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1.
J Innate Immun ; : 1-11, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macrophage activation-like syndrome (MALS) and complex immune dysregulation (CID) often underlie acute respiratory distress (ARDS) in COVID-19. We aimed to investigate the effect of personalized immunotherapy on clinical improvement of critical COVID-19. METHODS: In this open-label prospective trial, 102 patients with ARDS by SARS-CoV-2 were screened for MALS (ferritin >4,420 ng/mL) and CID (ferritin ≤4,420 ng/mL and low human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression on CD14-monocytes). Patients with MALS or CID with increased aminotransferases received intravenous anakinra; those with CID and normal aminotransferases received tocilizumab. The primary outcome was ≥25% decrease in the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and/or 50% increase in the respiratory ratio by day 8; 28-day mortality, change of SOFA score by day 28, serum biomarkers, and cytokine production by mononuclear cells were secondary endpoints. RESULTS: The primary study endpoint was met in 58.3% of anakinra-treated patients and in 33.3% of tocilizumab-treated patients (p: 0.01). Most patients in both groups received dexamethasone as standard of care. No differences were found in secondary outcomes, mortality, and SOFA score changes. Ferritin decreased among anakinra-treated patients; interleukin-6, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, and HLA-DR expression increased among tocilizumab-treated patients. Survivors by day 28 who received anakinra were distributed to lower severity levels of the WHO clinical progression scale. Greater incidence of secondary infections was found with tocilizumab treatment. CONCLUSION: Immune assessment resulted in favorable anakinra responses among critically ill patients with COVID-19 and features of MALS.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(44): e27662, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871241

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Further improvement of the diagnostic and prognostic performance of biomarkers for the critically ill is needed. Procalcitonin (PCT), placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 raise interest for sepsis diagnosis and prognosis.Serum samples from 2 cohorts of 172 patients (derivation cohort) and of 164 patients (validation cohort) comprising only patients with microbiologically confirmed gram-negative infections were analyzed. PlGF, s-Flt-1 and procalcitonin (PCT) were measured in serum within 24 hours from sepsis onset and repeated on days 3 and 7.PCT and s-Flt-1 baseline levels were higher in sepsis and septic shock compared to non-sepsis; this was not the case for PlGF. s-Flt-1 at concentrations greater than 60 pg/ml diagnosed sepsis with sensitivity 72.3% and specificity 54.9% whereas at concentrations greater than 70 pg/ml predicted unfavorable outcome with specificity 73.0% and sensitivity 63.7%. At least 80% decrease of PCT and/or PCT less than 0.5 ng/ml on day 7 was protective from sepsis-associated death.Both s-Flt-1 and PCT should be measured in the critically ill since they provide additive information for sepsis diagnosis and prognosis.ClinicalTrials.gov numbers NCT01223690 and NCT00297674.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e023535, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34889102

RESUMO

Background Use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEi/ARB) is thought to affect COVID-19 through modulating levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the cell entry receptor for SARS-CoV2. We sought to assess the association between ACEi/ARB, biomarkers of inflammation, and outcomes in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Methods and Results We leveraged the ISIC (International Study of Inflammation in COVID-19), identified patients admitted for symptomatic COVID-19 between February 1, 2020 and June 1, 2021 for COVID-19, and examined the association between in-hospital ACEi/ARB use and all-cause death, need for ventilation, and need for dialysis. We estimated the causal effect of ACEi/ARB on the composite outcomes using marginal structural models accounting for serial blood pressure and serum creatinine measures. Of 2044 patients in ISIC, 1686 patients met inclusion criteria, of whom 398 (23.6%) patients who were previously on ACEi/ARB received at least 1 dose during their hospitalization for COVID-19. There were 215 deaths, 407 patients requiring mechanical ventilation, and 124 patients who required dialysis during their hospitalization. Prior ACEi/ARB use was associated with lower levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and C-reactive protein. In multivariable analysis, in-hospital ACEi/ARB use was associated with a lower risk of the composite outcome of in-hospital death, mechanical ventilation, or dialysis (adjusted hazard ratio 0.49, 95% CI [0.36-0.65]). Conclusions In patients hospitalized for COVID-19, ACEi/ARB use was associated with lower levels of inflammation and lower risk of in-hospital outcomes. Clinical trials will define the role of ACEi/ARB in the treatment of COVID-19. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04818866.

