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1.
Sleep ; 45(11)2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907210

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate orofacial pain in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and determine possible associations with masticatory muscle hypotonia (MMH), maximum mouth opening (MMO), and sleep disorders. Twenty-three individuals with DS underwent a standardized clinical examination using Axis I of the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, for the diagnosis of pain in the masseter and temporal muscles and temporomandibular joint (TMJ). MMH was investigated using electromyography of the temporal and masseter muscles and the measurement of maximum bite force (MBF). MMO was measured using an analog caliper. Sleep disorders (obstructive sleep apnea [OSA], snoring index [SI], and sleep bruxism index [SBI]) were investigated using type II polysomnography. Statistical analysis was performed. Nonsignificant differences were found in muscle and TMJ pain between the sexes. However, myalgia and referred myofascial pain in the left masseter muscle were more frequent in males (69%) than females (40%). Electrical activity of the temporal (left: p = .002; right: p = .004) and masseter (left: p = .008) muscles was significantly lower in males than in females. MBF range was lower in males than females, indicating the highest MMH among males. OSA, SI, and SBI were identified in both sexes, but with no statistically significant differences. We concluded that myalgia and referred myofascial pain were found in some individuals with DS, especially in males. Arthralgia was found mainly in females. Temporal and masseter myalgia may have exerted an influence on the severity of MMH in males, particularly on the left side.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Bruxismo do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Músculo Masseter , Mialgia/complicações , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Hipotonia Muscular , Músculos da Mastigação , Dor Facial/complicações , Eletromiografia
2.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 25(5): 44-50, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206828

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The most prescribed treatment option for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is CPAP; however, its adherence is limited. Oral Appliance therapy (OAT) is frequently an option or even an adjuvant, being the mandibular advancement Oral Appliance (OAm) the most used prescription. It modifies the upper airway, improving the airway patency. OAm construction is based on the occlusal plane to disocclusion. In this study, the DIORS® appliance was used, a singular OAm, based on Neuro-Occlusal Rehabilitation concepts, that uses Camper's plane as a disocclusion reference, in order to achieve neuromuscular balance and functional stability. OBJECTIVE: This study primarily aimed to assess the DIORS® effectiveness in relation to clinical and polysomnographic outcomes. It was also evaluated if the use of DIORS® is as effective as titrated CPAP to treat CPAP non-adherent patients. METHODS: Twenty patients were included in this study. Objective and subjective clinical data were assessed at a sleep laboratory using all-night polysomnography, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), taken at three moments: Baseline, CPAP titration, and using DIORS®. Analysis of respiratory parameters as apnea/hypopnea index (AHI), oxyhemoglobin saturation levels, the arousal index and daytime sleepiness were taken as criteria for a successful OAT. RESULTS: Respiratory and arousal parameters improved in both therapies, while DIORS® promoted a better ESS. CONCLUSION: Results from the present work support that DIORS® is a viable and effective adjuvant therapy for patients with moderate to severe OSA non-adherent to CPAP.


Assuntos
Avanço Mandibular , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Humanos , Polissonografia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 25(5): 44-50, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1133688

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: The most prescribed treatment option for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is CPAP; however, its adherence is limited. Oral Appliance therapy (OAT) is frequently an option or even an adjuvant, being the mandibular advancement Oral Appliance (OAm) the most used prescription. It modifies the upper airway, improving the airway patency. OAm construction is based on the occlusal plane to disocclusion. In this study, the DIORS® appliance was used, a singular OAm, based on Neuro-Occlusal Rehabilitation concepts, that uses Camper's plane as a disocclusion reference, in order to achieve neuromuscular balance and functional stability. Objective: This study primarily aimed to assess the DIORS® effectiveness in relation to clinical and polysomnographic outcomes. It was also evaluated if the use of DIORS® is as effective as titrated CPAP to treat CPAP non-adherent patients. Methods: Twenty patients were included in this study. Objective and subjective clinical data were assessed at a sleep laboratory using all-night polysomnography, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), taken at three moments: Baseline, CPAP titration, and using DIORS®. Analysis of respiratory parameters as apnea/hypopnea index (AHI), oxyhemoglobin saturation levels, the arousal index and daytime sleepiness were taken as criteria for a successful OAT. Results: Respiratory and arousal parameters improved in both therapies, while DIORS® promoted a better ESS. Conclusion: Results from the present work support that DIORS® is a viable and effective adjuvant therapy for patients with moderate to severe OSA non-adherent to CPAP.


