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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379802

RESUMO

Introduction: The German PID-NET registry was founded in 2009, serving as the first national registry of patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID) in Germany. It is part of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) registry. The primary purpose of the registry is to gather data on the epidemiology, diagnostic delay, diagnosis, and treatment of PIDs. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data was collected from 2,453 patients from 36 German PID centres in an online registry. Data was analysed with the software Stata® and Excel. Results: The minimum prevalence of PID in Germany is 2.72 per 100,000 inhabitants. Among patients aged 1-25, there was a clear predominance of males. The median age of living patients ranged between 7 and 40 years, depending on the respective PID. Predominantly antibody disorders were the most prevalent group with 57% of all 2,453 PID patients (including 728 CVID patients). A gene defect was identified in 36% of patients. Familial cases were observed in 21% of patients. The age of onset for presenting symptoms ranged from birth to late adulthood (range 0-88 years). Presenting symptoms comprised infections (74%) and immune dysregulation (22%). Ninety-three patients were diagnosed without prior clinical symptoms. Regarding the general and clinical diagnostic delay, no PID had undergone a slight decrease within the last decade. However, both, SCID and hyper IgE- syndrome showed a substantial improvement in shortening the time between onset of symptoms and genetic diagnosis. Regarding treatment, 49% of all patients received immunoglobulin G (IgG) substitution (70%-subcutaneous; 29%-intravenous; 1%-unknown). Three-hundred patients underwent at least one hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Five patients had gene therapy. Conclusion: The German PID-NET registry is a precious tool for physicians, researchers, the pharmaceutical industry, politicians, and ultimately the patients, for whom the outcomes will eventually lead to a more timely diagnosis and better treatment.

2.
Clin Immunol ; 201: 30-34, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776520

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) comprise a group of genetic diseases characterized by abrogated development of T lymphocytes. In some case reports of atypical SCID patients elevated proportions of γδ T lymphocytes have been reported. However, it is unknown whether these γδ T cells modulate or reflect the patient's clinical phenotype. We investigated the frequency of elevated γδ T cell proportions and associations with clinical disease manifestations in a cohort of 76 atypical SCID patients. Increased proportions of γδ T lymphocytes were present in approximately 60% of these patients. Furthermore, we identified positive correlations between elevated proportions of γδ T cells and the occurrence of CMV infections and autoimmune cytopenias. We discuss that CMV infections might trigger an expansion of γδ T lymphocytes, which could drive the development of autoimmune cytopenias. We advocate that atypical SCID patients should be screened for elevated proportions of γδ T lymphocytes, CMV infection and autoimmune cytopenias.

3.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2197, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323808

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00979.].

4.
Front Immunol ; 9: 979, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867957

RESUMO

Patients with primary immunodeficiency can be prone to severe Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated immune dysregulation. Individuals with mutations in the interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) gene experience Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, EBV lymphoproliferative disease, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and dysgammaglobulinemia. In this review, we give an update on further reported patients. We believe that current clinical data advocate early definitive treatment by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, as transplant outcome in primary immunodeficiency disorders in general has gradually improved in recent years. Furthermore, we summarize experimental data in the murine model to provide further insight of pathophysiology in ITK deficiency.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(1): 235-245.e6, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked lymphoproliferative disease 1 arises from mutations in the SH2D1A gene encoding SLAM-associated protein (SAP), an adaptor protein expressed in T, natural killer (NK), and NKT cells. Defects lead to abnormalities of T-cell and NK cell cytotoxicity and T cell-dependent humoral function. Clinical manifestations include hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, lymphoma, and dysgammaglobulinemia. Curative treatment is limited to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with outcomes reliant on a good donor match. OBJECTIVES: Because most symptoms arise from defective T-cell function, we investigated whether transfer of SAP gene-corrected T cells could reconstitute known effector cell defects. METHODS: CD3+ lymphocytes from Sap-deficient mice were transduced with a gammaretroviral vector encoding human SAP cDNA before transfer into sublethally irradiated Sap-deficient recipients. After immunization with the T-dependent antigen 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetly chicken gammaglobulin (NP-CGG), recovery of humoral function was evaluated through germinal center formation and antigen-specific responses. To efficiently transduce CD3+ cells from patients, we generated an equivalent lentiviral SAP vector. Functional recovery was demonstrated by using in vitro cytotoxicity and T follicular helper cell function assays alongside tumor clearance in an in vivo lymphoblastoid cell line lymphoma xenograft model. RESULTS: In Sap-deficient mice 20% to 40% engraftment of gene-modified T cells led to significant recovery of germinal center formation and NP-specific antibody responses. Gene-corrected T cells from patients demonstrated improved cytotoxicity and T follicular helper cell function in vitro. Adoptive transfer of gene-corrected cytotoxic T lymphocytes from patients reduced tumor burden to a level comparable with that seen in healthy donor cytotoxic T lymphocytes in an in vivo lymphoma model. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that autologous T-cell gene therapy corrects SAP-dependent defects and might offer an alternative therapeutic option for patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease 1.

