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1.
Toxicol Lett ; 341: 1-10, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429014

RESUMO

Piscine cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Xenobiotics often act as inducers of CYP1A1 and CYP3A expression and activity in fish. We compared constitutive mRNA expression of CYP1A1, CYP3A27, and CYP3A45 and catalytic activity of CYP1A (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, EROD) and CYP3A-like (benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin-O-debenzyloxylation, BFCOD) enzymes in the following six rainbow trout tissues: liver, gill, heart, brain, intestine, and gonad. mRNA expression and activity were present in all investigated tissues. The CYP1A1 mRNA expression was higher in the liver, gill, heart, and brain compared to gonad and intestine. The intestine was the main site of CYP3A27 and CYP3A45 expression. The highest EROD and BFCOD activity was observed in liver tissue followed in descending order by heart, brain, gill, intestine, and gonad. Such differences might be related to the role of CYP physiological functions in the specific tissue. Rainbow trout exposure to 50 mg/kg of ß-naphthoflavone for 48 h resulted in a 7.5- and 5.9-fold increase in liver EROD and BFCOD activity, respectively. In vitro EROD activity inhibition with ellipticine showed tissue-specific inhibition, while ketoconazole decreased BFCOD activity by 50-98 % in all tissues. Further studies are needed to identify all CYP isoforms that are responsible for these activities and modes of regulation.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Feminino , Brânquias/enzimologia , Intestinos/enzimologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Miocárdio/enzimologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais
2.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066664

RESUMO

Insect meal is gaining increased attention in aquafeed formulations due to high protein content and an essential amino acid profile similar to that of fishmeal. To investigate insect meal in feed for European perch Perca fluviatilis, a promising candidate for European intensive culture, we replaced standard fishmeal with partially defatted black soldier fly Hermetia illucens larva meal at rates of 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% (groups CON, H20, H40 and H60, respectively) and compared growth performance, somatic indices, hematological parameters, whole-body proximate composition and occurrence of spleen lipidosis. In addition, we assessed the economic and environmental sustainability of the tested feeds by calculating economic conversion ratio (ECR) and economic profit index (EPI). The tested groups did not differ in survival rate. Significant differences were documented in final body weight and specific growth rate, with the highest values in CON, H20 and H40. The proximate composition of fish whole-body at the end of the experiment did not differ in dry matter, crude protein or ether extract, while organic matter, ash and gross energy composition showed significant differences. The fatty acid content and n-3/n-6 ratio showed a decreasing trend with increasing H. illucens larva meal inclusion. No differences were found in hematological parameters among tested groups. The H. illucens larva meal inclusion significantly affected ECR and EPI, even at 20% inclusion level the cost of diets did not differ from the control fish meal based diet. Results suggested that 40% inclusion of H. illucens larva meal can be used successfully in standard diets for perch.

3.
Molecules ; 25(11)2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531944

RESUMO

Water from wastewater treatment plants contains concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds as high as micrograms per liter, which can adversely affect fish health and behavior, and contaminate the food chain. Here, we tested the ability of the common carp hepatic S9 fraction to produce the main metabolites from citalopram, metoprolol, sertraline, and venlafaxine. Metabolism in fish S9 fractions was compared to that in sheep. The metabolism of citalopram was further studied in fish. Our results suggest a large difference in the rate of metabolites formation between fish and sheep. Fish hepatic S9 fractions do not show an ability to form metabolites from venlafaxine, which was also the case for sheep. Citalopram, metoprolol, and sertraline were metabolized by both fish and sheep S9. Citalopram showed concentration-dependent N-desmethylcitalopram formation with Vmax = 1781 pmol/min/mg and Km = 29.7 µM. The presence of ellipticine, a specific CYP1A inhibitor, in the incubations reduced the formation of N-desmethylcitalopram by 30-100% depending on the applied concentration. These findings suggest that CYP1A is the major enzyme contributing to the formation of N-desmethylcitalopram. In summary, the results from the present in vitro study suggest that common carp can form the major metabolites of citalopram, metoprolol, and sertraline.

