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1.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 15: 17562848221092594, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509428

RESUMO

Background: Advanced endoscopic technologies led to significant progress in the definition of endoscopic remission of ulcerative colitis (UC) and correlate better with histological changes, compared with standard endoscopy. However, while studies have assessed the diagnostic accuracy of endoscope technologies individually, there are currently limited data comparing between technologies. As such, the aim of this systematic review was to pool data from the existing literature and compare the correlations between endoscopy and histologic disease activity scores across endoscope technologies. Methods: We searched PubMed and Embase until February 2021 for eligible studies reporting the correlation between endoscopy and histology activity scores in UC. Studies were grouped by endoscope technology as standard-definition white light (SD-WLE), high-definition white light (HD-WLE) or electronic virtual chromoendoscopy (VCE) and comparisons made between these groups. Results: A total of N = 27 studies were identified, of which N = 12 were included in a meta-analysis of correlations between endoscopic and histological activity scores. Combining these studies identified considerable heterogeneity (I 2: 89-93%) and returned a pooled correlation coefficient (ρ) for the SD-WLE group of 0.74, which did not differ significantly from HD-WLE (ρ: 0.65, p = 0.521) or VCE (ρ: 0.70, p = 0.801). In addition, N = 4 studies reported the accuracy of endoscopic activity scores on WLE and VCE to diagnose histological remission. Pooling these found significantly higher accuracy for VCE, compared with WLE [risk ratio: 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.19, p < 0.001]. Conclusion: Activity scores assessed using endoscopy are strongly correlated with activity on histology regardless of endoscopic technology. VCE seems to be more accurate in predicting histological remission than WLE. However, given the heterogeneity between the included studies, head-to-head trials are warranted to confirm these findings.

2.
J Crohns Colitis ; 16(Supplement_2): ii64-ii72, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35553666

RESUMO

Interleukin 23 [IL-23] plays a key role in the pathogenesis of both Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC], promoting a Th17 cell-related immune response. The combined blockade of IL-23 and IL-12 with ustekinumab has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Studies on preclinical models and observations of other immune-mediated diseases, such as psoriasis, suggest that the selective inhibition of IL-23 could be beneficial in IBD. Four monoclonal antibodies [risankizumab, mirikizumab, brazikumab and guselkumab] are currently in advance clinical trials for either CD or UC. In this review, we provide an overview of the main results from published studies of selective anti IL-23 agents.

3.
Commun Integr Biol ; 15(1): 115-120, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574158

RESUMO

In 1907, Lapicque proposed that an electric field passes through the neuronal membrane and transmits a signal. Subsequently, a "snake curve" or spike was used to depict the means by which a linear flat current undergoes a sudden Gaussian or Laplacian peak. This concept has been the accepted scenario for more than 115 years even appearing in textbooks on the subject. It was not noted that the membrane spike should have a cylindrical shape. A nerve spike having a dot shape on membrane surface cannot propagate through a cylindrical surface since it would dissipate instantaneously. A nerve spike should have the appearance of a ring, encompassing the diameter of a cylindrical axon or dendron. However, this subtle change has remarkable implications. Maintaining a circular form of an electric field is not easy, especially at the surface of an organic object. Here, we suggest that neuroscience could redefine itself if we accept that a nerve spike is not a localized 3D Gaussian or Laplacian wave packet, rather it is a 3D ring encompassing the diameter of a neural branch.

4.
Dalton Trans ; 51(19): 7681-7694, 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35521740

RESUMO

Four mononuclear manganese(III) complexes coordinated with photo-active hexadentate azobenzene ligands, [Mn(5azo-sal2-323)](X) (X = Cl, 1; X = BF4, 2; X = ClO4, 3; X = PF6, 4), were prepared. The impact of various counter anions on the stabilization and switching of the spin state of the manganese(III) center was explored through detailed magneto-structural investigation using variable temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction, magnetic, spectroscopic, and spectroelectrochemical studies, along with theoretical calculations. All four complexes consisted of an isostructural monocationic distorted octahedral MnN4O2 coordination environment offered by the hexadentate ligand and Cl-, BF4-, ClO4-, and PF6- as counter anions respectively. Complex 1 with a spherical Cl- counter anion showed a reversible and gradual spin-state switching between low-spin (LS) (S = 1) and high-spin (HS) (S = 2) states above 400 K, where non-covalent cation-anion interactions played a significant role in stabilizing the LS state. While, irrespective of the shape of the counter anion, complexes 2-4 remained in the HS state throughout the measured temperature range of 300-2 K, where strong π-π interaction between the azobenzene motifs among cationic units played a substantial role in stabilizing the HS state. Furthermore, magnetic data analyses revealed significantly large zero-field splitting in the S = 1 state for 1 (D = 19.4 cm-1, E/D = 0.008) in comparison with that in the S = 2 state for 2-4 (D = 3.99-4.97 cm-1, E/D = 0.002-0.195). Spectroelectrochemical investigations revealed the quasi-reversible reduction and oxidation of the manganese(III) center to manganese(II) and manganese(IV), respectively. A detailed theoretical calculation at the DFT and CASSCF level of theory was carried out to better understand the magneto-structural correlation.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409260