RESUMO Introdução: A opção mais indicada para tratamento da apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) é o CPAP; contudo, a aderência é limitada. A Terapia com Aparelho Oral (TAO) é, frequentemente, uma opção, ou mesmo um adjuvante. A prescrição mais utilizada é o Aparelho Oral de avanço mandibular (AOm). O AOm modifica a via aérea superior, melhorando a patência do espaço aéreo. A construção do AOm se baseia no plano de oclusão para desoclusão. No presente estudo, usamos o DIORS®, um AOm diferente, baseado nos conceitos da Reabilitação Neuro-Oclusal (RNO), que utiliza o Plano de Camper como referência da desoclusão para alcançar o equilíbrio neuromuscular e estabilidade funcional. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal abordar a eficácia do DIORS®, considerando-se os resultados clínicos e polissonográficos. Adicionalmente, foi avaliado, também, se o uso desse AOm é tão eficaz quanto a titulação do CPAP para tratar pacientes com AOS não aderentes ao CPAP. Métodos: Vinte pacientes foram incluídos neste estudo. Dados clínicos objetivos e subjetivos foram avaliados em um laboratório de sono usando polissonografia de noite inteira e a Escala de Sonolência de Epworth (ESE) observando-se três momentos: inicial, titulação do CPAP e usando o DIORS®. Os critérios de sucesso da TAO foram assumidos pela análise dos parâmetros respiratórios como Índice de Apneia e Hipopneia (IAH) e níveis de saturação de oxi-hemoglobina, o índice de despertar e a sonolência diurna. Resultados: Em ambas as terapias, os parâmetros respiratórios e de despertares melhoraram. Adicionalmente, uma melhora na ESE foi alcançada com o DIORS®. Conclusão: Os resultados do presente trabalho apoiam que o DIORS® é uma terapia adjuvante viável e bastante eficaz para pacientes com AOS moderada a grave não aderentes ao CPAP.


Assuntos
Humanos , Avanço Mandibular , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Resultado do Tratamento , Polissonografia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia
4.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(8): 1007-1022, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the phenotypic features of the masticatory biomechanics in atypical subjects with Down syndrome (DS). Its influence was analysed on sleep disorders, body adiposity and its risks, and some physicochemical properties of saliva. METHODS: Seventy subjects were enrolled to assess masticatory biomechanical function and divided into two groups: DS and control groups. Electrical activities of the masseter and temporal muscles (at rest and in maximum voluntary clench-MVC), maximum bite force-MBF and maximum mouth opening-MMO were investigated. Among the atypical subjects, just 24 participants underwent the anthropometry, the polysomnography II and the saliva testing (salivary flow rate-SFR, buffer capacity-BC and salivary cortisol levels, morning/SC-AM and night/SC-PM). RESULTS: MVC and MBF values showed high statistical significance in the control group (P < .001) than in the DS group of 35. MMO values were slightly increased in the DS group in relation to the control group. Overweight and obesity were found in both genders. Atypical women showed higher risk to develop cardiovascular-metabolic diseases than in atypical men. OSA severe was 20% for atypical women and 42.8% for atypical men, whereas snoring index was present in all genders. SFR was reduced in 100% of atypical subjects (hyposalivation in 10% women and 28.5% men). Furthermore, 100% BC, 66.6% SC-AM and 91.6% SC-PM showed normal patterns. CONCLUSION: Masseter and temporal muscle hypotonia was found in all atypical subjects with DS. This muscle dysfunction strongly was related to overweight/obesity, risks for development of cardiovascular/metabolic diseases, OSA severity, successive snoring episodes and salivary flow reduction in DS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Adiposidade , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Polissonografia
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7477, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366926

