Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 121
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Rejuvenation Res ; 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008438

RESUMO

Limited data are available on the prevalence and correlates of statin use for secondary cardiovascular (CV) prevention in the older adult population. We used data of older adults (65-79 years) with established atherosclerotic CV disease from the cross-sectional Italian Health Examination Survey (HES) 2008-2012 study to address this issue. Lifestyles, CV risk factors, chronic diseases and therapies were assessed using standardized procedures. A comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed to evaluate cognitive function, disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL and IADL), mobility and polypharmacy. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify independent correlates of statin use. 392 participants (mean age 72.1±4.4 years, 61.5% men) were considered for this analysis. Coronary heart disease (CHD) was identified in 67.1% of them, cerebrovascular disease in 23.5%, and peripheral artery disease (PAD) in 18.1%. 190 (48.5%) were statin users. By multiple regression analysis, functional disability (OR=0.81; 95%CI=0.71-0.92; p=.002), cognitive impairment (OR=0.87; 95%CI=0.78-0.98; p=.018) and polypharmacy (OR=0.86; 95%CI=0.75-0.98; p=.035) predicted statin non-use, whereas having hypertension (OR=1.19; 95%CI=1.05-1.34; p=.005), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.14; 95%CI=1.03-1.27; p=.013) or a previous myocardial revascularization (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.16-1.48; p<.001) predicted statin use. Significant interaction terms were observed between cerebrovascular disease, PAD, cognitive impairment and disability in predicting statin non-use. Statin underuse in older adults 65-79 years with CV disease, and thus suboptimal secondary CV prevention, is highly prevalent despite current guidelines recommendations. Common geriatric conditions are associated with statin non-use. Such results support the need for improving the awareness of statin treatment for secondary CV prevention.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821103

RESUMO

Background: To assess the association of antidepressant (AD) medication use with prevalence and control of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Methods: Data of older adults from the population-based Italian Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare/Health Examination Survey (OEC/HES) Study 2008-2012 were used. CV risk factors were measured using standardized procedures. Information on clinical features, lifestyles, and medications was collected using standardized questionnaires. Logistic regression models were elaborated to assess associations between AD use and prevalence and control of CV risk factors. Results: Around 2549 participants (age 71.4 ± 4.2 years, 51.3% men) were studied; 268 (10.5%) were AD users. Of these, 72.4% used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). AD users had less favorable CV risk factor profile and were less likely to achieve control of blood pressure and total cholesterol. After multiple adjustment for potentially confounding variables, AD use was associated with greater likelihood of having diabetes (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.02-1.10, P = 0.008), hypertension (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.20, P = 0.003), and hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.14, P < 0.001). Among participants treated for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, AD use was associated with poorer control of BP (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.03-1.12, P = 0.001) and cholesterol (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.01-1.12, P = 0.021). Results persisted virtually unchanged when analyses were restricted to participants on SSRI. Conclusions: AD use was associated with greater prevalence and poorer control of traditional risk factors for CV disease in a population-based sample of older adults. Such results highlight the need for surveillance of CV risk factors and promotion of healthy lifestyles in older adults with psychopathology and, in particular, in those under AD treatment.