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract with an increasing prevalence worldwide. Targeted therapies for IBD are limited by several factors, including the therapeutic ceiling and the high incidence of non-responders or loss-of-response. In order to improve therapeutic efficacy, there is critical need to decipher disease pathogenesis, currently not well understood. Macrophages, innate immune cells that exhibit high plasticity, perpetuate inflammatory signalling in IBD through excessive release of inflammatory mediators. In recent years, pioneering research has revealed the importance of the interplay between macrophages and gut microbiota in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Particular attention is focusing on microbiota-derived metabolites, believed to possess immunomodulatory properties capable of manipulating macrophage plasticity. Microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and indole compounds, along with dietary sourced omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), exert anti-inflammatory effects, attributable to interactions with macrophages. Before we can effectively incorporate these metabolites into IBD therapies, a deeper understanding of microbiota-macrophage interactions at a molecular level is necessary. Therefore, the aim of this review is firstly to detail current knowledge regarding how diet and microbiota-derived metabolites modify macrophage plasticity. Later, we discuss the concept of therapeutic strategies directed at microbiota-macrophage interactions, which could be highly valuable for IBD therapies in the future.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Microbiota , Dieta , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Intestinos , Macrófagos/metabolismo
7.
J Biol Chem ; 298(5): 101889, 2022 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378127

RESUMO

An absolute or relative deficiency of pancreatic ß-cells mass and functionality is a crucial pathological feature common to type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) agonists have been the focus of considerable research attention for their ability to protect ß-cell mass and augment insulin secretion with no risk of hypoglycemia. Presently commercially available GLP1R agonists are peptides that limit their use due to cost, stability, and mode of administration. To address this drawback, strategically designed distinct sets of small molecules were docked on GLP1R ectodomain and compared with previously known small molecule GLP1R agonists. One of the small molecule PK2 (6-((1-(4-nitrobenzyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)-6H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline) displays stable binding with GLP1R ectodomain and induces GLP1R internalization and increasing cAMP levels. PK2 also increases insulin secretion in the INS-1 cells. The oral administration of PK2 protects against diabetes induced by multiple low-dose streptozotocin administration by lowering high blood glucose levels. Similar to GLP1R peptidic agonists, treatment of PK2 induces ß-cell replication and attenuate ß-cell apoptosis in STZ-treated mice. Mechanistically, this protection was associated with decreased thioredoxin-interacting protein expression, a potent inducer of diabetic ß-cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Together, this report describes a small molecule, PK2, as an orally active nonpeptidic GLP1R agonist that has efficacy to preserve or restore functional ß-cell mass.

8.
J Mater Chem B ; 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421884

RESUMO

With the promising advantages of the near-infrared region (NIR) emissive markers for serum albumin becoming very prominent recently, we devised CyG-NHS as the cyanine derived longest NIR-I emissive optical marker possessing albumin selective recognition ability in diverse biological milieu. Multiscale modeling involving molecular docking, molecular dynamics, and implicit solvent binding free energy calculations have been employed to gain insights into the unique binding ability of the developed probe at domain-I of albumin, in contrast to the good number of domain IIA or IIIA binding probes available in the literature reports. The binding free energy was found to be -31.8 kcal mol-1 majorly predominated by hydrophobic interactions. Besides, the conformational dynamics of CyG-NHS in an aqueous medium and the albumin microenvironment have been comprehensively studied and discussed. The potentiality of this optical platform to monitor the intracellular albumin levels in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells in different pathophysiological states has been demonstrated here. Also, the competency of the phenformin drug in restoring the albumin levels in chronic hyperinsulinemic and hypercholesterolemic in vitro models has been established through the visualization approach. Altogether, the findings of this study throw light on the significance of the development of a suitable optical marker for the visualization of critical bioevents related to albumin.