4.
Chemosphere ; 220: 556-564, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597363

RESUMO

Climate change is expected to alter the dynamics of water masses, with consequent changes in water quality parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. DOC levels play a critical role in the fate of organic chemicals, influencing their bioavailability and toxicity to aquatic organisms. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of DOC, particularly humic acids (HA), in the toxicity of gemfibrozil (GEM) - a human pharmaceutical frequently detected in surface waters. Lethal and sublethal effects (genotoxic, biochemical and behavioural alterations) were evaluated in zebrafish embryos exposed to several concentrations of GEM and three HA levels, in a full factorial design. HA significantly increased GEM LC50 values, mainly in the first 72 h of exposure, showing a protective effect. At sublethal levels, however, such protection was not observed since HA per se elicited adverse effects. At a biochemical level, individual exposure to HA (20 mg/L) elicited significant decreases in cholinesterase and glutathione S-transferase activities. Regarding behaviour, effects of individual exposure to HA appear to surpass the GEM effects, reducing the total distance moved by larvae. Both GEM and HA significantly increased DNA damage. Hence, this study demonstrated that abiotic factors, namely HA, should be considered in the assessment of pharmaceuticals toxicity. Moreover, it showed that lethality may not be enough to characterize combined effects since different patterns of response may occur at different levels of biological organization. Testing sublethal relevant endpoints is thus recommended to achieve a robust risk assessment in realistic scenarios.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Genfibrozila/toxicidade , Substâncias Húmicas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Interações Medicamentosas , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia
5.
Environ Manage ; 63(4): 466-484, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159481

RESUMO

This study characterized changes in biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) upon exposure to effluent water discharged from a sewage treatment plant (STP) under real conditions. Fish were exposed to contamination in Cezarka pond, which receives all of its water input from the STP in the town of Vodnany, Czech Republic. Five sampling events were performed at day 0, 30, 90, 180, and 360 starting in April 2015. In total, 62 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) were detected in the polar organic chemical integrative sampler. Compared to a control pond, the total concentration of PPCPs was 45, 16, 7, and 7 times higher in Cezarka pond at day 30, 90, 180, and 360, respectively. The result of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme biomarkers indicated alterations in the liver and intestine tissues of fish from Cezarka pond at day 30 and 360, respectively. High plasma vitellogenin levels were observed in both exposed females (180 and 360 days) and males (360 days) compared with their respective controls. However, only exposed female fish had higher vitellogenin mRNA expression than the control fish in these periods. Exposed female fish showed irregular structure of the ovary with scattered oocytes, which further developed to a vitellogenic stage at day 360. Low white blood cell levels were indicated in all exposed fish. Despite numerous alterations in exposed fish, favorable ecological conditions including high availability of food resulted in a better overall condition of the exposed fish after 1 year of exposure compared to the controls.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Esgotos , Vitelogeninas
6.
Environ Manage ; 63(4): 485, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29404738

RESUMO

The original version of this Article unfortunately contained an error. The authors' given and family names were transposed erroneously. It has been corrected now in this Erratum.

7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 164: 92-99, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098510

RESUMO

Monitoring the contamination level in aquatic environments and assessing the impact on aquatic life occurs throughout the world. In the present study, an approach based on a combination of biomarkers and the distribution of various industrial and municipal pollutants was used to investigate the effect of aquatic environmental contamination on fish. Monitoring was performed in ten rivers in the Czech Republic (Berounka, Dyje, Elbe, Luznice, Odra, Ohre, Otava, Sázava, Svratka, and Vltava rivers, with one or two locations in each river) at the same sites that were regularly monitored within the Czech National Monitoring Program in 2007-2011. Health status, hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, total cytochrome P450 content, and the plasma vitellogenin concentration were assessed in wild chub (Squalius cephalus) males caught at the monitored sites. The contamination level was the highest in the Svratka River downstream of Brno. Among all measured persistent organic pollutants (POPs), polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites were the major contributors of POPs in fish muscle. Elbe, Odra, and Svratka rivers were identified as the most polluted. Fish from these locations showed reduced gonad size, increased vitellogenin concentration in male plasma, EROD, and total cytochrome P450 content. These biomarkers can be used for future environmental monitoring assessments. Overall, this study improves our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to the decision to support local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , República Tcheca , DDT/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Vitelogeninas/sangue , Qualidade da Água
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 625: 1494-1509, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996446