3.
Recenti Prog Med ; 110(11): 516-517, 2019 11.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808429
4.
Lancet ; 394(10215): 2173-2183, 2019 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relevance of blood lipid concentrations to long-term incidence of cardiovascular disease and the relevance of lipid-lowering therapy for cardiovascular disease outcomes is unclear. We investigated the cardiovascular disease risk associated with the full spectrum of bloodstream non-HDL cholesterol concentrations. We also created an easy-to-use tool to estimate the long-term probabilities for a cardiovascular disease event associated with non-HDL cholesterol and modelled its risk reduction by lipid-lowering treatment. METHODS: In this risk-evaluation and risk-modelling study, we used Multinational Cardiovascular Risk Consortium data from 19 countries across Europe, Australia, and North America. Individuals without prevalent cardiovascular disease at baseline and with robust available data on cardiovascular disease outcomes were included. The primary composite endpoint of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was defined as the occurrence of the coronary heart disease event or ischaemic stroke. Sex-specific multivariable analyses were computed using non-HDL cholesterol categories according to the European guideline thresholds, adjusted for age, sex, cohort, and classical modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. In a derivation and validation design, we created a tool to estimate the probabilities of a cardiovascular disease event by the age of 75 years, dependent on age, sex, and risk factors, and the associated modelled risk reduction, assuming a 50% reduction of non-HDL cholesterol. FINDINGS: Of the 524 444 individuals in the 44 cohorts in the Consortium database, we identified 398 846 individuals belonging to 38 cohorts (184 055 [48·7%] women; median age 51·0 years [IQR 40·7-59·7]). 199 415 individuals were included in the derivation cohort (91 786 [48·4%] women) and 199 431 (92 269 [49·1%] women) in the validation cohort. During a maximum follow-up of 43·6 years (median 13·5 years, IQR 7·0-20·1), 54 542 cardiovascular endpoints occurred. Incidence curve analyses showed progressively higher 30-year cardiovascular disease event-rates for increasing non-HDL cholesterol categories (from 7·7% for non-HDL cholesterol <2·6 mmol/L to 33·7% for ≥5·7 mmol/L in women and from 12·8% to 43·6% in men; p<0·0001). Multivariable adjusted Cox models with non-HDL cholesterol lower than 2·6 mmol/L as reference showed an increase in the association between non-HDL cholesterol concentration and cardiovascular disease for both sexes (from hazard ratio 1·1, 95% CI 1·0-1·3 for non-HDL cholesterol 2·6 to <3·7 mmol/L to 1·9, 1·6-2·2 for ≥5·7 mmol/L in women and from 1·1, 1·0-1·3 to 2·3, 2·0-2·5 in men). The derived tool allowed the estimation of cardiovascular disease event probabilities specific for non-HDL cholesterol with high comparability between the derivation and validation cohorts as reflected by smooth calibration curves analyses and a root mean square error lower than 1% for the estimated probabilities of cardiovascular disease. A 50% reduction of non-HDL cholesterol concentrations was associated with reduced risk of a cardiovascular disease event by the age of 75 years, and this risk reduction was greater the earlier cholesterol concentrations were reduced. INTERPRETATION: Non-HDL cholesterol concentrations in blood are strongly associated with long-term risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We provide a simple tool for individual long-term risk assessment and the potential benefit of early lipid-lowering intervention. These data could be useful for physician-patient communication about primary prevention strategies. FUNDING: EU Framework Programme, UK Medical Research Council, and German Centre for Cardiovascular Research.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2529-2540, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. METHODS: In 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research [DZHK]; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00470587, NCT02355457, NCT01852123, NCT01994577, and NCT03227159; and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry numbers, ACTRN12611001069943, ACTRN12610000766011, ACTRN12613000745741, and ACTRN12611000206921.).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina I/sangue
6.
Recenti Prog Med ; 110(2): 68-74, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843531

RESUMO

Smart Specialization Strategy (S3) of Lazio defines smart specialization strategies to bring out the excellence of the territory with prospects of success on the global market. Chemical-pharmaceutical, biomedical and biotechnological field is one of the 7 sectors considered of greatest interest for the S3. Key engine of biotechnology development are biological materials and associated data, stored in biobanks. However, to ensure that the research and product development carried out with that resources gives statistically significant and reproducible results, it is essential that they are collected, manipulated and stored using standardized and traced methods. Implementation of the recent published standard ISO 20387- "Biotechnology-Biobanking-General requirements for biobanking" is bridging biobanks toward to storage and distribution of qualified biological material only. Human biobanks are also an essential part of the assistance and care of the citizen and constitute an unavoidable cost of the regional health system. However, biobanks organization, rationalization of their territorial distribution, completion of the process of recognition and regional accreditation, parallel to the implementation of the offer of remunerated services for biobanking, can turn the cost of the necessary preservation of the samples, into an opportunity of territorial development. The paper describes the necessity, shared by a working group represented by several Lazio biobanks, of including biobank activities in the virtuous circle designed by the S3,concretizing the framework prefigured by the S3 document on infrastructures for research, innovation and technology transfer. To allow inclusion of biobank activities in the virtuous circle, we underline the need to quickly start the process of recognition of the territorial research biobanks, to implement at regional level the process of optimization and rationalization of the management of biological samples, in accordance with the international harmonization standards and with the territorial indications of sustainability.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Biotecnologia/organização & administração , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Biotecnologia/normas , Humanos , Itália , Manejo de Espécimes/normas
7.
Stroke ; 50(3): 610-617, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786848

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation and a marker of cardiac function used in the detection of heart failure. Given the link between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, NT-proBNP is a candidate marker of stroke risk. Our aim was to evaluate the association of NT-proBNP with stroke and to determine the predictive value beyond a panel of established risk factors. Methods- Based on the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe-Consortium, we analyzed data of 58 173 participants (50% men; mean age 52 y) free of stroke from 6 community-based cohorts. NT-proBNP measurements were performed in the central Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe laboratory. The outcomes considered were total stroke and subtypes of stroke (ischemic/hemorrhagic). Results- During a median follow-up time of 7.9 years, we observed 1550 stroke events (1176 ischemic). Increasing quarters of the NT-proBNP distribution were associated with increasing risk of stroke ( P for trend <0.0001; multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for risk factors and cardiac diseases). Individuals in the highest NT-proBNP quarter (NT-proBNP >82.2 pg/mL) had 2-fold (95% CI, 75%-151%) greater risk of stroke than individuals in the lowest quarter (NT-proBNP <20.4 pg/mL). The association remained unchanged when adjusted for interim coronary events during follow-up, and though it was somewhat heterogeneous across cohorts, it was highly homogenous according to cardiovascular risk profile or subtypes of stroke. The addition of NT-proBNP to a reference model increased the C-index discrimination measure by 0.006 ( P=0.0005), yielded a categorical net reclassification improvement of 2.0% in events and 1.4% in nonevents and an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.007. Conclusions- In European individuals free of stroke, levels of NT-proBNP are positively associated with risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, independently from several other risk factors and conditions. The addition of NT-proBNP to variables of established risk scores improves prediction of stroke, with a medium effect size.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/sangue , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(2): 163-173, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649175

RESUMO

Importance: It is uncertain to what extent established cardiovascular risk factors are associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Objective: To estimate the associations of major cardiovascular risk factors with VTE, ie, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study included individual participant data mostly from essentially population-based cohort studies from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (ERFC; 731 728 participants; 75 cohorts; years of baseline surveys, February 1960 to June 2008; latest date of follow-up, December 2015) and the UK Biobank (421 537 participants; years of baseline surveys, March 2006 to September 2010; latest date of follow-up, February 2016). Participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline were included. Data were analyzed from June 2017 to September 2018. Exposures: A panel of several established cardiovascular risk factors. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hazard ratios (HRs) per 1-SD higher usual risk factor levels (or presence/absence). Incident fatal outcomes in ERFC (VTE, 1041; coronary heart disease [CHD], 25 131) and incident fatal/nonfatal outcomes in UK Biobank (VTE, 2321; CHD, 3385). Hazard ratios were adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, diabetes, and body mass index (BMI). Results: Of the 731 728 participants from the ERFC, 403 396 (55.1%) were female, and the mean (SD) age at the time of the survey was 51.9 (9.0) years; of the 421 537 participants from the UK Biobank, 233 699 (55.4%) were female, and the mean (SD) age at the time of the survey was 56.4 (8.1) years. Risk factors for VTE included older age (ERFC: HR per decade, 2.67; 95% CI, 2.45-2.91; UK Biobank: HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.71-1.92), current smoking (ERFC: HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.20-1.58; UK Biobank: HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08-1.40), and BMI (ERFC: HR per 1-SD higher BMI, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.35-1.50; UK Biobank: HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.32-1.41). For these factors, there were similar HRs for pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in UK Biobank (except adiposity was more strongly associated with pulmonary embolism) and similar HRs for unprovoked vs provoked VTE. Apart from adiposity, these risk factors were less strongly associated with VTE than CHD. There were inconsistent associations of VTEs with diabetes and blood pressure across ERFC and UK Biobank, and there was limited ability to study lipid and inflammation markers. Conclusions and Relevance: Older age, smoking, and adiposity were consistently associated with higher VTE risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia
9.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 80: 46-52, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) negatively impacts aging success. This study evaluates the association between CKD and functional disability, defined as limitations in performing mobility tasks, basic (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), in a population-based sample of older adults. In particular, we examined whether such a relationship extended to mild-moderate CKD stages (G1-G3ab). METHODS: Data from the Cardiovascular risk profile in Renal patients of the Italian Health Examination Survey (CARHES) study were used.Prevalence of CKD was estimated by means of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and eGFR (CKD-EPI equation-enzymatic assay of serum creatinine). A validated questionnaire was used to assess functional limitations. Potentially confounding variables, e.g. socio-demographic features, lifestyles, cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and prevalent CV diseases, were considered. RESULTS: 1309 participants, age 71.4 ± 4.3 years, 53.8% men, were studied. 15.2% of participants were identified as having CKD. Of these, 11.5% were aware of the condition. Prevalence of CKD increased with age, and was similar between men and women. Mild-moderate CKD was found to be significantly associated with disability in mobility (OR = 1.05, 95%CI =1.01-1.09, p = .014) and ADLs/IADLs (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.02-1.12, p = .011) after multiple simultaneous adjustment including socio-demographic variables, CV risk profile, ACR, cognitive impairment and self-rated health. CONCLUSIONS: Mild-moderate CKD independently associated with functional disability in a population-based sample of older adults. Evidence-based recommendations for disability prevention in CKD are needed.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Vida Independente , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
BMJ Open ; 8(12): e024406, 2018 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the association between hypertension and frailty in observational studies. DESIGN: A systematic review of the PubMed, Web of Science and Embase databases was performed. A meta-analysis was performed if at least three studies used the same definition of frailty and a dichotomous definition of hypertension. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND MEASURES: Studies providing information on the association between frailty and hypertension in adult persons, regardless of the study setting, study design or definition of hypertension and frailty were included. RESULTS: Among the initial 964 articles identified, 27 were included in the review. Four longitudinal studies examined the incidence of frailty according to baseline hypertension status, providing conflicting results. Twenty-three studies assessed the cross-sectional association between frailty and hypertension: 13 of them reported a significantly higher prevalence of frailty in hypertensive participants and 10 found no significant association. The pooled prevalence of hypertension in frail individuals was 72% (95% CI 66% to 79%) and the pooled prevalence of frailty in individuals with hypertension was 14% (95% CI 12% to 17%). Five studies, including a total of 7656 participants, reported estimates for the association between frailty and hypertension (pooled OR 1.33; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.89). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty is common in persons with hypertension. Given the possible influence of frailty on the risk-benefit ratio of treatment for hypertension and its high prevalence, it is important to assess the presence of this condition in persons with hypertension. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017058303.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Hipertensão , Idoso , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Prevalência , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Arch Public Health ; 76: 38, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988297