10.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(3): e28978, 2022 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35323120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telemedicine plays an important role in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly during a pandemic such as COVID-19. However, the effectiveness and efficiency of telemedicine in managing IBD are unclear. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the impact of telemedicine with that of standard care on the management of IBD. METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases on April 22, 2020. Randomized controlled trials comparing telemedicine with standard care in patients with IBD were included, while conference abstracts, letters, reviews, laboratory studies, and case reports were excluded. The IBD-specific quality of life (QoL), disease activity, and remission rate in patients with IBD were assessed as primary outcomes, and the number of in-person clinic visits per patient, patient satisfaction, psychological outcome, and medication adherence were assessed as secondary outcomes. Review Manage 5.3 and Stata 15.1 were used for data analysis. RESULTS: A total of 17 randomized controlled trials (2571 participants) were included in this meta-analysis. The telemedicine group had higher IBD-specific QoL than the standard care group (standard mean difference 0.18, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.34; P.03). The number of clinic visits per patient in the telemedicine group was significantly lower than that in the standard care group (standard mean difference -0.71, 95% CI -1.07 to -0.36; P<.001). Subgroup analysis showed that adolescents in the telemedicine group had significantly higher IBD-specific QoL than those in the standard care group (standard mean difference 0.42, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.69; I2=0; P.002), but there was no significant difference between adults in the 2 groups. There were no significant differences in disease activity, remission rate, patient satisfaction, depression, self-efficacy, generic QoL, and medication adherence outcomes between the telemedicine and standard care groups. CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine intervention showed a promising role in improving IBD-specific QoL among adolescents and decreased the number of clinic visits among patients with IBD. Further research is warranted to identify the group of patients with IBD who would most benefit from telemedicine.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Microorganisms ; 10(3)2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35336066

RESUMO

Intestinal fibrosis is a common complication in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) without specific treatment. As macrophages are the key actors in inflammatory responses and the wound healing process, they have been extensively studied in chronic diseases these past decades. By their exceptional ability to integrate diverse stimuli in their surrounding environment, macrophages display a multitude of phenotypes to underpin a broad spectrum of functions, from the initiation to the resolution of inflammation following injury. The hypothesis that distinct macrophage subtypes could be involved in fibrogenesis and wound healing is emerging and could open up new therapeutic perspectives in the treatment of intestinal fibrosis. Gut microbiota and diet are two key factors capable of modifying intestinal macrophage profiles, shaping their specific function. Defects in macrophage polarisation, inadequate dietary habits, and alteration of microbiota composition may contribute to the development of intestinal fibrosis. In this review, we describe the intriguing triangle between intestinal macrophages, diet, and gut microbiota in homeostasis and how the perturbation of this discreet balance may lead to a pro-fibrotic environment and influence fibrogenesis in the gut.

12.
World J Gastrointest Oncol ; 14(3): 547-567, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35321275

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease-related colorectal cancer (IBD-CRC) is one of the most serious complications of IBD contributing to significant mortality in this cohort of patients. IBD is often associated with diet and lifestyle-related gut microbial dysbiosis, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors, leading to chronic gut inflammation. According to the "common ground hypothesis", microbial dysbiosis and intestinal barrier impairment are at the core of the chronic inflammatory process associated with IBD-CRC. Among the many underlying factors known to increase the risk of IBD-CRC, perhaps the most important factor is chronic persistent inflammation. The persistent inflammation in the colon results in increased proliferation of cells necessary for repair but this also increases the risk of dysplastic changes due to chromosomal and microsatellite instability. Multiple pathways have been identified, regulated by many positive and negative factors involved in the development of cancer, which in this case follows the 'inflammation-dysplasia-carcinoma' sequence. Strategies to lower this risk are extremely important to reduce morbidity and mortality due to IBD-CRC, among which colonoscopic surveillance is the most widely accepted and implemented modality, forming part of many national and international guidelines. However, the effectiveness of surveillance in IBD has been a topic of much debate in recent years for multiple reasons - cost-benefit to health systems, resource requirements, and also because of studies showing conflicting long-term data. Our review provides a comprehensive overview of past, present, and future perspectives of IBD-CRC. We explore and analyse evidence from studies over decades and current best practices followed globally. In the future directions section, we cover emerging novel endoscopic techniques and artificial intelligence that could play an important role in managing the risk of IBD-CRC.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35189386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clinical trials evaluating biologics and small molecules in patients with ulcerative colitis are predominantly excluding ulcerative proctitis. The objective of the Definition and endpoints for ulcerative PROCtitis in clinical TRIALs initiative was to develop consensus statements for definitions, inclusion criteria, and endpoints for the evaluation of ulcerative proctitis in adults. METHODS: Thirty-five international experts held a consensus meeting to define ulcerative proctitis, and the endpoints to use in clinical trials. Based on a systematic review of the literature, statements were generated, discussed, and approved by the working group participants using a modified Delphi method. Consensus was defined as at least 75% agreement among voters. RESULTS: The group agreed that the diagnosis of ulcerative proctitis should be made by ileocolonoscopy and confirmed by histopathology, with the exclusion of infections, drug-induced causes, radiation, trauma, and Crohn's disease. Ulcerative proctitis was defined as macroscopic extent of lesions limited to 15 cm distance from the anal verge in adults. Primary and secondary endpoints were identified to capture response of ulcerative proctitis to therapy. A combined clinical and endoscopic primary endpoint for the evaluation of ulcerative proctitis disease activity was proposed. Secondary endpoints that should be evaluated include endoscopic remission, histologic remission, mucosal healing, histologic endoscopic mucosal improvement, disability, fecal incontinence, urgency, constipation, and health-related quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: In response to the need for guidance on the design of clinical trials in patients with ulcerative proctitis, the Definition and end points for ulcerative PROCtitis in clinical TRIALs consensus provides recommendations on the definition and endpoints for ulcerative proctitis clinical trials.