6.
BMC Pediatr ; 18(1): 6, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29334914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triple A syndrome (or Allgrove syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by alacrima, achalasia, adrenal insufficiency and autonomic/neurological abnormalities. The majority of cases are caused by mutations in the AAAS gene located on chromosome 12q13. However, the clinical picture as well as genetic testing may be complex since symptomatology is variable and mutations cannot be identified in all clinically diagnosed patients. We present two unrelated patients with triple-A syndrome illustrating the importance of alacrima as an early clinical sign. CASE PRESENTATION: A 3.5 year old girl presented with repeated hypoglycaemic myoclonic events. Adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed. In addition, alacrima, obvious since early infancy, was incidentally reported by the mother and finally lead to the clinical diagnosis of triple A syndrome. This was confirmed by positive mutation analysis of the AAAS gene. The second patient, an 8 months old boy was presented because of anisocoria and unilateral optic atrophy. MRI revealed cerebellar vermis hypotrophy. Psychomotor retardation, failure to thrive, and frequent vomiting lead to further diagnostic work-up. Achalasia was diagnosed radiologically. In addition, the mother mentioned absence of tears since birth leading to the clinical diagnosis of triple A syndrome. In contrast to the first cases genetic testing was negative. CONCLUSION: These two patients illustrate the heterogeneity of triple A syndrome in both terms, clinical expression and genetic testing. We particularly aim to stress the importance of alacrima, which should be considered as a red flag symptom. Further differential diagnosis is required in every child affected by alacrima.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/diagnóstico , Choro , Acalasia Esofágica/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/etiologia , Doenças do Aparelho Lacrimal/etiologia , Insuficiência Adrenal/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Acalasia Esofágica/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(3): 904-913.e3, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the perforin 1 (PRF1) gene account for up to 58% of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis syndromes. The resulting defects in effector cell cytotoxicity lead to hypercytokinemia and hyperactivation with inflammation in various organs. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether autologous gene-corrected T cells can restore cytotoxic function, reduce disease activity, and prevent hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) symptoms in in vivo models. METHODS: We developed a gammaretroviral vector to transduce murine CD8 T cells in the Prf-/- mouse model. To verify functional correction of Prf-/- CD8 T cells in vivo, we used a lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) epitope-transfected murine lung carcinoma cell tumor model. Furthermore, we challenged gene-corrected and uncorrected mice with LCMV. One patient sample was transduced with a PRF1-encoding lentiviral vector to study restoration of cytotoxicity in human cells. RESULTS: We demonstrated efficient engraftment and functional reconstitution of cytotoxicity after intravenous administration of gene-corrected Prf-/- CD8 T cells into Prf-/- mice. In the tumor model infusion of Prf-/- gene-corrected CD8 T cells eliminated the tumor as efficiently as transplantation of wild-type CD8 T cells. Similarly, mice reconstituted with gene-corrected Prf-/- CD8 T cells displayed complete protection from the HLH phenotype after infection with LCMV. Patients' cells showed correction of cytotoxicity in human CD8 T cells after transduction. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate the potential application of T-cell gene therapy in reconstituting cytotoxic function and protection against HLH in the setting of perforin deficiency.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(1): 322-328.e10, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28392333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare DNA breakage repair disorders predispose to infection and lymphoreticular malignancies. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative, but coadministered chemotherapy or radiotherapy is damaging because of systemic radiosensitivity. We collected HCT outcome data for Nijmegen breakage syndrome, DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XRCC4-like factor (Cernunnos-XLF) deficiency, and ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). METHODS: Data from 38 centers worldwide, including indication, donor, conditioning regimen, graft-versus-host disease, and outcome, were analyzed. Conditioning was classified as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) if it contained radiotherapy or alkylators and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) if no alkylators and/or 150 mg/m2 fludarabine or less and 40 mg/kg cyclophosphamide or less were used. RESULTS: Fifty-five new, 14 updated, and 18 previously published patients were analyzed. Median age at HCT was 48 months (range, 1.5-552 months). Twenty-nine patients underwent transplantation for infection, 21 had malignancy, 13 had bone marrow failure, 13 received pre-emptive transplantation, 5 had multiple indications, and 6 had no information. Twenty-two received MAC, 59 received RIC, and 4 were infused; information was unavailable for 2 patients. Seventy-three of 77 patients with DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XLF deficiency, or Nijmegen breakage syndrome received conditioning. Survival was 53 (69%) of 77 and was worse for those receiving MAC than for those receiving RIC (P = .006). Most deaths occurred early after transplantation, suggesting poor tolerance of conditioning. Survival in patients with AT was 25%. Forty-one (49%) of 83 patients experienced acute GvHD, which was less frequent in those receiving RIC compared with those receiving MAC (26/56 [46%] vs 12/21 [57%], P = .45). Median follow-up was 35 months (range, 2-168 months). No secondary malignancies were reported during 15 years of follow-up. Growth and developmental delay remained after HCT; immune-mediated complications resolved. CONCLUSION: RIC HCT resolves DNA repair disorder-associated immunodeficiency. Long-term follow-up is required for secondary malignancy surveillance. Routine HCT for AT is not recommended.