RESUMO

Background: Representative and reliable data on health and health determinants of the population and population sub-groups are needed for evidence-informed policy making; planning and evaluation of prevention programmes; and research. Health examination surveys (HESs) including questionnaires, objective health measurements and analysis of biological samples, provide information on many health indicators that are available not at all or less reliably or completely through administrative registers or health interview surveys. Methods: Standardized cross-sectional HESs were already conducted in the 1980's and 1990's, in the framework of the WHO MONICA Project. The methodology was developed and finally, in 2010-2012, a European Health Examination Survey (EHES) Pilot Project was conducted. During this pilot phase, an EHES Coordinating Centre (EHES CC, formerly EHES Reference Centre) was established. Standardized protocols, guidelines and quality control procedures were prepared and tested in 12 countries which conducted pilot surveys, demonstrating the feasibility of standardized HES data collection in the European Union (EU).Currently, the EHES CC operates at the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Finland. Its activities include maintaining and developing the standardized protocols, guidelines and training programme; maintaining the EHES network; providing professional support for countries planning and organizing their national HESs; external quality assessment for surveys organized in the EU Member States; and development of a centralized database and joint reporting system for HES data. Results: An increasing number of EU Member States are conducting national HESs, demonstrating a strong need for such surveys as part of the national health monitoring systems. Standardization of the data collection is essential to ensure that HES data are comparable across countries and over time. The work of the EHES CC helps to ensure the quality and comparability of HES data across the EU. Conclusions: HES data have been used for health monitoring and identifying public health problems; to develop health and prevention programmes; to support health policies and preparation of health-related legislation and regulations; and to develop clinical treatment guidelines and population reference values. HESs have also been utilized to prepare health measurement tools and diagnostic methods; in training and research and to increase health awareness among population.