14.
Gut ; 71(5): 889-898, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35173041

RESUMO

Histological remission is evolving as an important treatment target in UC. We aimed to develop a simple histological index, aligned to endoscopy, correlated with clinical outcomes, and suited to apply to an artificial intelligence (AI) system to evaluate inflammatory activity. METHODS: Using a set of 614 biopsies from 307 patients with UC enrolled into a prospective multicentre study, we developed the Paddington International virtual ChromoendoScopy ScOre (PICaSSO) Histologic Remission Index (PHRI). Agreement with multiple other histological indices and validation for inter-reader reproducibility were assessed. Finally, to implement PHRI into a computer-aided diagnosis system, we trained and tested a novel deep learning strategy based on a CNN architecture to detect neutrophils, calculate PHRI and identify active from quiescent UC using a subset of 138 biopsies. RESULTS: PHRI is strongly correlated with endoscopic scores (Mayo Endoscopic Score and UC Endoscopic Index of Severity and PICaSSO) and with clinical outcomes (hospitalisation, colectomy and initiation or changes in medical therapy due to UC flare-up). A PHRI score of 1 could accurately stratify patients' risk of adverse outcomes (hospitalisation, colectomy and treatment optimisation due to flare-up) within 12 months. Our inter-reader agreement was high (intraclass correlation 0.84). Our preliminary AI algorithm differentiated active from quiescent UC with 78% sensitivity, 91.7% specificity and 86% accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: PHRI is a simple histological index in UC, and it exhibits the highest correlation with endoscopic activity and clinical outcomes. A PHRI-based AI system was accurate in predicting histological remission.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Inteligência Artificial , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colonoscopia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Indução de Remissão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 10(2): 147-159, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35194978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A composite endoscopic-histologic remission is increasingly explored as an important endpoint in ulcerative colitis (UC). We investigated combined endoscopic-histologic remission for predicting clinical outcomes at 12 months compared with endoscopic remission alone using the high definition virtual chromoendoscopy (VCE) Paddington International virtual ChromoendoScopy ScOre (PICaSSO) and histology scores. METHODS: Ulcerative colitis patients, prospectively enrolled from 11 international centres, underwent VCE with targeted biopsies and followed up for 12 months. Endoscopic activity was assessed by Mayo Endoscopic Score (MES), Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index Severity (UCEIS) followed by VCE-PICaSSO. Robarts Histopathological Index|Robarts Histological index≤3 without neutrophils in mucosa, and Nancy Histological index (NHI)≤ 1 were used to define histologic remission. Combined endoscopic-histologic remission was compared with endoscopic remission alone by Cox proportional hazards model and by two- and three-proportion analysis using pre-specified clinical outcomes. RESULTS: 307 patients were recruited and 302 analysed. There was no difference in survival without specified clinical outcomes between PICaSSO defined endoscopic remission alone and endoscopic plus histologic remission in the rectum (HR 0.42, 95%CI 0.16-1.11 and HR 1.03, 95%CI 0.42-2.52 for Robarts Histological index and NHI respectively) at 12 months. There was however a significant survival advantage without specified clinical outcome events for UCEIS combined with histology compared with UCEIS alone (HR 0.30, 95%CI 0.12-0.75, p = 0.02) at 12 months (but not combined with NHI). For MES there was no advantage for predicting specified clinical outcomes at 12 months for endoscopy alone versus endoscopy plus histology, but there were differences in two and three proportion analysis at 6 months. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic remission by VCE-PICaSSO alone was similar to combined endoscopic and histologic remission for predicting specified clinical outcomes at 12 months. Larger studies with specific therapeutic interventions are required to further confirm the findings.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colite Ulcerativa/terapia , Colonoscopia , Eletrônica , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 9028580, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35103057