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate intra-day (test) and inter-day (re-test) reliability of surface electromyography (sEMG) signals of the masseter and temporal muscles in patients with Down syndrome (DS). We determined the reliability of sEMG variables in 33 patients with DS. EMG signals were recorded at rest as well as during maximum voluntary clenching and maximum habitual intercuspation (MHI). The signals were analyzed considering the amplitude in the root mean square (RMS), mean frequency (MNF), median frequency (MDF) and approximate entropy (ApEn). The intraclass correlation (ICC2,1) for the three trials recorded during MHI in the two sessions (test and retest) revealed excellent intra-session and inter-session reliability (ICC2,1 = 0.76 to 0.97) for all sEMG variables and muscles. In the rest position, excellent reliability was found for RMS and ApEn (ICC2,1 = 0.75 to 1.00) and good to excellent reliability was found for MDF and MNF (ICC2,1 = 0.64 to 0.93). The intra-session (test) and inter-session (re-test) analyses demonstrated the reliability of nonlinear sEMG variables of the masticatory muscles in adults with Down Syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down/fisiopatologia , Eletromiografia , Músculo Masseter/fisiopatologia , Contração Muscular , Músculo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Trials ; 20(1): 215, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are many comorbidities associated with Down syndrome (DS), including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and masticatory muscle alteration. Muscular hypotonia, in particular, of the masticatory and oropharyngeal muscles is one of the main characteristics of individuals with DS, resulting in impairments of speech, swallowing, and mastication in these individuals. In addition, total or partial obstruction of the airways during sleep can occur due to pharyngeal hypotonia, leading to snoring and to OSA. This progressive respiratory disorder is associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality in individuals with DS. The aim of this research is to assess the therapeutic effects of surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), the mastication apparatus (MA), and a mandibular advancement oral appliance (OAm) with an embedded thermosensitive microchip on the functions of masticatory muscles (bilateral masseter and temporal muscles), physiological sleep variables, and salivary parameters in adult patients with DS. METHODS: The patients with DS will be randomly selected and divided into three groups (DS-NMES, DS-MA, and DS-OAm) with a minimum of 10 patients in each group. A thermosensitive microchip will be embedded in the OAm to record its compliance. The therapeutic effects on masticatory muscle function will be investigated through electromyography, a caliper, and a force-transducer device; the sleep variables, in turn, will be evaluated by means of polysomnography. The physicochemical and microbiological properties of the saliva will also be analyzed, including the salivary flow, viscosity, buffer capacity, cortisol levels (susceptibility to psychological and/or physical stress), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa levels (risk of aspiration pneumonia) in these patients. The methods determined for this study will be carried out prior to and after 2 months of the recommended therapies. DISCUSSION: The primary outcomes would be the improvement and/or reestablishment of the function of masticatory muscles and the physiological sleep variables in this target public since individuals with DS commonly present generalized muscular hypotonia and dysfunction of the oropharyngeal musculature. As a secondary outcome indicator, the impact of the applied therapies (NMES, MA, and OAm) on the salivary microbiological and physicochemical properties in DS individuals will also be assessed. Furthermore, the compliance of OAm usage will be measured through a thermosensitive microchip. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos, RBR-3qp5np . Registered on 20 February 2018.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down/terapia , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Músculos da Mastigação/fisiopatologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Síndrome de Down/fisiopatologia , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/química , Tamanho da Amostra , Adulto Jovem
7.
Braz Oral Res ; 32: e61, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379208

RESUMO

To evaluate the impact of the GaAlAs diode laser with energy densities of 160 J/cm2, 320 J/cm2, and 640 J/cm2 on the periodontal tissues under continuous orthodontic force application and on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats with type-2 diabetes mellitus. The intensity of primary alveolar bone formation was also investigated through the immune-positive osteocytes for OPN antibody. Forty adult male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups of 5 rats: normoglycemic (N), 160 J-laser-normoglycemic (160 J-LN), 320 J-laser-normoglycemic (320 J-LN), 640 J-laser-normoglycemic (640 J-LN), diabetic (D), 160 J-laser-diabetic (160 J-LD), 320 J-laser-diabetic (320 J-LD), and 640 J-laser-diabetic (640 J-LD) rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intravenous injection of 40 mg/kg monohydrated-alloxan. An orthodontic force magnitude of 20cN was applied. The laser parameters were continuous emission of 780-nm wavelength, output power of 20mW, and fiber probe with a spot size of 0.04 cm in diameter. Radiographic, histomorphological, and immunohistochemical analysis were performed after a period of 21 days. The photobiomodulation using the energy density of 640 J/cm2 strongly stimulated the alveolar bone formation and contributed the reorganization of the soft periodontal tissues, followed by the 320 J/cm2. Extensive alveolar bone loss, intense infiltration of inflammatory cells, and degradation of the PDJ tissue were mainly found in the D and 160 J-LD groups. The rate of orthodontic tooth movement was represented by the interdental distance between the cementoenamel junctions of the right mandibular first and second molars . This distance was larger in the diabetic groups (D: 39.98±1.97, 160 J-LD: 34.84±6.01, 320 J-LD: 29.82±1.73, and 640 J-LD: 35.47±4.56) than in the normoglycemic groups (N: 21.13±1.19; 160 J-LN: 22.69±0.72, 320 J-LN: 22.28±0.78, and 640 J-LN: 24.56±2.11). The number of osteopontin-positive osteocytes was significantly greater in the 640 J-LD (14.72 ± 0.82; p < 0.01) and 640 J-LN (13.62 ± 1.33; p < 0.05) groups than with D (9.82 ± 1.17) and 160 J-LD (9.77 ± 1.10) groups. Therefore, the energy density of 640 J/cm2 provided the best maintenance and integrity of the periodontal tissue microarchitecture under continuous orthodontic force when compared with the other dosages, mainly in the uncontrolled diabetic rats. The interdental distance was greater in the D and 160 J-LD groups due to presence of severe periodontitis caused by diabetes plus the mechanical stress generated by continuous orthodontic forces, implying, thus, an insufficient biostimulatory effect for the dosage of 160 J/cm2.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Periodonto/efeitos da radiação , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/métodos , Perda do Osso Alveolar/patologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Imuno-Histoquímica , Lasers Semicondutores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Aparelhos Ortodônticos , Osteoclastos/efeitos da radiação , Osteócitos/efeitos da radiação , Osteogênese/efeitos da radiação , Osteopontina/análise , Periodonto/diagnóstico por imagem , Periodonto/patologia , Doses de Radiação , Radiografia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Case Rep Dent ; 2018: 2409212, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29854479

RESUMO

Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a rare hereditary disorder affecting the development of ectoderm-derived organs and tissues. The aim of this study was to describe phenotypic features and the therapeutic approach in dentistry among three patients with ED, correlating their data with the literature. Additionally, to investigate the salivary gland disorders and their impacts on oral microbiota, we performed salivary tests, including salivary flow rate, salivary buffering capacity, and concentration levels of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and yeasts. All patients presented oligodontia, resulting in a significant masticatory dysfunction and aesthetic impairment. The counts of mutans streptococci (n=3) and yeasts (n=2) were high; on the other hand, the count of lactobacilli (n=3) was low. Therefore, salivary and microbiological tests showed that the patients with ED, particularly the hypohidrotic type, presented a high risk of enamel caries and susceptibility to oral infections, which may be likely triggered by reduction of salivary flow and/or possible immunological disorders.

9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e61, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-974452

RESUMO

Abstract To evaluate the impact of the GaAlAs diode laser with energy densities of 160 J/cm2, 320 J/cm2, and 640 J/cm2 on the periodontal tissues under continuous orthodontic force application and on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats with type-2 diabetes mellitus. The intensity of primary alveolar bone formation was also investigated through the immune-positive osteocytes for OPN antibody. Forty adult male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups of 5 rats: normoglycemic (N), 160 J-laser-normoglycemic (160 J-LN), 320 J-laser-normoglycemic (320 J-LN), 640 J-laser-normoglycemic (640 J-LN), diabetic (D), 160 J-laser-diabetic (160 J-LD), 320 J-laser-diabetic (320 J-LD), and 640 J-laser-diabetic (640 J-LD) rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intravenous injection of 40 mg/kg monohydrated-alloxan. An orthodontic force magnitude of 20cN was applied. The laser parameters were continuous emission of 780-nm wavelength, output power of 20mW, and fiber probe with a spot size of 0.04 cm in diameter. Radiographic, histomorphological, and immunohistochemical analysis were performed after a period of 21 days. The photobiomodulation using the energy density of 640 J/cm2 strongly stimulated the alveolar bone formation and contributed the reorganization of the soft periodontal tissues, followed by the 320 J/cm2. Extensive alveolar bone loss, intense infiltration of inflammatory cells, and degradation of the PDJ tissue were mainly found in the D and 160 J-LD groups. The rate of orthodontic tooth movement was represented by the interdental distance between the cementoenamel junctions of the right mandibular first and second molars . This distance was larger in the diabetic groups (D: 39.98±1.97, 160 J-LD: 34.84±6.01, 320 J-LD: 29.82±1.73, and 640 J-LD: 35.47±4.56) than in the normoglycemic groups (N: 21.13±1.19; 160 J-LN: 22.69±0.72, 320 J-LN: 22.28±0.78, and 640 J-LN: 24.56±2.11). The number of osteopontin-positive osteocytes was significantly greater in the 640 J-LD (14.72 ± 0.82; p < 0.01) and 640 J-LN (13.62 ± 1.33; p < 0.05) groups than with D (9.82 ± 1.17) and 160 J-LD (9.77 ± 1.10) groups. Therefore, the energy density of 640 J/cm2 provided the best maintenance and integrity of the periodontal tissue microarchitecture under continuous orthodontic force when compared with the other dosages, mainly in the uncontrolled diabetic rats. The interdental distance was greater in the D and 160 J-LD groups due to presence of severe periodontitis caused by diabetes plus the mechanical stress generated by continuous orthodontic forces, implying, thus, an insufficient biostimulatory effect for the dosage of 160 J/cm2.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/métodos , Periodonto/efeitos da radiação , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Aparelhos Ortodônticos , Osteoclastos/efeitos da radiação , Osteócitos/efeitos da radiação , Osteogênese/efeitos da radiação , Doses de Radiação , Valores de Referência , Periodonto/patologia , Periodonto/diagnóstico por imagem , Imuno-Histoquímica , Radiografia , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Perda do Osso Alveolar/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Osteopontina/análise , Lasers Semicondutores/uso terapêutico
10.
Lasers Med Sci ; 32(7): 1479-1487, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28674791

RESUMO

The purposes of the present study are to assess the effects of the GaAlAs diode laser on the periodontal tissues and to investigate its action on the alveolar bone remodeling process during orthodontic tooth movement in normoglycemic and diabetic rats. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 15 rats: normoglycemic (N), diabetic (D), laser-normoglycemic (LN), and laser-diabetic (LD) rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intravenous injection of 40 mg/kg monohydrated alloxan. The orthodontically moved tooth underwent a force magnitude of 20 cN. The laser irradiation with a continuous emission of a 780-nm wavelength, an output power of 20 mW, and a fiber probe with a spot size of 0.04 cm in diameter and an area of 0.00126 cm2 were used. Moreover, an energy density of 640 J/cm2 was applied in an exposition time of 40 s. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis was performed. The photobiomodulation (PBM) strongly stimulated the periodontal tissue response, establishing mainly the balance between the bone formation and resorption. Intense inflammatory cell infiltration and extensive loss of bone tissue were mainly found in the D group from 14 days. The number of osteopontin-positive osteocytes was significantly greater in the LN group, followed by the LD, especially at 7 and 14 days, whereas osteoprotegerin-positive osteoblasts were significantly higher in the LN and LD groups than in the N and D groups, respectively, in all periods. The PBM strongly stimulated the alveolar bone remodeling and favored the continuous reorganization of the soft periodontal tissues, leading to the maintenance and integrity of the periodontal microstructure under orthodontic force, especially in uncontrolled diabetic rats.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Lasers Semicondutores/uso terapêutico , Ortodontia , Periodonto/efeitos da radiação , Periodonto/cirurgia , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária , Animais , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Osteoblastos/patologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos da radiação , Osteoclastos/patologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos da radiação , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Periodonto/patologia , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar
11.
Arch Oral Biol ; 73: 16-20, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27648849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles of adult patients with different degrees of oral motor impairment (cerebral palsy) with the electromyographic activity of healthy individuals in a control group. Electromyographic activity was compared when the masticatory muscles were at rest and in motion. DESIGN: Thirty adult patients with cerebral palsy and 30 subjects without neuromotor disorders were enrolled in the present study. Oral motor function impairment was classified for each subject according to the Orofacial Motor Function Assessment Scale. Surface electromyography was bilaterally recorded in the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles at rest, during maximal voluntary clench and mouth opening. Comparisons between the groups were statistically assessed using Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: At rest and mouth opening, electromyographic values were higher among patients with cerebral palsy than control group. During maximal voluntary clench, the opposite occurred. The degree of oral motor impairment affected mouth opening. CONCLUSION: There are significant differences in masticatory muscle activity between adult patients with CP and healthy individuals, and the degree of oral motor impairment is important. SIGNIFICANCE: To improve the masticatory function of these patients, muscle therapy should approach rest, mouth opening and clenching differently.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Músculos da Mastigação/fisiologia , Músculos da Mastigação/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Avaliação da Deficiência , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Descanso
12.
PLoS One ; 10(8): e0128959, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26247208

RESUMO

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a term employed to define a group of non-progressive neuromotor disorders caused by damage to the immature or developing brain, with consequent limitations regarding movement and posture. CP may impair orapharygeal muscle tone, leading to a compromised chewing function and to sleep disorders (such as obstructive sleep apnea). Thirteen adults with CP underwent bilateral masseter and temporalis neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) therapy. The effects on the masticatory muscles and sleep variables were evaluated using electromyography (EMG) and polysomnography (PSG), respectively, prior and after 2 months of NMES. EMG consisted of 3 tests in different positions: rest, mouth opening and maximum clenching effort (MCE). EMG values in the rest position were 100% higher than values recorded prior to therapy for all muscles analyzed (p < 0.05); mean mouth opening increased from 38.0 ± 8.0 to 44.0 ± 10.0 cm (p = 0.03). A significant difference in MCE was found only for the right masseter. PSG revealed an improved in the AHI from 7.2±7.0/h to 2.3±1.5/h (p < 0.05); total sleep time improved from 185 min to 250 min (p = 0.04) and minimun SaO2 improved from 83.6 ± 3.0 to 86.4 ± 4.0 (p = 0.04). NMES performed over a two-month period led to improvements in the electrical activity of the masticatory muscles at rest, mouth opening, isometric contraction and sleep variables, including the elimination of obstructive sleep apnea events in patients with CP. Trial registration: ReBEC RBR994XFS http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Cerebral/terapia , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Músculos da Mastigação/inervação , Músculos da Mastigação/fisiopatologia , Sono , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Masseter/inervação , Músculo Masseter/fisiopatologia , Mastigação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Músculo Temporal/inervação , Músculo Temporal/fisiopatologia
13.
Cranio ; 33(3): 169-73, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25323221

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the McNamara rapid palatal expansion device for the treatment of sleep disorders in children. METHODS: The sample enrolled 12 children aged 4-11 years. Children with snoring and bruxism whose parents did not agree to tonsil surgery were included in the study. During the initial evaluation, a questionnaire addressing sleep was administered, and plaster models were made for the construction of the McNamara rapid maxillary expansion device. The expansion period was 7-15 days, and the McNamara device was removed after 6-8 months. The same questionnaire was administered again after 30 days of use of the orthopedic appliance. The data were analyzed using the McNemar test, with the level of significance set to 5% (P<0.05). RESULTS: Significant improvements were found in tiredness upon waking (P=0.002), mood (P=0.008), lip seal (P=0.031), drooling during sleep (P=0.031), snoring (P=0.001), and bruxism (P=0.0062). CONCLUSION: The use of non-invasive methods, such as rapid maxillary expansion, can be an effective treatment for snoring and other undesirable sleep behaviors in children.


Assuntos
Bruxismo/terapia , Técnica de Expansão Palatina , Sialorreia/terapia , Ronco/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Arch Oral Biol ; 59(12): 1352-8, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25195183

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of surface electromyography of the masticatory muscles in patients with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Surface electromyography was performed over the masseter and temporal muscles in 15 patients with cerebral palsy with the mandible at rest and during maximum clenching effort in two sessions. The data were analyzed using the root mean square amplitude, mean frequency, median frequency, zero crossings and approximate entropy. RESULTS: In the within-day evaluations, intraclass correlation coefficients were higher (0.80-0.98) for the all electromyography variables and muscles during maximum clenching effort. In the resting position, the coefficients revealed good to excellent reliability (0.61-0.95) for root mean square, mean frequency, median frequency and zero crossings and fair to good reliability (0.53-0.74) for approximate entropy. In the between-day evaluations, the coefficients revealed good to excellent reliability (0.60-0.86) for mean frequency, median frequency, zero crossings and approximate entropy. In the resting position, the coefficients revealed poor to fair reliability (0.23-0.57) for all electromyography variables studied. The root mean square had the highest standard errors during maximum clenching effort (2.37-5.91) and at rest (1.47-6.86). CONCLUSION: Mean frequency, median frequency and approximate entropy are the most reliable variables of surface electromyography signals of the masseter and temporal muscles during maximum clenching effort in individuals with cerebral palsy. These measures can be used to evaluate the function and behaviour of the masticatory muscles in this population following oral rehabilitation and surgical oral procedures as well as for the study the physiology of these muscles.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Eletromiografia , Mandíbula/fisiopatologia , Músculo Masseter/fisiopatologia , Músculo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
15.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 18(1): 62-7, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24411151

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sleep bruxism is common among the various oromotor alterations found in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). Few studies have investigated the use of the mastication device denominated "hyperbola" (HB) and none was found describing the use of such a device for the treatment of bruxism in children with CP. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the HB on electromyographic (EMG) activity in the jaw-closing muscles and the reduction in sleep bruxism in a child with CP using surface EMG analysis before and after nine months of treatment. METHODS: A seven-year-old boy with severe spastic CP and sleep bruxism was enrolled in this study. The HB was chosen as the treatment option for sleep bruxism in this case because the child did not accept an occlusal splint. The HB has a hyperbolic shape and is made of soft, non-toxic, odorless, tasteless silicone. There are five different sizes of HB manufactured based on the diversity of tooth sizes. This device produces proprioceptive excitation in the dentoalveolar nerve, spindles and Golgi tendon organs. HB has been employed for the treatment of temporomandibular disorder, abnormal oro-dental development, abnormal occlusion, xerostomy, halitosis and bruxism. HB therapy was performed for 5 min six times a day over a nine-week period. Surface EMG of the mandible at rest and during maximum contraction was performed on the masseter and temporalis muscles bilaterally to evaluate electromyographic activity before and after nine months of HB usage. RESULTS: HB usage led to a visible tendency toward the reorganization of mastication dynamics, achieving a marked balance in electromyographic activity of the jaw-closing muscles and improving the child's quality of life. CONCLUSION: Based on the findings of the present study, this noninvasive therapy may be useful for individuals with cerebral palsy due to its positive effects and low cost, which allows its use in the public health realm. Further clinical studies with a larger sample size are needed to validate these results and allow the development of a new treatment protocol for patients with spastic cerebral palsy.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Placas Oclusais , Bruxismo do Sono/etiologia , Bruxismo do Sono/terapia , Criança , Eletromiografia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos da Mastigação/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida
16.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 17(4): 418-22, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24138997

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the use of an occlusal splint in children with bruxism in a pilot study with a short-term follow up. Seventeen children were recruited, only nine of whom formed the sample following the application of the inclusion criteria: presence of sleep bruxism for at least six months (based on parents' reports); presence of at least the first permanent molars; and no previous history of treatment involving an occlusal splint. The sample was submitted to a clinical exam. Other sleep problems were screened with the use of a sleep questionnaire filled out by parents before and after 90 days of occlusal splint usage. The children received a flat acrylic resin splint with full coverage of the occlusal surfaces to be worn in the maxilla. In children with erupting teeth, a space was created in the splint to allow normal eruption. After the 90-day period, the absence of sleep bruxism and sleep movements was noted in most of children. Moreover, snoring was reduced in nearly 50%, which raises a new issue to be investigated with regard to the pathophysiology of sleep bruxism. The use of an occlusal splint was effective in reducing the symptoms of sleep bruxism and other sleep problems. Further investigations should be carried out on the relationship between snoring and sleep bruxism in children.


Assuntos
Placas Oclusais , Bruxismo do Sono/terapia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
17.
Int J Prosthodont ; 26(4): 334-9, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23837163

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to validate the use of a mandibular repositioner appliance (MRA) to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and primary snoring, comparing polysomnographic and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) data obtained prior to and during MRA treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-three patients who presented with different degrees of OSA severity or primary snoring were fitted to a PM positioner between 2009 and 2011. The diagnosis was established by a polysomnogram (PSG) prior to treatment and after 6 months to verify the efficacy of MRA therapy. Subjective daytime sleepiness was evaluated by ESS questionnaire prior to treatment and at the follow-up. RESULTS: Patients were divided into primary snoring and OSA groups. For the primary snoring group, PSG variables did not show significant results, except for a decrease in snoring. For the OSA group, the mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was reduced from 23.0 ± 11 to 5.3 ± 4.0 and median ESS reduced significantly from 13.0 to 8.5. Complete response (AHI < 5) was found in 25 (40%) patients and partial response (AHI ≤ 10) in 27 (43%) patients. CONCLUSION: The findings validate the efficacy of the adjustable PM positioner for the safe treatment of OSA.


Assuntos
Avanço Mandibular/instrumentação , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Polissonografia , Estudos Prospectivos , Indução de Remissão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fases do Sono/fisiologia , Ronco/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 18(3): 143-149, May-June 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-690011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify if the reference values of Sleep Apnea cephalometric analysis of North American individuals are similar to the ones of Brazilian individuals presenting no craniofacial anomalies. The study also aimed to identify craniofacial alterations in Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) patients in relation to individuals without clinical characteristics of the disease through this cephalometric analysis. METHOD: It were used 55 lateral cephalograms consisting of 29 for the control group of adult individuals without clinical characteristics of OSAHS and 26 apneic adults. All radiographs were submitted to Sleep Apnea cephalometric analysis through Radiocef Studio 2.0. The standard values of this analysis were compared, by means of z test, to the ones obtained from the control group and these were compared to values from apneic group through Student's t test. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between values obtained from control group and standard values. On the group of OSAHS patients it was observed a decrease on the dimensions of upper airways and an increase on the soft palate length. CONCLUSIONS: The standard values of Sleep Apnea analysis can be used as reference in Brazilian individuals. Besides, through lateral cephalograms it was possible to identify craniofacial alterations in OSAHS patients.


OBJETIVO: verificar se os valores de referência da análise cefalométrica para apneia do sono, referentes a indivíduos norte-americanos, são semelhantes aos de indivíduos brasileiros não portadores de anomalias craniofaciais. Identificar, também por meio dessa análise cefalométrica, alterações craniofaciais em indivíduos portadores de síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS) em relação a indivíduos sem características clínicas da doença. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas 55 radiografias cefalométricas laterais advindas de arquivos, sendo 29 radiografias para o grupo controle, sendo composto de indivíduos adultos sem características clínicas de SAOS, e 26 de indivíduos adultos apneicos. Todas as radiografias foram submetidas à análise cefalométrica para apneia do sono por meio do software Radiocef Studio 2.0. Por meio do teste z, valores-padrão dessa análise foram comparados aos valores obtidos do grupo controle, e esses, por sua vez, foram comparados aos valores do grupo de apneicos por meio do teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: não houve diferenças significativas entre os valores obtidos do grupo controle e os valores-padrão. No grupo de indivíduos portadores de SAOS, observou-se diminuição nas dimensões das vias aéreas superiores e aumento do comprimento do palato mole. CONCLUSÕES: os valores-padrão da análise de apneia do sono podem ser utilizados como referência em indivíduos brasileiros. Além disso, por meio da radiografia cefalométrica lateral foi possível identificar alterações craniofaciais em indivíduos portadores de SAOS.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Cefalometria , Palato Mole/patologia , Faringe/patologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/patologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Biomarcadores , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Modelos Lineares , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , América do Norte , Valores de Referência , Base do Crânio/anatomia & histologia
19.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 13: 193, 2012 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23033863

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a posture and movement disorder and different therapeutic modalities, such as the use of braces, have sought to favor selective motor control and muscle coordination in such patients. The aim of the proposed study is to determine the effect of the combination of posture-control insoles and ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) improving functional limitation in children with CP. METHODS/DESIGN: The sample will be composed of 24 children with CP between four and 12 years of age. After the signing of the statement of informed consent, the children will be randomly allocated to two groups: a control group using AFOs alone and an experimental group using both posture-control insoles and AFOs. Evaluations will be performed on five occasions: without any accessory (insoles or AFOs), immediately after, one month after, six months after and one year after AFOs or insole and AFOs use. The evaluation will involve the analysis of gait, static and functional balance, mobility and hypertonia. The three-dimensional assessment of gait will involve the eight-camera SMART-D SMART-D 140® system (BTS Engineering), two Kistler force plates (model 9286BA) and an eight-channel, wireless FREEEMG® electromyography (BTS Engineering). Static balance will be assessed using a Kistler force plate (model 9286BA). Clinical functional balance and mobility will be assessed using the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go Test and Six-Minute Walk Test. The posture-control insoles will be made of ethylene vinyl acetate, with thermal molding for fixation. The fixed orthoses will be made of polypropylene and attached to the ankle region (AFO). The results will be analyzed statistically, with the level significance set to 5% (p < 0.05). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: RBR6d342s (http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/news/).


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Cerebral/terapia , Órtoses do Pé/estatística & dados numéricos , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/instrumentação , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 13: 71, 2012 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22587485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies demonstrate effectiveness of therapies for oral rehabilitation of patients with cerebral palsy (CP), given the difficulties in chewing, swallowing and speech, besides the intellectual, sensory and social limitations. Due to upper airway obstruction, they are also vulnerable to sleep disorders. This study aims to assess the sleep variables, through polysomnography, and masticatory dynamics, using electromiography, before and after neuromuscular electrical stimulation, associated or not with low power laser (Gallium Arsenide- Aluminun, =780 nm) and LED (= 660 nm) irradiation in CP patients. METHODS/DESIGN: 50 patients with CP, both gender, aged between 19 and 60 years will be enrolled in this study. The inclusion criteria are: voluntary participation, patient with hemiparesis, quadriparesis or diparetic CP, with ability to understand and respond to verbal commands. The exclusion criteria are: patients undergoing/underwent orthodontic, functional maxillary orthopedic or botulinum toxin treatment. Polysomnographic and surface electromyographic exams on masseter, temporalis and suprahyoid will be carry out in all sample. Questionnaire assessing oral characteristics will be applied. The sample will be divided into 5 treatment groups: Group 1: neuromuscular electrical stimulation; Group 2: laser therapy; Group 3: LED therapy; Group 4: neuromuscular electrical stimulation and laser therapy and Group 5: neuromuscular electrical stimulation and LED therapy. All patients will be treated during 8 consecutive weeks. After treatment, polysomnographic and electromiographic exams will be collected again. DISCUSSION: This paper describes a five arm clinical trial assessing the examination of sleep quality and masticatory function in patients with CP under non-invasive therapies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol for this study is registered with the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials - ReBEC RBR-994XFS.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/terapia , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Mastigação , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiopatologia , Fototerapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sono , Sistema Estomatognático/inervação , Adulto , Brasil , Paralisia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lasers Semicondutores , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/instrumentação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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