13.
Arch Public Health ; 76: 31, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988313

RESUMO

Background: Population-based registries implement the comprehensive collection of all disease events that occur in a well-characterized population within a certain time period and represent the preferred tools for disease monitoring at a population level. Main characteristics of a Population-based registry are to provide answers to defined research questions, also related to clinical and health policy purposes, assuring completeness of event identification, and implementing a process of case adjudication (validation) according to standardised diagnostic criteria. Methods: The application of a standard methodology results in the availability of reliable and comparable data and facilitates the transferability of health information for research and evidence-based health policies. Although registries are extremely useful, they require considerable resources to be implemented and maintained, high cost and efforts, to produce stable and reliable indicators. Results: Thanks to available health information and information technology, current administrative databases on hospital admissions and discharges, medication use, in-patient care utilization, surgical operations, drug dispensations, ticket exemption and invasive procedures are increasingly available. They represent basic sources of information for implementing Population-based registries.Main strengths and limitations of Population-based registries are described taking into consideration the example of cardiovascular diseases, as well as future challenges and opportunities for implementing Population-based registries at European level. Conclusions: The integration of population-based registries and current administrative health databases may help to complete the picture of the disease rebuilding the evolution of the disease as a continuum from the onset to the possible consequent complications.

15.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 71(12): 1210-1216, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28983063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge on the origins of the social gradient in stroke incidence in different populations is limited. This study aims to estimate the burden of educational class inequalities in stroke incidence and to assess the contribution of risk factors in determining these inequalities across Europe. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MORGAM (MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph) Study comprises 48 cohorts recruited mostly in the 1980s and 1990s in four European regions using standardised procedures for baseline risk factor assessment and fatal and non-fatal stroke ascertainment and adjudication during follow-up. Among the 126 635 middle-aged participants, initially free of cardiovascular diseases, generating 3788 first stroke events during a median follow-up of 10 years, we estimated differences in stroke rates and HRs for the least versus the most educated individuals. RESULTS: Compared with their most educated counterparts, the overall age-adjusted excess hazard for stroke was 1.54 (95% CI 1.25 to 1.91) and 1.41 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.71) in least educated men and women, respectively, with little heterogeneity across populations. Educational class inequalities accounted for 86-413 and 78-156 additional stroke events per 100 000 person-years in the least compared with most educated men and women, respectively. The additional events were equivalent to 47%-130% and 40%-89% of the average incidence rates. Inequalities in risk factors accounted for 45%-70% of the social gap in incidence in the Nordic countries, the UK and Lithuania-Kaunas (men), but for no more than 17% in Central and South Europe. The major contributors were cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Social inequalities in stroke incidence contribute substantially to the disease rates in Europe. Healthier lifestyles in the most disadvantaged individuals should have a prominent impact in reducing both inequalities and the stroke burden.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 87(2): 843, 2017 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28967717

RESUMO

Population ageing represents a "triumph" and a "challenge" for society. The increase in life expectancy corresponds to an increase of risk factors and age-associated non communicable diseases, with consequent rise in health care costs and the burden of healthcare sustainability. Aim of this analysis is to describe the prevalence of non communicable diseases, comorbidity and disability in non-institutionalized elderly population, aged 75-79 years, examined within the Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare/Health Examination Survey. Cardiovascular disease is the most frequent occurring in 27% of the examined population, followed by diabetes (24%) and chronic kidney disease (21%); 60% of examined elderly population suffers of one or more chronic diseases, while 40% is in a good health. Ninety-three per cent of the examined population is free of disability; cognitive function disorders, assessed by the Folstein's Mini Mental State Examination, are recorded in 21% men and 29% women. In the context of prevention, there is still much that needs to be done. It is important to initiate or maintain preventive actions concerning also this age-group at both community and individual level, to promote the cultural notion that a good quality of life in advanced age is built day by day starting from one's youth through a healthy diet, regular physical activity and non-smoking habit.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
17.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 19(Suppl D): D3-D54, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28751833

RESUMO

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease still represents the leading cause of death in Western countries. A wealth of scientific evidence demonstrates that increased blood cholesterol levels have a major impact on the outbreak and progression of atherosclerotic plaques. Moreover, several cholesterol-lowering pharmacological agents, including statins and ezetimibe, have proved effective in improving clinical outcomes. This document focuses on the clinical management of hypercholesterolaemia and has been conceived by 16 Italian medical associations with the support of the Italian National Institute of Health. The authors discuss in detail the role of hypercholesterolaemia in the genesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In addition, the implications for high cholesterol levels in the definition of the individual cardiovascular risk profile have been carefully analysed, while all available therapeutic options for blood cholesterol reduction and cardiovascular risk mitigation have been explored. Finally, this document outlines the diagnostic and therapeutic pathways for the clinical management of patients with hypercholesterolaemia.