RESUMO

Concerns about the effect of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent on the health of freshwater ecosystems have increased. In this study, a unique approach was designed to show the effect of an STP effluent-dominated stream on native wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) exposed under fully natural conditions. Zivny stream is located in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. The downstream site of Zivny stream is an STP-affected site, which receives 25% of its water from Prachatice STP effluent. Upstream, however, is a minimally polluted water site and it is considered to be the control site. Native fish were collected from the upstream site, tagged, and distributed to both upstream and downstream sites. After 30, 90, and 180days, fish were recaptured from both sites to determine whether the downstream site of the Zivny stream is associated with the effects of environmental pollution. Several biomarkers indicating the oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities, cytochrome P450 activity, xenoestrogenic effects, bacterial composition, and lipid composition were investigated. Additionally, polar chemical contaminants (pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)) were quantified using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). Fifty-three PPCPs were detected in the downstream site; 36 of those were constantly present during the 180-day investigation period. Elevated hepatic 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin-O-debenzyloxylase (BFCOD) (after 90days) and blood plasma vitellogenin concentrations in males were detected in fish downstream of the STP effluent during all sampling events. An increase in the fishes' total fat content was also observed, but with low levels of ω-3 fatty acid in muscle tissue. Two bacterial taxa related to activated sludge were found in the intestines of fish from downstream. Our results show that Prachatice STP is a major source of PPCPs in the Zivny stream, which has biological consequences on fish physiology.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Truta/fisiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , República Tcheca , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Rios/química , Esgotos , Truta/microbiologia , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 635: 1160-1169, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710571

RESUMO

Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are one of the major source of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the aquatic environment. Generally, the effects of individual chemicals on fish are studied under laboratory conditions, which leads to results that are potentially not realistic regarding the effects of these chemicals under environmental conditions. Therefore, in this study, common carps were held in exposed pond that receive water from STP effluents for 360 days under natural conditions. Elimination of xenobiotics starts in the fish intestine, in which the microbial community strongly influences its function. Moreover, the fish intestine functions as crucial organ for absorbing lipids and fatty acids (FA), with consequent transport to the liver where their metabolism occurs. The liver is the primary organ performing xenobiotic metabolism in fish, and therefore, the presence of pollutants may interact with the metabolism of FA. The catalytic activity of CYP1A and CYP3A-like enzymes, their gene expression, FA composition and intestinal microbiome consortia were measured. The catalytic activity of enzymes and their gene and protein expression, were induced in hepatic and intestinal tissues of fish from the exposed pond. Also, fish from the exposed pond had different compositions of FA than those from the control pond: concentration of 18:1 n-9 and 18:2 n-6 were significantly elevated and the longer chain n-3 FA 20:5 n-3, 22:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 were significantly lowered. There were clear differences among microbiome consortia in fish intestines across control and exposed groups. Microbiome taxa measured in exposed fish were also associated with those found in STP activated sludge. This study reveals that treated STP water, which is assumed to be clean, affected measured biomarkers in common carp.


Assuntos
Carpas/fisiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Esgotos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Aquat Toxicol ; 170: 390-399, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26653011

RESUMO

Carbendazim is a widely used broad spectrum benzimidazole fungicide; however, its effects to non-target aquatic organisms are poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of carbendazim to zebrafish early life stages at several levels of biological organization, including developmental, biochemical and behavioural levels. The embryo assay was done following the OECD guideline 236 and using a concentration range between 1.1 and 1.8mg/L. Lethal and developmental endpoints such as hatching, edemas, malformations, heart beat rate, body growth and delays were assessed in a 96h exposure. A sub-teratogenic range (from 0.16 to 500µg/L) was then used to assess effects at biochemical and behavioural levels. Biochemical markers included cholinesterase (ChE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and catalase (CAT) and were assessed at 96h. The locomotor behaviour was assessed using an automated video tracking system at 120h. Carbendazim (96h-LC50 of 1.75mg/L) elicited several developmental anomalies in zebrafish embryos with EC50 values ranging from 0.85 to 1.6mg/L. ChE, GST and LDH activities were increased at concentrations equal or above 4µg/L. The locomotor assay showed to be extremely sensitive, detecting effects in time that larvae spent swimming at concentrations of 0.16µg/L and thus, being several orders of magnitude more sensitive that developmental parameters or lethality. These are ecological relevant concentrations and highlight the potential of behavioural endpoints as early warning signs for environmental stress. Further studies should focus on understanding how the behavioural disturbances measured in these types of studies translate into fitness impairment at the adult stage.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzimidazóis/toxicidade , Carbamatos/toxicidade , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Benzimidazóis/análise , Carbamatos/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/fisiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Natação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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