*Nano Lett ; 19(12): 8836-8845, 2019 12 11.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-31670964

##### RESUMO

Ionic liquid gated field-effect transistors (FETs) based on semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are used to study a rich variety of extremely interesting physical phenomena, but important aspects of how charge carriers are accumulated in these systems are not understood. We address these issues by means of a systematic experimental study of transport in monolayer MoSe2 and WSe2 as a function of magnetic field and gate voltage, exploring accumulated densities of carriers ranging from approximately 1014 cm-2 holes in the valence band to 4 × 1014 cm-2 electrons in the conduction band. We identify the conditions when the chemical potential enters different valleys in the monolayer band structure (the K and Q valley in the conduction band and the two spin-split K-valleys in the valence band) and find that an independent electron picture describes the occupation of states well. Unexpectedly, however, the experiments show very large changes in the device capacitance when multiple valleys are occupied that are not at all compatible with the commonly expected quantum capacitance contribution of these systems, CQ = e2/ (dµ/dn). A theoretical analysis of all terms responsible for the total capacitance shows that under general conditions a term is present besides the usual quantum capacitance, which becomes important for very small distances between the capacitor plates. This term, which we call cross quantum capacitance, originates from screening of the electric field generated by charges on one plate from charges sitting on the other plate. The effect is negligible in normal capacitors but large in ionic liquid FETs because of the atomic proximity between the ions in the gate and the accumulated charges on the TMD, and it accounts for all our experimental observations. Our findings therefore reveal an important contribution to the capacitance of physical systems that had been virtually entirely neglected until now.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 123(8): 086803, 2019 Aug 23.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-31491222

##### RESUMO

We study the Hall response of two-dimensional lattice systems of charged fermions in a transverse magnetic field, in the ballistic coherent limit. We identify a setup in which this response vanishes over wide regions of parameter space: the "Landauer-Büttiker" setup commonly studied for coherent quantum transport, consisting of a strip contacted to biased ideal reservoirs of charges. We show that this effect does not rely on particle-hole symmetry, and is robust to a variety of perturbations including variations of the transverse magnetic field, chemical potential, and temperature. We trace this robustness back to a topological property of the Fermi surface: the number of Fermi points with positive velocity of the system. We argue that the mechanism leading to a vanishing Hall response applies to noninteracting and interacting systems alike, which we verify in concrete examples using density-matrix renormalization group simulations.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 123(2): 027204, 2019 Jul 12.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-31386519

##### RESUMO

Combining inelastic neutron scattering and numerical simulations, we study the quasi-one-dimensional Ising anisotropic quantum antiferromagnet BaCo_{2}V_{2}O_{8} in a longitudinal magnetic field. This material shows a quantum phase transition from a Néel ordered phase at zero field to a longitudinal incommensurate spin density wave at a critical magnetic field of 3.8 T. Concomitantly, the excitation gap almost closes and a fundamental reconfiguration of the spin dynamics occurs. These experimental results are well described by the universal Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid theory developed for interacting spinless fermions in one dimension. We especially observe the rise of mainly longitudinal excitations, a hallmark of the unconventional low-field regime in Ising-like quantum antiferromagnetic chains.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 122(8): 083402, 2019 Mar 01.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-30932569

##### RESUMO

We theoretically study the Hall effect on interacting M-leg ladder systems, comparing different measures and properties of the zero temperature Hall response in the limit of weak magnetic fields. Focusing on SU(M) symmetric interacting bosons and fermions, as relevant for, e.g., typical synthetic dimensional quantum gas experiments, we identify an extensive regime in which the Hall imbalance Δ_{H} is universal and corresponds to a classical Hall resistivity R_{H}=-1/n for a large class of quantum phases. Away from this high symmetry point we observe interaction driven phenomena such as sign reversal and divergence of the Hall response.

*Nature ; 545(7655): 414-415, 2017 05 24.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-28541329

*Phys Rev Lett ; 118(14): 147208, 2017 Apr 07.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-28430477

##### RESUMO

In the presence of impurities, ferromagnetic and ferroelectric domain walls slide only above a finite external field. Close to this depinning threshold, they proceed by large and abrupt jumps called avalanches, while, at much smaller fields, these interfaces creep by thermal activation. In this Letter, we develop a novel numerical technique that captures the ultraslow creep regime over huge time scales. We point out the existence of activated events that involve collective reorganizations similar to avalanches, but, at variance with them, display correlated spatiotemporal patterns that resemble the complex sequence of aftershocks observed after a large earthquake. Remarkably, we show that events assemble in independent clusters that display at large scales the same statistics as critical depinning avalanches. We foresee these correlated dynamics being experimentally accessible by magnetooptical imaging of ferromagnetic films.