4.
Shock ; 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34907118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The validation of new biomarkers for the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with sepsis at an early point is essential for successful treatment. Recent publications prompted us to investigate of heparin binding protein (HBP) for the emergency department (ED) admissions. MATERIALS METHODS: In this multicenter, cross-sectional study, HBP and procalcitonin (PCT) were measured within the first hour upon admission to the ED in plasma samples of 371 patients with signs of infection. Patients were classified into non-sepsis and sepsis by the Sepsis-3 definitions and were followed up for outcome. RESULTS: HBP was significantly higher in patients with sepsis and was positively correlated to PCT and C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophil and monocyte counts, creatinine, bilirubin and lactate. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of HBP more than 19.8 ng/ml for the diagnosis of sepsis was 66.3%, 44.9%, 49.3%, and 62.2% respectively; and for prediction of early death was 100%, 41.0%, 4.5%, and 100% respectively. Single HBP and PCT could not predict 28-day mortality; this was performed with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value 44.8%, 81.8%, 17.3%, and 94.6% when used in combination. CONCLUSION: Admission HBP can be used as a tool for the early diagnosis of sepsis and for the risk of early death in the ED.

5.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the potential beneficial effect of immunomodulation therapy on the thromboembolic risk in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Scopus for randomized trials reporting the outcomes of venous thromboembolism (VTE), ischemic stroke or systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, any thromboembolic event, and all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients treated with immunomodulatory agents. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel random effects method. RESULTS: Among 8499 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 4638 were treated with an immunomodulatory agent, 3861-with usual care only. Among the patients prescribed immunomodulatory agents, there were 1.77 VTEs per 100 patient-months compared to 2.30 among those treated with usual care (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.61-1.16; I2: 0%). Among the patients who received an interleukin 6 (IL-6) antagonist, VTEs were reported in 12 among the 1075 patients compared to 20 among the 848 receiving the usual care (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.22-1.20; I2: 6%). Immunomodulators as an add-on to usual care did not reduce the risk of stroke or systemic embolism (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.50-2.40; I2: 0%) or of myocardial infarction (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.47-2.39; I2: 0%) and there was a nonsignificant reduction in any thromboembolic event (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.65-1.14; I2: 0%). CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify a statistically significant effect of immunomodulation on prevention of thromboembolic events in COVID-19. However, given the large effect estimate for VTE prevention, especially in the patients treated with IL-6 antagonists, we cannot exclude a potential effect of immunomodulation.

7.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; : 106471, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757134

RESUMO

The role of probiotics in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a probiotic regimen for VAP prophylaxis in mechanically ventilated multi-trauma patients, intubated immediately after the injurious insult. In a randomized, placebo-controlled study enrolling multi-trauma patients, patients expected to require mechanical ventilation for >10 days were assigned at random to receive prophylaxis with a probiotic formula (n=59) or placebo (n=53). The probiotic formula was a preparation of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 [1.75 × 109 colony-forming units (cfu)], Lactobacillus plantarum (0.5 × 109 cfu), Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 (1.75 × 109 cfu) and Saccharomyces boulardii (1.5 × 109 cfu) in sachets. Each patient received two sachets twice daily for 15 days: one through the nasogastric tube and one spread on the oropharynx. The incidence of VAP was the primary endpoint. The incidence of other infections and sepsis, and the duration of hospital stay were the secondary endpoints. Administration of probiotics reduced the incidence of VAP [11.9% vs 28.3%, hazard ratio (HR) 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.92; P=0.034] and sepsis [6.8% vs 24.5%, odds ratio 0.22, 95% CI 0.07-0.74: P=0.016]. Furthermore, probiotic prophylaxis reduced the time of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the length of hospital stay. The prophylactic use of probiotics with a combination of enteral and topical application to the oropharynx had a positive effect on the incidence of VAP and sepsis, as well as on ICU and total hospital stay in patients receiving protracted mechanical ventilation.

8.
Nat Immunol ; 22(11): 1382-1390, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663978

RESUMO

Intergenerational inheritance of immune traits linked to epigenetic modifications has been demonstrated in plants and invertebrates. Here we provide evidence for transmission of trained immunity across generations to murine progeny that survived a sublethal systemic infection with Candida albicans or a zymosan challenge. The progeny of trained mice exhibited cellular, developmental, transcriptional and epigenetic changes associated with the bone marrow-resident myeloid effector and progenitor cell compartment. Moreover, the progeny of trained mice showed enhanced responsiveness to endotoxin challenge, alongside improved protection against systemic heterologous Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes infections. Sperm DNA of parental male mice intravenously infected with the fungus C. albicans showed DNA methylation differences linked to immune gene loci. These results provide evidence for inheritance of trained immunity in mammals, enhancing protection against infections.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/imunologia , Candidíase/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Hereditariedade , Imunidade Inata/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/imunologia , Listeriose/imunologia , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Animais , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Candidíase/genética , Candidíase/metabolismo , Candidíase/microbiologia , Células Cultivadas , Metilação de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epigênese Genética , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidade , Listeriose/genética , Listeriose/metabolismo , Listeriose/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/microbiologia , Espermatozoides/imunologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638822

RESUMO

Biochemical information from activated leukocytes provide valuable diagnostic information. In this study, Raman spectroscopy was applied as a label-free analytical technique to characterize the activation pattern of leukocyte subpopulations in an in vitro infection model. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with heat-inactivated clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Binary classification models could identify the presence of infection for monocytes and lymphocytes, classify the type of infection as bacterial or fungal for neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes and distinguish the cause of infection as Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria in the monocyte subpopulation. Changes in single-cell Raman spectra, upon leukocyte stimulation, can be explained with biochemical changes due to the leukocyte's specific reaction to each type of pathogen. Raman spectra of leukocytes from the in vitro infection model were compared with spectra from leukocytes of patients with infection (DRKS-ID: DRKS00006265) with the same pathogen groups, and a good agreement was revealed. Our study elucidates the potential of Raman spectroscopy-based single-cell analysis for the differentiation of circulating leukocyte subtypes and identification of the infection by probing the molecular phenotype of those cells.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/metabolismo , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Análise Espectral Raman , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Masculino
10.
J Clin Med ; 10(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the result of a hyper-inflammatory reaction to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The biomarkers of inflammation have been used to risk-stratify patients with COVID-19. Osteopontin (OPN) is an integrin-binding glyco-phosphoprotein involved in the modulation of leukocyte activation; its levels are associated with worse outcomes in patients with sepsis. Whether OPN levels predict outcomes in COVID-19 is unknown. METHODS: We measured OPN levels in serum of 341 hospitalized COVID-19 patients collected within 48 h from admission. We characterized the determinants of OPN levels and examined their association with in-hospital outcomes; notably death, need for mechanical ventilation, and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) and as a composite outcome. The risk discrimination ability of OPN was compared with other inflammatory biomarkers. RESULTS: Patients with COVID-19 (mean age 60, 61.9% male, 27.0% blacks) had significantly higher levels of serum OPN compared to healthy volunteers (96.63 vs. 16.56 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Overall, 104 patients required mechanical ventilation, 35 needed dialysis, and 53 died during their hospitalization. In multivariable analyses, OPN levels ≥140.66 ng/mL (third tertile) were associated with a 3.5 × (95%CI 1.44-8.27) increase in the odds of death, and 4.9 × (95%CI 2.48-9.80) increase in the odds of requiring mechanical ventilation. There was no association between OPN and need for RRT. Finally, OPN levels in the upper tertile turned out as an independent prognostic factor of event-free survival with respect to the composite endpoint. CONCLUSION: Higher OPN levels are associated with increased odds of death and mechanical ventilation in patients with COVID-19, however, their utility in triage is questionable.

11.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(10): e690-e697, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396156

RESUMO

Background: Anakinra might improve the prognosis of patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 (ie, patients requiring oxygen supplementation but not yet receiving organ support). We aimed to assess the effect of anakinra treatment on mortality in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. Methods: For this systematic review and individual patient-level meta-analysis, a systematic literature search was done on Dec 28, 2020, in Medline (PubMed), Cochrane, medRxiv, bioRxiv, and the ClinicalTrials.gov databases for randomised trials, comparative studies, and observational studies of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, comparing administration of anakinra with standard of care, or placebo, or both. The search was repeated on Jan 22, 2021. Individual patient-level data were requested from investigators and corresponding authors of eligible studies; if individual patient-level data were not available, published data were extracted from the original reports. The primary endpoint was mortality after 28 days and the secondary endpoint was safety (eg, the risk of secondary infections). This study is registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020221491). Findings: 209 articles were identified, of which 178 full-text articles fulfilled screening criteria and were assessed. Aggregate data on 1185 patients from nine studies were analysed, and individual patient-level data on 895 patients were provided from six of these studies. Eight studies were observational and one was a randomised controlled trial. Most studies used historical controls. In the individual patient-level meta-analysis, after adjusting for age, comorbidities, baseline ratio of the arterial partial oxygen pressure divided by the fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2), C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and lymphopenia, mortality was significantly lower in patients treated with anakinra (38 [11%] of 342) than in those receiving standard of care with or without placebo (137 [25%] of 553; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·32 [95% CI 0·20-0·51]). The mortality benefit was similar across subgroups regardless of comorbidities (ie, diabetes), ferritin concentrations, or the baseline PaO2/FiO2. In a subgroup analysis, anakinra was more effective in lowering mortality in patients with CRP concentrations higher than 100 mg/L (OR 0·28 [95% CI 0·17-0·47]). Anakinra showed a significant survival benefit when given without dexamethasone (OR 0·23 [95% CI 0·12-0·43]), but not with dexamethasone co-administration (0·72 [95% CI 0·37-1·41]). Anakinra was not associated with a significantly increased risk of secondary infections when compared with standard of care (OR 1·35 [95% CI 0·59-3·10]). Interpretation: Anakinra could be a safe, anti-inflammatory treatment option to reduce the mortality risk in patients admitted to hospital with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia, especially in the presence of signs of hyperinflammation such as CRP concentrations higher than 100 mg/L. Funding: Sobi.

12.
JAMA Surg ; 156(11): 1001-1009, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406349

RESUMO

Importance: Surgery is a mainstay in the management of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Adalimumab is the first drug approved for HS. Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of adalimumab in combination with wide-excision surgery followed by secondary intention healing. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Safety and Efficacy of Adalimumab for Hidradenitis Suppurativa Peri-Surgically (SHARPS) trial was a phase 4, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of adalimumab in conjunction with surgery. Patients were enrolled in 45 sites across 20 countries from July 18, 2016, to February 2, 2019, with the last patient visit on October 16, 2019. Eligible patients (aged 18-65 years) had moderate to severe HS that required radical surgery in an axillary or inguinal region and had 2 other anatomical regions affected, with 1 or more regions at Hurley stage II or III. Analysis was conducted in November 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive continuous adalimumab, 40 mg, or placebo during presurgery (12 weeks), perioperative (2 weeks), and postoperative (10 weeks) periods. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving HS clinical response across all body regions at week 12. Results: Overall, 103 patients were randomized to adalimumab and 103 to matching placebo. Among all patients, 51% (n = 106) were women, 94% (n = 193) were White, and the mean (SD) age was 37.6 (11.3) years. At week 12, significantly more patients receiving adalimumab (49 of 103 [48%]) vs placebo (35 of 103 [34%]; P = .049) achieved HS clinical response across all body regions (treatment difference, 14% [95% CI, 0%-27%]). Treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 74 of 103 patients (72%) and 69 of 103 patients (67%) in the adalimumab and placebo groups, respectively. No increased risk of postoperative wound infection, complication, or hemorrhage was observed with adalimumab vs placebo. Two deaths occurred in the adalimumab group; neither was considered as having a reasonable possibility of relationship to study drug. Conclusions and Relevance: Adalimumab was efficacious in conjunction with wide-excision surgery followed by secondary intention healing, with no need to interrupt treatment prior to surgery. These data support further investigation of adalimumab as an adjuvant therapy to surgery in patients with moderate to severe HS. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02808975.

13.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2333-2351, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363189

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The anti-inflammatory effect of macrolides prompted the study of oral clarithromycin in moderate COVID-19. METHODS: An open-label non-randomized trial in 90 patients with COVID-19 of moderate severity was conducted between May and October 2020. The primary endpoint was defined at the end of treatment (EOT) as no need for hospital re-admission and no progression into lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) for patients with upper respiratory tract infection and as at least 50% decrease of the respiratory symptoms score without progression into severe respiratory failure (SRF) for patients with LRTI. Viral load, biomarkers, the function of mononuclear cells and safety were assessed. RESULTS: The primary endpoint was attained in 86.7% of patients treated with clarithromycin (95% CIs 78.1-92.2%); this was 91.7% and 81.4% among patients starting clarithromycin the first 5 days from symptoms onset or later (odds ratio after multivariate analysis 6.62; p 0.030). The responses were better for patients infected by non-B1.1 variants. Clarithromycin use was associated with decreases in circulating C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6; by increase of production of interferon-gamma and decrease of production of interleukin-6 by mononuclear cells; and by suppression of SARS-CoV-2 viral load. No safety concerns were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Early clarithromycin treatment provides most of the clinical improvement in moderate COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04398004.

14.
Crit Care Med ; 49(12): 2042-2057, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259663

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 is a heterogeneous disease most frequently causing respiratory tract infection, which can induce respiratory failure and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in its severe forms. The prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019-related sepsis is still unclear; we aimed to describe this in a systematic review. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane, and Google Scholar databases were searched based on a prespecified protocol (International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews: CRD42020202018). STUDY SELECTION: Studies reporting on patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 diagnosed with sepsis according to sepsis-3 or according to the presence of infection-related organ dysfunctions necessitating organ support/replacement were included in the analysis. The primary end point was prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019-related sepsis among adults hospitalized in the ICU and the general ward. Among secondary end points were the need for ICU admission among patients initially hospitalized in the general ward and the prevalence of new onset of organ dysfunction in the ICU. Outcomes were expressed as proportions with respective 95% CI. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently screened and reviewed existing literature and assessed study quality with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Methodological index for nonrandomized studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of 3,825 articles, 151 were analyzed, only five of which directly reported sepsis prevalence. Noting the high heterogeneity observed, coronavirus disease 2019-related sepsis prevalence was 77.9% (95% CI, 75.9-79.8; I2 = 91%; 57 studies) in the ICU, and 33.3% (95% CI, 30.3-36.4; I2 = 99%; 86 studies) in the general ward. ICU admission was required for 17.7% (95% CI, 12.9-23.6; I2 = 100%) of ward patients. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was the most common organ dysfunction in the ICU (87.5%; 95% CI, 83.3-90.7; I2 = 98%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of coronavirus disease 2019 patients hospitalized in the ICU meet Sepsis-3 criteria and present infection-associated organ dysfunction. The medical and scientific community should be aware and systematically report viral sepsis for prognostic and treatment implications.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/virologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepse/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(3): 1081-1095, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137001

RESUMO

In light of the accumulating evidence for survival benefit coming from the use of macrolides for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), a group of experts from the field of internal medicine and infectious diseases frame a position statement on the use of macrolides for the management of bacterial CAP and for infection by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). The statement is framed taking into consideration existing publications and own research experience. The main content of this statement is that the combination of one ß-lactam and a macrolide should be the first treatment of choice for patients with severe bacterial CAP. Severity is assessed as scoring 2 or more points on the CURB65 scoring system of severity or as pneumonia severity index III to V or C-reactive protein more than 150 mg/l; the suggested macrolide is either azithromycin or clarithromycin. The experts also suggest that in COVID-19 pneumonia, the combination of one ß-lactam and a macrolide should be reserved only when there is strong suspicion of bacterial co-infection.

16.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 58(3): 106384, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161789

RESUMO

Although in vitro data suggest that tigecycline is active against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp), experimental and clinical data are limited. We studied the effect of tigecycline alone or in combination for experimental infections by KPC-Kp. A total of 540 male C57BL/6 mice were infected with three genetically diverse KPC-Kp isolates susceptible to tigecycline with meropenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 4, 16 and 256 µg/mL, respectively. Mice were randomly treated with water for injection, tigecycline, meropenem and colistin alone, and double or triple combinations of tigecycline, colistin and meropenem. Mouse survival was recorded for 14 days. In separate experiments, mice were sacrificed 6 h and 24 h after bacterial challenge for quantitative culture of tissues and serological analysis. Time-kill curves were performed. Tigecycline, colistin and meropenem concentrations were measured in tissues and serum by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Survival was significantly prolonged when mice were treated with tigecycline alone and tigecycline-containing regimens compared with control mice and mice treated with tigecycline-sparing regimens. Tigecycline-sparing regimens were active only against the isolate with a meropenem MIC of 4 µg/mL. Mortality was associated with progression to multiple organ failure. Tigecycline and tigecycline-containing regimens achieved a rapid decrease of bacterial loads both in tissues and in vitro. Tigecycline concentrations in tissues were negatively correlated with tissue bacterial load. Tigecycline alone or in combination with meropenem and/or colistin achieves effective treatment of experimental KPC-Kp infections irrespective of the meropenem MIC.

17.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 53(10): 764-771, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis represents a life-threatening syndrome characterized by a cytokine storm. Whether cytokine levels are related to the susceptibility pattern of invasive micro-organism remains a matter of debate. The purpose of this study is to investigate the immune response in multidrug resistant (MDR) and non-MDR sepsis patients by measuring cytokine levels, compare the outcome and determine predictors of mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 128 septic patients, treated in intensive care unit (ICU) were enrolled in the study. Epidemiological and ICU data were recorded. Plasma concentrations of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) were measured on admission. RESULTS: A total of 90 patients suffered from non-MDR and 38 from MDR gram-negative sepsis. Levels of TNF-α were significantly higher (p = .017) in non-MDR sepsis patients. All pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly increased in severely ill patients compared to patients with lower acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score. MDR positive patients had a significantly lower 28-d survival (p = .008). Factors that were independently associated with higher 28-d mortality were carbapenem resistance (OR 5.38 [1.032 - 28.12], p = .046), male gender (OR 2.76 [1.156 - 6.588], p = .022), APACHE II score (OR 1.126 [1.048 - 1.21], p = .001) and Ang-2 (OR 1.025 [1.001 - 20.1], p = .048). CONCLUSIONS: Sepsis evolution and outcome are influenced by multiple factors. Although MDR pathogens induced a weaker immune response characterized by lower TNF-α levels this was not accompanied by better survival. Increased Ang-2 levels, APACHE II score and carbapenem resistance are important factors associated with higher mortality.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Sepse , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
18.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 9(1): 31, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether or not to administer antibiotics is a common and challenging clinical decision in patients with suspected infections presenting to the emergency department (ED). We prospectively validate InSep, a 29-mRNA blood-based host response test for the prediction of bacterial and viral infections. METHODS: The PROMPT trial is a prospective, non-interventional, multi-center clinical study that enrolled 397 adult patients presenting to the ED with signs of acute infection and at least one vital sign change. The infection status was adjudicated using chart review (including a syndromic molecular respiratory panel, procalcitonin and C-reactive protein) by three infectious disease physicians blinded to InSep results. InSep (version BVN-2) was performed using PAXgene Blood RNA processed and quantified on NanoString nCounter SPRINT. InSep results (likelihood of bacterial and viral infection) were compared to the adjudicated infection status. RESULTS: Subject mean age was 64 years, comorbidities were significant for diabetes (17.1%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (13.6%), and severe neurological disease (6.8%); 16.9% of subjects were immunocompromised. Infections were adjudicated as bacterial (14.1%), viral (11.3%) and noninfected (0.25%): 74.1% of subjects were adjudicated as indeterminate. InSep distinguished bacterial vs. viral/noninfected patients and viral vs. bacterial/noninfected patients using consensus adjudication with AUROCs of 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.99) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.96), respectively. AUROCs for bacterial vs. viral/noninfected patients were 0.88 (95% CI 0.79-0.96) for PCT, 0.80 (95% CI 0.72-89) for CRP and 0.78 (95% CI 0.69-0.87) for white blood cell counts (of note, the latter biomarkers were provided as part of clinical adjudication). To enable clinical actionability, InSep incorporates score cutoffs to allocate patients into interpretation bands. The Very Likely (rule in) InSep bacterial band showed a specificity of 98% compared to 94% for the corresponding PCT band (> 0.5 µg/L); the Very Unlikely (rule-out) band showed a sensitivity of 95% for InSep compared to 86% for PCT. For the detection of viral infections, InSep demonstrated a specificity of 93% for the Very Likely band (rule in) and a sensitivity of 96% for the Very Unlikely band (rule out). CONCLUSIONS: InSep demonstrated high accuracy for predicting the presence of both bacterial and viral infections in ED patients with suspected acute infections or suspected sepsis. When translated into a rapid, point-of-care test, InSep will provide ED physicians with actionable results supporting early informed treatment decisions to improve patient outcomes while upholding antimicrobial stewardship. Registration number at Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03295825.