RESUMO

Customer churn prediction is one of the challenging problems and paramount concerns for telecommunication industries. With the increasing number of mobile operators, users can switch from one mobile operator to another if they are unsatisfied with the service. Marketing literature states that it costs 5-10 times more to acquire a new customer than retain an existing one. Hence, effective customer churn management has become a crucial demand for mobile communication operators. Researchers have proposed several classifiers and boosting methods to control customer churn rate, including deep learning (DL) algorithms. However, conventional classification algorithms follow an error-based framework that focuses on improving the classifier's accuracy over cost sensitization. Typical classification algorithms treat misclassification errors equally, which is not applicable in practice. On the contrary, DL algorithms are computationally expensive as well as time-consuming. In this paper, a novel class-dependent cost-sensitive boosting algorithm called AdaBoostWithCost is proposed to reduce the churn cost. This study demonstrates the empirical evaluation of the proposed AdaBoostWithCost algorithm, which consistently outperforms the discrete AdaBoost algorithm concerning telecom churn prediction. The key focus of the AdaBoostWithCost classifier is to reduce false-negative error and the misclassification cost more significantly than the AdaBoost.


Assuntos
Algoritmos
17.
Nanoscale ; 14(9): 3568-3578, 2022 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35179158

RESUMO

The bottom-up approach has been widely used for large-scale synthesis of carbon nanodots (CNDs). However, the structure and origin of photoluminescence in CNDs synthesized by the bottom-up approach is still a subject of debate. Here, using a series of separation techniques like solvent extraction, column chromatography, gel electrophoresis and dialysis, we present three distinct fluorescent components in CNDs synthesized from pyrene, a well-known precursor molecule. The separated components have qualitative and quantitatively different absorption and emission spectral features including quantum yield (QY). Optical and vibrational spectroscopy techniques combined with electron microscopy indicate that a subtle balance between the extent of graphitization and the presence of molecular fluorophores determines the nature of fluorescence emission. A substantial difference in photons/cycle, single-particle fluorescence blinking, ON-OFF photoswitching strongly supports the distinct nature of the components.

18.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 2022 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35182574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endoscopic and histologic remission (HR) are key therapeutic targets in the management of ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of the Paddington International virtual ChromoendoScopy ScOre (PICaSSO), a virtual chromoendoscopy score originally validated by use of the iSCAN platform, with the narrow-band imaging (NBI), linked-color imaging (LCI), and blue-laser imaging (BLI) platforms. METHODS: We evaluated endoscopic activity using the Mayo Endoscopic Score (MES), the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity (UCEIS), and PICaSSO in 159 UC patients (78 NBI and 81 BLI/LCI) who underwent colonoscopy in 2 tertiary referral centers. HR was defined by the Robarts Histopathology Index (RHI) and the Nancy Histologic Index (NHI). Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted to evaluate endoscopic scores for the prediction of HR. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between endoscopists were evaluated. RESULTS: PICaSSO had an ICC of 0.825 when the NBI and BLI/LCI cohorts were combined, higher than MES and UCEIS. The correlation between PICaSSO and RHI and NHI was 0.83 and 0.79 in the NBI cohort and between 0.63 and 0.65 in LCI/BLI. In the NBI cohort, the accuracy of MES, UCEIS, and PICaSSO was 0.936, 0.897, and 0.808 for HR measured by RHI and 0.897, 0.885, and 0.821 by NHI, respectively. In the BLI/LCI cohort, the accuracy of MES, UCEIS, LCI PICaSSO and BLI PICaSSO was 0.765, 0.778, 0.827, and 0.79 to predict HR with RHI and NHI, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The PICaSSO score can be consistently and accurately reproduced with NBI and LCI/BLI and therefore can be applied to all virtual electronic chromoendoscopy platforms.

19.
Andrology ; 10(4): 775-788, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is one of the leading factors responsible for poor post-thaw semen quality because of overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) over neutralizing antioxidants present in semen. Mainly two ROS generation sites are present in spermatozoa, that is, mitochondria and plasma membrane. Therefore, the idea of targeting these specific sites for minimization of ROS production with the compounds having known mechanism of actions was built up as a core for this research. OBJECTIVE: Present study was done to investigate the effects of Mito TEMPO and acetovanillone individually and in combination on freezability of buffalo spermatozoa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the experiment, semen extender was supplemented with Mito TEMPO (50 µM), acetovanillone (50 µM), and a combination of Mito TEMPO + acetovanillone (50 µM+ 50 µM), designated as Group II, Group III, and Group IV, respectively. Control group without any supplementation was designated as Group I. A total of 24 ejaculates with individual progressive motility (IPM) of ≥70% were selected for the study. After final dilution, filling-sealing of straws, equilibration, and freezing were done as per the standard procedure. Semen samples were evaluated for IPM, plasma membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and cholesterol to phospholipids (C/P) ratio at both fresh and post-thaw stages. Evaluation of ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), capacitation status (CTC assay), and in vitro fertility potential were conducted only on frozen-thawed samples. RESULTS: The addition of Mito TEMPO (50 µM) and acetovanillone (50 µM) individually and in combination significantly (p < 0.05) improved post-thaw semen quality in terms of IPM, plasma membrane integrity, TAC, cholesterol content, C/P ratio, MMP, Chlortetracycline (CTC)-Full (F) pattern, and zona binding ability of buffalo spermatozoa, while significantly (p < 0.05) reduced ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and capacitation like changes as compared to the control group. DISCUSSION: As Mito TEMPO acts as an SOD mimetic and also detoxifies ferrous iron at the mitochondria level, it aids in neutralization of excessive ROS production and minimizes oxidative stress-related damages that enhances the antioxidant potential of sperm mitochondria. Earlier studies also indicated improved post-thaw semen quality in 50 µM supplemented group. The improvement observed in acetovanillone (50 µM) group might be because of inhibition of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase as this enzyme activation by various physical/chemical inducers during cryopreservation process leads to activation of CatSper channel resulting in calcium influx, premature capacitation, and acrosomal reaction like changes through activation of adenylate cyclase and cAMP/PKA-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins. Acetovanillone also prevents NADPH oxidase-mediated inhibition of glutathione reductase activity, which has a vital role in protecting the structural and functional integrity of sperm plasma membrane. CONCLUSION: Results indicated beneficial effects of supplementation of Mito TEMPO and acetovanillone on sperm freezability and individual supplementation was as efficient as the combination group for sustaining post-thaw semen quality.


Assuntos
Preservação do Sêmen , Sêmen , Acetofenonas , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Búfalos , Colesterol , Criopreservação/veterinária , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Óxidos N-Cíclicos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Análise do Sêmen , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides
20.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 9(1)2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35046093

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dietary patterns that might induce remission in patients with active Crohn's disease (CD) are of interest to patients, but studies are limited in the published literature. We aim to explore the efficacy of the CD therapeutic dietary intervention (CD-TDI), a novel dietary approach developed from best practices and current evidence, to induce clinical and biomarker remission in adult patients with active CD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is a 13-week, multicentre, randomised controlled trial in patients with mild-to-moderate active CD at baseline. One hundred and two patients will be block randomised, by sex, 2:1 to the intervention (CD-TDI) or conventional management. Coprimary outcomes are clinical and biomarker remission, defined as a Harvey Bradshaw Index of <5 and a faecal calprotectin of <250 µg/g, respectively.Secondary outcomes include gut microbiota diversity and composition, faecal short-chain fatty acids, regulatory macrophage function, serum and faecal metabolomics, C reactive protein, peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression profiles, quality of life, sedentary time and physical activity at 7 and/or 13 weeks. Predictive models of clinical response to a CD-TDI will be investigated. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The research protocol was approved by the Conjoint Health Research Ethics Board at the University of Calgary (REB19-0402) and the Health Research Ethics Board-Biomedical Panel at the University of Alberta (Pro00090772). Study findings will be presented at national and international conferences, submitted for publication in abstracts and manuscripts, shared on social media and disseminated through patient-education materials. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04596566.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Adulto , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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