*Science ; 350(6267): 1498-501, 2015 Dec 18.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-26680191

##### RESUMO

Point contacts provide simple connections between macroscopic particle reservoirs. In electric circuits, strong links between metals, semiconductors, or superconductors have applications for fundamental condensed-matter physics as well as quantum information processing. However, for complex, strongly correlated materials, links have been largely restricted to weak tunnel junctions. We studied resonantly interacting Fermi gases connected by a tunable, ballistic quantum point contact, finding a nonlinear current-bias relation. At low temperature, our observations agree quantitatively with a theoretical model in which the current originates from multiple Andreev reflections. In a wide contact geometry, the competition between superfluidity and thermally activated transport leads to a conductance minimum. Our system offers a controllable platform for the study of mesoscopic devices based on strongly interacting matter.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(46): 14212-7, 2015 Nov 17.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-26578765

##### RESUMO

Magnetic skyrmions are promising candidates as information carriers in logic or storage devices thanks to their robustness, guaranteed by the topological protection, and their nanometric size. Currently, little is known about the influence of parameters such as disorder, defects, or external stimuli on the long-range spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the skyrmion lattice. Here, using a large (7.3 × 7.3 µm(2)) single-crystal nanoslice (150 nm thick) of Cu2OSeO3, we image up to 70,000 skyrmions by means of cryo-Lorentz transmission electron microscopy as a function of the applied magnetic field. The emergence of the skyrmion lattice from the helimagnetic phase is monitored, revealing the existence of a glassy skyrmion phase at the phase transition field, where patches of an octagonally distorted skyrmion lattice are also discovered. In the skyrmion phase, dislocations are shown to cause the emergence and switching between domains with different lattice orientations, and the temporal fluctuation of these domains is filmed. These results demonstrate the importance of direct-space and real-time imaging of skyrmion domains for addressing both their long-range topology and stability.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 113(9): 095301, 2014 Aug 29.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-25215990

##### RESUMO

We employ ultracold atoms with controllable disorder and interaction to study the paradigmatic problem of disordered bosons in the full disorder-interaction plane. Combining measurements of coherence, transport and excitation spectra, we get evidence of an insulating regime extending from weak to strong interaction and surrounding a superfluidlike regime, in general agreement with the theory. For strong interaction, we reveal the presence of a strongly correlated Bose glass coexisting with a Mott insulator.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 111(11): 115302, 2013 Sep 13.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-24074101

##### RESUMO

We study various realizations of collective coordinates, e.g., the position of a particle, the charge of a Coulomb box, or the phase of a Bose or a superconducting condensate, coupled to Luttinger liquids with N flavors. We find that for a Luttinger parameter (1/2)

*Phys Rev Lett ; 111(14): 147205, 2013 Oct 04.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-24138270

##### RESUMO

We propose to use Ramsey interferometry and single-site addressability, available in synthetic matter such as cold atoms or trapped ions, to measure real-space and time-resolved spin correlation functions. These correlation functions directly probe the excitations of the system, which makes it possible to characterize the underlying many-body states. Moreover, they contain valuable information about phase transitions where they exhibit scale invariance. We also discuss experimental imperfections and show that a spin-echo protocol can be used to cancel slow fluctuations in the magnetic field. We explicitly consider examples of the two-dimensional, antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model and the one-dimensional, long-range transverse field Ising model to illustrate the technique.

*Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 87(6): 062405, 2013 Jun.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-23848695

##### RESUMO

We study numerically the geometrical and free-energy fluctuations of a static one-dimensional (1D) interface with a short-range elasticity, submitted to a quenched random-bond Gaussian disorder of finite correlation length ξ>0 and at finite temperature T. Using the exact mapping from the static 1D interface to the 1+1 directed polymer (DP) growing in a continuous space, we focus our analysis on the disorder free energy of the DP end point, a quantity which is strictly zero in the absence of disorder and whose sample-to-sample fluctuations at a fixed growing time t inherit the statistical translation invariance of the microscopic disorder explored by the DP. Constructing a new numerical scheme for the integration of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang evolution equation obeyed by the free energy, we address numerically the time and temperature dependence of the disorder free-energy fluctuations at fixed finite ξ. We examine, on one hand, the amplitude D[over Ì](t) and effective correlation length ξ[over Ì](t) of the free-energy fluctuations and, on the other hand, the imprint of the specific microscopic disorder correlator on the large-time shape of the free-energy two-point correlator. We observe numerically the crossover to a low-temperature regime below a finite characteristic temperature T(c)(ξ), as previously predicted by Gaussian variational method computations and scaling arguments and extensively investigated analytically in [Phys. Rev. E 87, 042406 (2013)]. Finally, we address numerically the time and temperature dependence of the roughness B(t), which quantifies the DP end point transverse fluctuations, and we show how the amplitude D[over Ì](∞)(T,ξ) controls the different regimes experienced by B(t)-in agreement with the analytical predictions of a DP toy model approach.

##### Assuntos

Transferência de Energia , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Polímeros/síntese química , Simulação por Computador , Transição de Fase , Termodinâmica*Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 87(4): 042406, 2013 Apr.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-23679428

##### RESUMO

Experimental realizations of a one-dimensional (1D) interface always exhibit a finite microscopic width ξ>0; its influence is erased by thermal fluctuations at sufficiently high temperatures, but turns out to be a crucial ingredient for the description of the interface fluctuations below a characteristic temperature T(c)(ξ). Exploiting the exact mapping between the static 1D interface and a 1+1 directed polymer (DP) growing in a continuous space, we study analytically both the free-energy and geometrical fluctuations of a DP, at finite temperature T, with a short-range elasticity and submitted to a quenched random-bond Gaussian disorder of finite correlation length ξ. We derive the exact time-evolution equations of the disorder free energy F[over ¯](t,y), which encodes the microscopic disorder integrated by the DP up to a growing time t and an endpoint position y, its derivative Î·(t,y), and their respective two-point correlators C[over ¯](t,y) and R[over ¯](t,y). We compute the exact solution of its linearized evolution R[over ¯](lin)(t,y) and we combine its qualitative behavior and the asymptotic properties known for an uncorrelated disorder (ξ=0) to justify the construction of a "toy model" leading to a simple description of the DP properties. This model is characterized by Gaussian Brownian-type free-energy fluctuations, correlated at small |y|

*Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 86(3 Pt 1): 031144, 2012 Sep.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-23030903

##### RESUMO

We study the fluctuations of the directed polymer in 1+1 dimensions in a Gaussian random environment with a finite correlation length ξ and at finite temperature. We address the correspondence between the geometrical transverse fluctuations of the directed polymer, described by its roughness, and the fluctuations of its free energy, characterized by its two-point correlator. Analytical arguments are provided in favor of a generic scaling law between those quantities, at finite time, nonvanishing ξ, and explicit temperature dependence. Numerical results are in good agreement both for simulations on the discrete directed polymer and on a continuous directed polymer (with short-range correlated disorder). Applications to recent experiments on liquid crystals are discussed.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 109(2): 026402, 2012 Jul 13.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-23030186

##### RESUMO

Interacting bosons generically form a superfluid state. In the presence of disorder it can get converted into a compressible Bose glass state. Here we study such a transition in one dimension at moderate interaction using bosonization and renormalization group techniques. We derive the two-loop scaling equations and discuss the phase diagram. We find that the correlation functions at the transition are characterized by universal exponents in a finite region around the fixed point.

*J Am Chem Soc ; 134(18): 7880-91, 2012 May 09.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-22500581

##### RESUMO

Combining recent concepts from the fields of molecular conductivity and molecular machinery we set out to design a crystalline molecular conductor that also possesses a molecular rotor. We report on the structures, electronic and physical properties, and dynamics of two solids with a common 1,4-bis(carboxyethynyl)bicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BABCO) functional rotor. One, [nBu(4)N(+)](2)[BABCO][BABCO(-)](2), is a colorless insulator where the dicarboxylic acid cocrystallizes with two of its monoanionic conjugated bases. The other is self-assembled by electrocrystallization in the form of black, shiny needles, with highly conducting molecular slabs of (EDT-TTF-CONH(2))(2)(+) (EDT-TTF = ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene) and anionic [BABCO(-)] rotors. Using variable-temperature (5-300 K) proton spin-lattice relaxation, (1)H T(1)(-1), we were able to assign two types of Brownian rotators in [nBu(4)N(+)](2)[BABCO][BABCO(-)](2). We showed that neutral BABCO groups have a rotational frequency of 120 GHz at 300 K with a rotational barrier of 2.03 kcal mol(-1). Rotors on the BABCO(-) sites experience stochastic 32 GHz jumps at the same temperature over a rotational barrier of 2.72 kcal mol(-1). In contrast, the BABCO(-) rotors within the highly conducting crystals of (EDT-TTF-CONH(2))(2)(+)[BABCO(-)] are essentially "braked" at room temperature. Notably, these crystals possess a conductivity of 5 S cm(-1) at 1 bar, which increases rapidly with pressure up to 50 S cm(-1) at 11.5 kbar. Two regimes with different activation energies E(a) for the resistivity (180 K above 50 and 400 K below) are observed at ambient pressure; a metallic state is stabilized at ca. 8 kbar, and an insulating ground state remains below 50 K at all pressures. We discuss two likely channels by which the motion of the rotors might become slowed down in the highly conducting solid. One is defined as a low-velocity viscous regime inherent to a noncovalent, physical coupling induced by the cooperativity between five C(sp3)-H···O hydrogen bonds engaging any rotor and five BABCO units in its environment. The rotational barrier calculated with the effect of this set of hydrogen bonds amounts to 7.3 kcal mol(-1). Another is quantum dissipation, a phenomenon addressing the difference of dynamics of the rotors in the two solids with different electrical properties, by which the large number of degrees of freedom of the low dimensional electron gas may serve as a bath for the dissipation of the energy of the rotor motion, the two systems being coupled by the Coulomb interaction between the charges of the rotors (local moments and induced dipoles) and the charges of the carriers.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 108(3): 037204, 2012 Jan 20.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-22400780

##### RESUMO

We analyze the effects of different coupling anisotropies in a spin-1/2 ladder on the electron spin resonance (ESR) shift. Combining a perturbative expression in the anisotropies with density matrix renormalization group computation of the short range correlations at finite temperature, we provide the full temperature and magnetic field evolution of the ESR paramagnetic shift. We show that for well chosen parameters the ESR shift can be in principle used to extract quantitatively the anisotropies and, as an example, discuss the material BPCB.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 107(15): 150602, 2011 Oct 07.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-22107279

##### RESUMO

An interaction quench in a Luttinger liquid can drive it into an athermal steady state. We analyze the effects on such an out of equilibrium state of a mode coupling term due to a periodic potential. Employing a perturbative renormalization group approach we show that even when the periodic potential is an irrelevant perturbation in equilibrium, it has important consequences on the athermal steady state as it generates a temperature as well as a dissipation and hence a finite lifetime for the bosonic modes.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 106(20): 205301, 2011 May 20.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-21668238

##### RESUMO

The response of cold atom gases to small periodic phase modulation of an optical lattice is discussed. For bosonic gases, the energy absorption rate is given, within linear response theory, by the imaginary part of the current autocorrelation function. For fermionic gases in a strong lattice potential, the same correlation function can be probed via the production rate of double occupancy. The phase modulation gives thus direct access to the conductivity of the system, as a function of the modulation frequency. We give an example of application in the case of bosonic systems at zero temperature and discuss the link between the phase and amplitude modulation.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 102(1): 017005, 2009 Jan 09.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-19257231

##### RESUMO

Motivated by the recent report of broken time-reversal symmetry and zero momentum magnetic scattering in underdoped cuprates, we investigate under which circumstances orbital currents circulating inside a unit cell might be stabilized in extended Hubbard models that explicitly include oxygen orbitals. Using Gutzwiller projected variational wave functions that treat on an equal footing all instabilities, we show that orbital currents indeed develop on finite clusters and that they are stabilized in the thermodynamic limit if additional interactions, e.g., strong hybridization with apical oxygens, are included in the model.