19.
Exp Dermatol ; 30 Suppl 1: 8-17, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085329

RESUMO

The registration of the tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitor adalimumab in 2015 was a major step forward in the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (HS). However, it soon became evident that the effectiveness of adalimumab in daily practice was highly variable. A significant unmet medical need of HS patients remained, and the search for novel therapeutic targets was intensified. During the 10th European Hidradenitis Suppurativa Foundation (EHSF) e.V. Conference, reknown international HS investigators virtually presented and discussed the published data on these potential target molecules for future HS treatment. This article addresses the most promising molecules currently under investigation from a pathophysiological and clinical point of view. With phase III trials ongoing, the anti- interleukin (IL)-17 biologics bimekizumab and secukinumab are in the most advanced stage of clinical development showing promising results. In addition, targeting IL-1α with bermekimab has shown encouraging results in two clinical trials. Directing treatment at neutrophil recruitment and activation by targeting IL-36 with spesolimab fits well in the pathogenic concept of HS and clinical phase II trial results are pending. In contrast to in situ evidence, Complement 5a (C5a) and C5a receptor blockade have only shown greater clinical benefit in patients with severe HS. Inhibition of Janus kinase (JAK) 1 signalling in HS showed clinical efficacy only in the highest dosage, highlighting that careful surveillance of the balance between safety and efficacy of JAK inhibition is warranted. Overall, clinical efficacies of all novel treatments reported so far are modest. To guide drug development, more and better-defined translational data on the pathogenesis of this severe and enigmatic inflammatory skin disease are required.

20.
Exp Dermatol ; 30 Suppl 1: 18-22, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085330

RESUMO

The reported incidence of COVID-19 among cohorts of patients with inflammatory bowel and skin diseases under treatment with biologicals is low. Treatment may further modify disease severity as some biological modifiers, such as anakinra, are also proposed for the management of COVID-19 patients potentially providing HS patients with an advantage. The above preliminary evidence suggests that hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) does probably not provide an increased susceptibility for COVID-19 and that any susceptibility is unlikely to be modified negatively by treatment with biologicals. On the occasion of its 10th International Conference, experts of the European Hidradenitis Suppurativa Foundation e.V. have prepared a consensus statement regarding anti-COVID-19 measurements for HS patients. Based on the available knowledge, patients with HS may be vaccinated against SARS-CoV2 and patients affected by metabolic syndrome constitute a high-risk group for COVID-19 and should be vaccinated at the earliest convenient point in time. HS patients on treatment with adalimumab can be vaccinated with non-living virus anti-SARS-CoV2 vaccines. A possible suboptimal effect of the vaccine may be suspected but might not be expected universally. The management of the biological treatment in HS patients is at the discretion of the dermatologist / responsible physician.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Hidradenite Supurativa/complicações , Hidradenite Supurativa/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2 , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/farmacologia , Estudos de Coortes , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Europa (Continente) , Fundações , Hidradenite Supurativa/imunologia , Humanos , Incidência , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/imunologia , Pandemias , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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