9.
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am ; 31(5): 823-834, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28895850

RESUMO

Transfer of gene-corrected autologous hematopoietic stem cells in patients with primary immunodeficiencies has emerged as a new therapeutic approach. Patients with various conditions lacking a suitable donor have been treated with retroviral vectors and a gene-addition strategy. Initial promising results were shadowed by the occurrence of malignancies in some of these patients. Current trials, developed in the last decade, use safer viral vectors to overcome the risk of genotoxicity and have led to improved clinical outcomes. This review reflects the progresses made in specific disorders, including adenosine deaminase deficiency, X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, chronic granulomatous disease, and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Expressão Gênica , Terapia Genética/efeitos adversos , Terapia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos/classificação , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Transdução Genética , Transgenes , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos
10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(4): 1302-1310.e4, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27658761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Absent T-cell immunity resulting in life-threatening infections provides a clear rationale for hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) and "atypical" SCID show reduced, not absent T-cell immunity. If associated with infections or autoimmunity, they represent profound combined immunodeficiency (P-CID), for which outcome data are insufficient for unambiguous early transplant decisions. OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. METHODS: In this prospective and retrospective observational study, we recruited nontransplanted patients with P-CID aged 1 to 16 years to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were recruited (median age, 9.6 years). Thirteen of 51 had a genetic diagnosis of "atypical" SCID and 14 of 51 of CID. About half of the patients had less than 10% naive T cells, reduced/absent T-cell proliferation, and at least 1 significant clinical event/year, demonstrating their profound immunodeficiency. Nineteen patients (37%) underwent transplantation within 1 year of enrolment, and 5 of 51 patients died. Analysis of the HSCT decisions revealed the anticipated heterogeneity, favoring an ongoing prospective matched-pair analysis of patients with similar disease severity with or without transplantation. Importantly, so far neither the genetic diagnosis nor basic measurements of T-cell immunity were good predictors of disease evolution. CONCLUSIONS: The P-CID study for the first time characterizes a group of patients with nontypical SCID T-cell deficiencies from a therapeutic perspective. Because genetic and basic T-cell parameters provide limited guidance, prospective data from this study will be a helpful resource for guiding the difficult HSCT decisions in patients with P-CID.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa
13.
Br J Haematol ; 171(2): 155-170, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26044877

RESUMO

Ex-vivo gene transfer of autologous haematopoietic stem cells in patients with monogenic diseases of the bone marrow has emerged as a new therapeutic approach, mainly in patients lacking a suitable donor for transplant. The encouraging results of initial clinical trials of gene therapy for primary immunodeficiencies were tempered by the occurrence of genotoxicity in a number of patients. Over the last decade, safer viral vectors have been developed to overcome the risk of insertional mutagenesis and have led to impressive clinical outcomes with considerably improved safety. We review the efforts in specific immunodeficiencies including adenosine deaminase deficiency, X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, chronic granulomatous disease and Wiskott Aldrich syndrome. Major recent progress has also been made in haemoglobinopathies, such as beta-thalassaemia, sickle cell disease and Fanconi anaemia, and also specific lysosomal storage diseases, which, although not strictly bone marrow specific conditions, have been effectively treated by bone marrow-based treatment. The success of these recent studies and the advent of new technologies, such as gene editing, suggest that gene therapy could become a more generally applied treatment modality for a number of haematopoietic disorders.

14.
J Clin Immunol ; 35(3): 273-9, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25749910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Different sets of warning signs can be used if primary immunodeficiency (PID) is suspected: those of the Jeffrey Modell Foundation (JMF), the German Patients' Organisation for Primary Immunodeficiencies (DSAI) and the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF). A few studies have tested the JMF criteria, with unconvincing results, but the diagnostic models of the DSAI and AWMF have not been tested at all. We set out to establish the utility of these three scoring systems and compare them with our own set of five warning signs (Duesseldorf criteria). DESIGN: Prospective study. PATIENTS: Two hundred ten patients admitted to our hospital between 2010 and 2012 with suspected PID. RESULTS: PID were found in 36 (17 %) of the patients admitted. Of the established sets of warning signs, the JMF and the DSAI had inadequate sensitivity, while the DSAI and the AWMF showed insufficient specificity. Our own criteria were analyzed with regard to maximal specificity and sensitivity (Youden Index) and sensitivity and yielded NPV of 0.89 and 0.91 respectively. Youden index revealed combination of five signs and symptoms: lymphopenia, otitis media >7, failure to thrive, failure to grow normally, pneumonia >1. For maximum negative predictive value the following set was found: lymphopenia, hypogammglobulinemia, failure to thrive, growth disorders, iv antibiotics and abscesses. CONCLUSION: In contrast to the new, evaluated Duesseldorf criteria, all three established sets of warning signs proved inadequate for preselection of patients for admission to specialized PID centers. The Duesseldorf criteria should now being tested in further studies.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Insuficiência de Crescimento/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , Masculino , Otite Média/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 36(1): 16-26, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24568663

RESUMO

Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder with various clinical manifestations. Increased serum levels of IgM and recurrent infections, mainly sinopulmonary infections, can be the presenting feature in a number of AT patients and may be initially misdiagnosed as hyper-IgM (HIgM) syndrome. This study was designed to investigate class switch recombination (CSR) as a critical mechanism in B lymphocytes' maturation to produce different isotypes of antibody in response to antigen stimulation in AT cases with HIgM presentation. Quantitative IgE production after stimulation by IL-4 and CD40L was considered as an indicator for CSR function. We also compared their results with sex and age matched AT patients without HIgM presentation. We report four AT patients with recurrent infections during infancy and high serum levels of IgM. Laboratory evaluations revealed defective CSR while none of the three AT patients without HIgM presentation had a defect in the CSR process. The characterized defect in AT is a mutation in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. This gene may result in CSR defects due to impaired DNA break repair. A special association between AT and HIgM may indicate a new subgroup of AT patients according to their clinical phenotype and CSR condition.


Assuntos
Ataxia Telangiectasia/imunologia , Switching de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Recombinação Genética/imunologia , Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Humanos , Switching de Imunoglobulina/genética , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Mutação , Recombinação Genética/genética
16.
J Clin Immunol ; 34(8): 892-9, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25339095

RESUMO

In patients with underlying immunodeficiency, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may lead to severe immune dysregulation manifesting as fatal mononucleosis, lymphoma, lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), lymphomatoid granulomatosis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and dysgammaglobulinemia. Several newly discovered primary immunodeficiencies (STK4, CD27, MAGT1, CORO1A) have been described in recent years; our group and collaborators were able to reveal the pathogenicity of mutations in the Interleukin-2-inducible T-cell Kinase (ITK) in a cohort of nine patients with most patients presenting with massive EBV B-cell lymphoproliferation. This review summarizes the clinical and immunological findings in these patients. Moreover, we describe the functional consequences of the mutations and draw comparisons with the extensively investigated function of ITK in vitro and in the murine model.


Assuntos
Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/enzimologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/deficiência , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Linfócitos T/enzimologia , Idade de Início , Animais , Linfócitos B/enzimologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Linfócitos T/patologia
20.
J Clin Immunol ; 32(3): 438-40, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22354567

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has not been a therapeutic option in ataxia telangiectasia (AT) due to overwhelming toxicity of conditioning in the context of the global DNA repair deficiency. Furthermore HSCT is unable to cure neurological involvement of AT. We report on a Turkish child with a Hyper IgM phenotype disorder, in which clinical aspects of AT were absent and thus, AT not diagnosed. He was transplanted with a reduced toxicity, but full intensity conditioning regimen comprising treosulfan, fludarabine and ATG. The peritransplant period was uneventful and the patient was discharged at day +57. 8 months after HSCT, the patient developed hepatopathy with monoclonal gammopathy of unclear significance and died due to hepatic failure and encephalopathy at the age of 32 months. Post mortem high throughput sequencing revealed a mutation in the ATM gene.


Assuntos
Ataxia Telangiectasia/complicações , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Encefalopatia Hepática/complicações , Transplante Homólogo , Ataxia Telangiectasia/sangue , Ataxia Telangiectasia/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Evolução Fatal , Encefalopatia Hepática/sangue , Encefalopatia Hepática/patologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Masculino
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