10): e0005060, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27776123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), with the squeal of Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), is a global threat for health. Studies have shown sodium stibogluconate (SSG) resistance in VL patients with chronic arsenic exposure. Here, we assessed the association between arsenic exposure and risk of developing PKDL in treated VL patients. METHODS: In this retrospective study, PKDL patients (n = 139), earlier treated with SSG or any other drug during VL, were selected from the study cohort. Trained physicians, unaware of arsenic exposure, interviewed them and collected relevant data in a questionnaire format. All probable water sources were identified around the patient's house and water was collected for evaluation of arsenic concentration. A GIS-based village-level digital database of PKDL cases and arsenic concentration in groundwater was developed and individual point location of PKDL cases were overlaid on an integrated GIS map. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess odds ratios (ORs) for association between arsenic exposure and PKDL development. RESULTS: Out of the 429 water samples tested, 403 had arsenic content of over 10 µg/L, with highest level of 432 µg/L among the seven study villages. Multivariate adjusted ORs for risk of PKDL development in comparison of arsenic concentrations of 10.1-200 µg/L and 200.1-432.0 µg/L were 1.85 (1.13-3.03) and 2.31 (1.39-3.8) respectively. Interestingly, similar results were found for daily dose of arsenic and total arsenic concentration in urine sample of the individual. The multivariate-adjusted OR for comparison of high baseline arsenic exposure to low baseline arsenic exposure of the individuals in the study cohort was 1.66 (95% CI 1.02-2.7; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate the need to consider environmental factors, like long time arsenic exposure, as an additional influence on treated VL patients towards risk of PKDL development in Bihar.


Assuntos
Arsênio/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental , Leishmaniose Cutânea/etiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Gluconato de Antimônio e Sódio/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Arsênio/urina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Água Potável/química , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Prev Med ; 7: 100, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27625765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. METHODS: In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: This study shows novel findings ever done in this area. Halwa Patti and Doodhi Patti strips were the most affected strips with high-arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. CONCLUSIONS: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

17.
J Hazard Mater ; 318: 671-678, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27497227

RESUMO

Arsenic contamination of groundwater is posing a serious challenge to drinking water supplies on a global scale. In India and Bangladesh, arsenic has caused the most serious public health issue in the world for nearly two decades. The aim of this work was to study an arsenic removal system based on reverse osmosis at pilot scale treating two different water sources from two different locations in the State of Bihar, India. For this purpose two villages, Bind Toli and Ramnagar in the Patna District were selected, both located very close to the river Ganga. The trials were conducted with aerated and non-aerated groundwater. It is the first time that the arsenic removal efficiency for aerated and non-aerated groundwater by reverse osmosis technology in combination with an energy-saving recovery system have been studied. As the principle of reverse osmosis requires a relatively high pressure, its energy demand is naturally high. By using an energy recovery system, this demand can be lowered, leading to an energy demand per liter permeate of 3-4Wh/L only. Due to high iron levels in the groundwater and as a consequence the precipitation of ferric (hydr)oxides, it was necessary to develop a granular media filter for the trials under aeration in order to protect the membrane from clogging. Two different materials, first locally available sand, and second commercially available anthracite were tested in the granular media filter. For the trials with aerated groundwater, total arsenic removal efficiency at both locations was around 99% and the arsenic concentration in permeate was in compliance with the WHO and National Indian Standard of 10µg/L. However, trials under anoxic conditions with non-aerated groundwater could not comply with this standard. Additionally a possible safe discharge of the reverse osmosis concentrate into an abandoned well was studied. It was observed that re-injection of reject water underground may offer a safe disposal option. However, long-term hydrogeological studies need to be conducted for confirmation.


Assuntos
Arsênio/isolamento & purificação , Água Potável/química , Água Subterrânea/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Carvão Mineral , Compostos Férricos , Filtração , Índia , Osmose , Projetos Piloto , Dióxido de Silício , Abastecimento de Água
18.
South Asian J Cancer ; 2(2): 62-5, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24455554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A survey was conducted among freshly passed undergraduate doctors of a medical college in Eastern India with the aim to investigate their exposure to oncology patients, their knowledge about various aspects of oncology patient management and their confidence in managing patients with cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twelve newly passed interns of a Government Medical College in Kolkata were interviewed using semi-structured partly open ended and partly closed end questionnaire. The questionnaire dealt with the qualitative and quantitative aspects of knowledge and perception of the interns about the problem of cancer and its management. RESULTS: A total of 82 interns responded to the questionnaire, with a response rate of 73.2%. About 53% of the respondents have seen less than five patients during their undergraduate ward/clinical postings. Among the respondents, 71% felt they were confident in diagnosing cancer, and about 56% were confident in counseling of patient and their relatives about cancer. About 63% were aware about the role of surgery; however, only 32% and 37.5% were aware about the role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, respectively. A dismal 12.5% were confident of care of terminal and late stage patients. Preparedness was correlated with exposure to patients with cancer (P = 0.03). Majority (87%) felt the need for incorporating oncology training at the undergraduate level and the most frequent method (67%) suggested for doing so was having separate posting in radiotherapy department/oncology wards. CONCLUSION: There is glaring knowledge gap among newly passed doctors and integrated oncology postings during undergraduate training and during internship may help seal this gap.

19.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 108(4): 212-4, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21114188

RESUMO

Eighty-three cases of carcinoma of the cervix presenting over a 5-year period, 1997 to 2001 were considered for evaluation of the effects of Irradiation on the urinary tract. Ultrasound scans were used to detect ureteric obstructions in the follow-up period. Significant progressive ureteric obstruction occurred in 6 patients (7.2%), all of whom had malignant strictures. The diagnoses of these strictures were made between 8 months and five years after the Initial treatment. Patients having malignant stricture tend to be in a higher original stage of tumour. The lower ureter was the site of ureteric obstruction in 4 patients while 2 had lesions in middle ureter. The latency period between primary treatment of the tumour and diagnosis of uropathy is significantly shorter for malignant strictures. The site of occurrence of the strictures had no discernible significance but the absence of a bilateral obstruction in spite of all of them being malignant lesions is in disagreement with the published data.


Assuntos
Invasividade Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Obstrução Ureteral/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Hidronefrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidronefrose/epidemiologia , Hidronefrose/etiologia , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Lesões por Radiação/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Obstrução Ureteral/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução Ureteral/etiologia
20.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 105(9): 531-2, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18338480

RESUMO

An elderly man presented with a pair of soft tissue swelling, one on upper and another on lower gums, with chest pain and respiratory distress. Histopathological examination of the biopsied material showed features suggestive of adenosquamous carcinoma, but CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology from lung mass showed evidence of non-keratinising squamous cell carcinoma. This histologic dissimilarity between primary and metastatic tumour is a characteristic feature of the lesion. Palliative radiation was given as the patient was unfit for surgery, but his condition deteriorated rapidly and treatment had to be withdrawn.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Idoso , Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/patologia , Carcinoma Adenoescamoso/radioterapia , Dor no Peito , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Bucais/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Bucais/radioterapia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório
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