19.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 24(2): 193-200, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28417443

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The urgency of the problem was underlined by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases, which recommends a 25% relative reduction in the prevalence of raised BP by 2020. A surveillance system represents a useful tool to monitor BP in the general population. Since 1980s, the National Institute of Health has conducted several surveys of the adult general population, measuring cardiovascular risk factors by standardized procedures and methods. AIM: To describe mean BP levels and high BP prevalence from 1978 to 2012 by sex and quinquennia of age. METHODS: Data were derived from the following three studies: (i) Risk Factors and Life Expectancy (RIFLE), conducted between 1978 and 2002 in 13 Italian regions (>70,000 persons); (ii) Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare (OEC), conducted between 1998-2002 in the general population from all Italian regions (>9000 persons); and (iii) Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare/Health Examination Survey (OEC/HES), conducted between 2008-2012 in the general population from all Italian regions (>9000 persons). RESULTS: A significant decrease in mean systolic and diastolic BP levels and prevalence of high BP from 1978 to 2012 was observed both in men and women. BP and high BP increased by age classes in all considered periods. BP awareness and control also improved. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that BP control could be achieved by 2020, as recommended by WHO.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eur Heart J ; 38(32): 2490-2498, 2017 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28449027

RESUMO

Aims: As promising compounds to lower Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) are emerging, the need for a precise characterization and comparability of the Lp(a)-associated cardiovascular risk is increasing. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Lp(a) concentrations across the European population, to characterize the association with cardiovascular outcomes and to provide high comparability of the Lp(a)-associated cardiovascular risk by use of centrally determined Lp(a) concentrations. Methods and results: Based on the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE)-project, we analysed data of 56 804 participants from 7 prospective population-based cohorts across Europe with a maximum follow-up of 24 years. All Lp(a) measurements were performed in the central BiomarCaRE laboratory (Biokit Quantia Lp(a)-Test; Abbott Diagnostics). The three endpoints considered were incident major coronary events (MCE), incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, and total mortality. We found lower Lp(a) levels in Northern European cohorts (median 4.9 mg/dL) compared to central (median 7.9 mg/dL) and Southern European cohorts (10.9 mg/dL) (Jonckheere-Terpstra test P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier curves showed the highest event rate of MCE and CVD events for Lp(a) levels ≥90th percentile (log-rank test: P < 0.001 for MCE and CVD). Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors revealed a significant association of Lp(a) levels with MCE and CVD with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.30 for MCE [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15‒1.46] and of 1.25 for CVD (95% CI 1.12‒1.39) for Lp(a) levels in the 67‒89th percentile and a HR of 1.49 for MCE (95% CI 1.29‒1.73) and of 1.44 for CVD (95% CI 1.25‒1.65) for Lp(a) levels ≥ 90th percentile vs. Lp(a) levels in the lowest third (P < 0.001 for all). There was no significant association between Lp(a) levels and total mortality. Subgroup analysis for a continuous version of cube root transformed Lp(a) identified the highest Lp(a)-associated risk in individuals with diabetes [HR for MCE 1.31 (95% CI 1.15‒1.50)] and for CVD 1.22 (95% CI 1.08‒1.38) compared to those without diabetes [HR for MCE 1.15 (95% CI 1.08‒1.21; HR for CVD 1.13 (1.07-1.19)] while no difference of the Lp(a)- associated risk were seen for other cardiovascular high risk states. The addition of Lp(a) levels to a prognostic model for MCE and CVD revealed only a marginal but significant C-index discrimination measure increase (0.001 for MCE and CVD; P < 0.05) and net reclassification improvement (0.010 for MCE and 0.011 for CVD). Conclusion: In this large dataset on harmonized Lp(a) determination, we observed regional differences within the European population. Elevated Lp(a) was robustly associated with an increased risk for MCE and CVD in particular among individuals with diabetes. These results may lead to better identification of target populations who might benefit from future Lp(a)-lowering therapies.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Lipoproteína(a)/fisiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lipoproteína(a)/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA