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Vet Ital ; 52(2): 139-44, 2016 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27393875


Wild birds have been considered to be reservoirs of enteric human pathogens and vectors of resistance dissemination to the environment. During annual migration, they potentially play a role in the epidemiology of human associated zoonoses. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Enterobacteriaceae members isolated from cloacal swabs of common European wild birds. Fifty-five cloacal swabs were taken during birds' entrance evaluation in a rescue centre for injured wild birds in the Province of Messina (Sicily, Italy). All samples were examined for the presence of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae using standard methods and on the isolated strains antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed. Eighty three Enterobacteriaceae strains were isolated from raptors, waterbirds and passerines. The bacterial species isolated were: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia vulneris, Enterobacter amnigenus biogroup 2, Salmonella Duesseldorf and Hafnia alvei. The isolates showed significant frequencies of antibiotic resistance. Multiresistance to three or more groups of antibiotics also occurred. None of them have shown a phenotypic Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) profile.

Aves/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Europa (Continente) , Microbioma Gastrointestinal
Vet Ophthalmol ; 16(2): 89-92, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22520064


OBJECTIVE: To describe the bacterial flora present in the normal conjunctiva of donkeys from Sicily (Italy). ANIMALS STUDIED: A total of 46 healthy donkeys housed in 3 locations within the territory of Palermo (Sicily, Italy) were studied. Donkeys ranged from 2 to 13 years of age, with a median age of 6 years. PROCEDURES: Forty-six conjunctival swabs were obtained from both eyes of each animal, and specimens were cultured for aerobic bacteria. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of methicillin (1 µg) and oxacillin (5 µg) on Staphylococcus spp. isolates was evaluated, and a specific PCR assay, which allows the detection of mecA gene specific for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, was performed. RESULTS: Forty of 46 (86.9%) donkeys were positive for bacteria. Eighty bacterial isolates, representing 9 bacteria genera, were successfully cultured. The most frequently recovered bacterial genus was Staphylococcus (52/80 isolates; 65%). Several strains (20/80 isolates; 25%) belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family were also isolated, among which the most frequently isolated genus was Enterobacter (eight isolates). Of the 52 Staphylococcus spp. isolates, 14 (26.9%) strains were oxacillin/methicillin resistant. The mecA gene was detected in 6/52 (11.5%) strains. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the knowledge about normal ocular flora and MRSA occurrence in donkey farms in Sicily.

Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Equidae , Resistência a Meticilina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Meticilina/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino
Avian Pathol ; 40(4): 405-9, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21812720


Several studies have shown that migratory birds play an important role in the ecology, circulation and dissemination of pathogenic organisms. In October 2006, a health status evaluation was performed on a large population of migratory birds passing through the territory of Ustica (Italy), an island located on the migration route of many species of birds to Africa, and various laboratory tests were conducted. In total, 218 faecal swabs and the internal organs of 21 subjects found dead in nets were collected for bacteriological and virological examination, including avian influenza and Newcastle disease. In addition, 19 pooled fresh faecal samples were collected for mycological examination. The bacteriological analysis produced 183 strains belonging to 28 different species of the Enterobacteriaceae family. In particular, Salmonella bongori, Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumonia strains were isolated. Almost all of the isolates were susceptible to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprime (99.4%), cefotaxime (98.9%), nalidixic acid (96.7%), chloramphenicol (95.6%), and tetracycline (93.4%). Alternatively, many strains were resistant to ampicillin (42.6%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (42.6%), and streptomycin (43.7%). According to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, all of the samples were negative for the M gene of avian influenza virus. Moreover, isolation tests conducted on specific pathogen free eggs were negative for avian influenza and Newcastle disease. Several hyphomycetes and yeasts belonging to different genera were present in the specimens, and Cryptococcus neoformans was observed in a pooled faecal sample. Antibiotic resistance in wildlife can be monitored to evaluate the impact of anthropic pressure. Furthermore, migratory birds are potential reservoirs of pathogenic agents; thus, they can be regarded as sentinel species and used as environmental health indicators.

Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Fungos Mitospóricos/classificação , Leveduras/classificação , Migração Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Aves , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fezes/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Fungos Mitospóricos/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Newcastle/epidemiologia , Doença de Newcastle/virologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/classificação , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Sicília/epidemiologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação