Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 88
Filtrar
1.
Per Med ; 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873959

RESUMO

Although immunotherapy has recently revolutionized standard of care in different cancer types, prostate cancer has generally failed to show dramatic responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors. As in other tumors, the goal in prostate cancer is now to target treatments more precisely on patient's individual characteristics through precision medicine. Defects in mismatch repair, mutations in the exonuclease domain of the DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE), high tumor mutational burden and the presence of biallelic loss of CDK12 among others, are predictive biomarkers of response to immunotherapy. In the present review, we summarize the evolving landscape of immunotherapy in prostate cancer, including precision approaches and strategies to define classes of responsive patients and scale up resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors.

2.
Immunotherapy ; 2021 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784782

RESUMO

Background: Few data are available regarding the effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients. Methods: To provide a real-world experience with anti-PD-1/PD-L1-based therapy in UTUC patients, we involved an Italian network in a multicenter retrospective analysis. Results: A total of 78 UTUC patients were enrolled. The median follow-up was 25.1 months. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 2.2 months (95% CI 1.8-2.6), and the median OS (mOS) was 6.0 months (95% CI 3.6-8.4). The Sonpavde score (including performance status > 0, hemoglobin < 10 g/dl, liver metastases, time from prior chemotherapy ≥ 3 months) split the patients into three groups (0 vs 1 vs 2-4 factors), efficiently predicting the OS and PFS outcome at the multivariate analyses (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The prognosis of unselected UTUC patients is still unsatisfactory. The Sonpavde score was validated for the first time in an UTUC population, as a useful tool for the treatment decision-making process.

3.
Biologics ; 15: 441-450, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754178

RESUMO

In recent years, diagnostic and therapeutic advances have contributed to a reduction in mortality rates of patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC). Immune checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy and safety as both first-line and first-line switch maintenance therapy for mUC. For platinum-refractory patients, in addition to immunotherapy, other targeted agents (antibody-drug conjugates and fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors) have been approved after demonstrating a clinically relevant advantage in overall response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival compared to standard of care. Sequential treatment strategies are finally feasible for patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma. This review will summarize the results of the most important phase II-III clinical trials for first-line, switch maintenance, second-line, and subsequent lines of therapy, and describe the most promising clinical trials currently ongoing in these treatment scenarios.

4.
Clin Med Insights Oncol ; 15: 11795549211021667, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290538

RESUMO

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are currently the standard of care for metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC) after the failure of previous platinum-based chemotherapy. The choice of further therapy after ICI progression is a new challenge, and scarce data support it. We aimed to examine the outcomes of mUC patients after progression to ICI, especially when receiving chemotherapy. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from clinical records of mUC patients whose disease progressed to anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1)or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) therapy at 14 Italian centers. Patients were grouped according to ICI therapy setting into SALVAGE (ie, ICI delivered ⩾ second-line therapy after platinum-based chemotherapy) and NAÏVE (ie, first-line therapy) groups. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared among subgroups. Cox regression assessed the effect of treatments after progression to ICI on OS. Objective response rate (ORR) was calculated as the sum of partial and complete radiologic responses. Results: The study population consisted of 201 mUC patients who progressed after ICI: 59 in the NAÏVE cohort and 142 in the SALVAGE cohort. Overall, 52 patients received chemotherapy after ICI progression (25.9%), 20 (9.9%) received ICI beyond progression, 115 (57.2%) received best supportive care only, and 14 (7.0%) received investigational drugs. Objective response rate to chemotherapy in the post-ICI setting was 23.1% (28.0% in the NAÏVE group and 18.5% in the SALVAGE group). Median PFS and OS to chemotherapy after ICI-PD was 5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3-11) and 13 months (95% CI: 7-NA) for the NAÏVE group; 3 months (95% CI: 2-NA) and 9 months (95% CI: 6-NA) for the SALVAGE group, respectively. Overall survival from ICI initiation was 17 months for patients receiving chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.09, p < 0.001), versus 8 months for patients receiving ICI beyond progression (HR = 0.13, p < 0.001), and 2 months for patients who did not receive further active treatment (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Chemotherapy administered after ICI progression for mUC patients is advisable irrespective of the treatment line.

5.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 27: 100369, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838570

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: One of the Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC) treatment options recently recommended by International Guidelines is represented by Active Surveillance (AS),. Herein we carried out a systematic review and pooled-analysis of currently available evidences in order to provide recommendations for daily urological practice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, and Coch rane Library databases were searched with the terms "Non-Muscle Invasive" or "pTa/pT1" and "Bladder Cancer" or "Bladder Tumor". A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the pooled upstage rate (from pTa to pT1/T2), the pooled upgrade (from G1-2 to G3), the proportion of pts still in AS and the pooled AS failure rate across all studies. A random-effects model was used to derive the pooled effect sizes and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: 7 studies were included, accounting for 558 patients (pts). AS failure rate was 67% (95%CI 44-84%) and 32% of pts were still on AS (14-56%) during a median AS time of 15,6 months. Progression to worst grade or stage was observed in 19% of pts (95%CI 11-30%). Upgrade to G3 and upstage to pT1 were observed in 44% (95%CI 13.6-79.8%) and 8% (95%CI 3.9-15.9%) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: AS for Low Grade NMIBC can be considered safe and feasible, even if only in clinical trial context. We encourage multicenters to perform randomized clinical trials to obtain data about the quality of life of pts on AS, which are scarce, and to rapidly make AS an integral part of daily urological practice as soon as possible.

6.
World J Urol ; 39(9): 3407-3414, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683412

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prognostic significance of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in patients with metastatic seminoma is not defined. We investigated the prognostic impact of LDH levels prior to first-line systemic treatment and other clinical characteristics in this subset of patients. METHODS: Files from two registry studies and one single-institution database were analyzed retrospectively. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify patient characteristics associated with recurrence free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and complete response rate (CRR). RESULTS: The dataset included 351 metastatic seminoma patients with a median follow-up of 5.36 years. Five-year RFS, OS and CRR were 82%, 89% and 52%, respectively. Explorative analysis revealed a cut-off LDH level of < 2.5 upper limit of normal (ULN) (n = 228) vs. ≥ 2.5 ULN (n = 123) to be associated with a significant difference concerning OS associated with 5-years OS rates of 93% vs. 83% (p = 0.001) which was confirmed in multivariate analysis (HR 2.87; p = 0.004). Furthermore, the cut-off LDH < 2.5 ULN vs. ≥ 2.5 ULN correlated with RFS and CRR associated with a 5-years RFS rate and CRR of 76% vs. 86% (p = 0.012) and 32% vs. 59% (p ≤ 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: LDH levels correlate with treatment response and survival in metastatic seminoma patients and should be considered for their prognostic stratification.

7.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 159: 103241, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) has different molecular and genetic features from the commonest carcinoma of the bladder, suggesting a possible different sensitivity to immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of all relevant clinical studies including advanced UTUC patients treated with ICI was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: Six prospective trials for a total 2537 patients, including 396 (15.6 %) with advanced UTUC, were eligible for the analysis. In UTUC patients, the pooled ORR was 21.2 % (95 % CI, 12.5 %-33.7 %); the risk of death was reduced by 24 % over the standard platinum-based chemotherapy, but this was not statistically significant (hazard ratio = 0.76; 95 % confidence interval, 0.41-1.40; p = 0.37, χ2 = 3.28, p = 0.07; I2 = 70 %). CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence does not support a statistically significant effect from ICI over the standard treatment for advanced UTUC patients. Properly performed pre-planned subgroup analyses from randomized clinical trials are eagerly awaited.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Urol Oncol ; 39(4): 235.e15-235.e21, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the role of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to stage lymph nodes in patients receiving neoadjuvant immunotherapy before radical cystectomy are lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of PET/CT to predict the pathologic lymph node involvement (LNI) in patients with MIBC receiving neoadjuvant pembrolizumab within the PURE-01 trial (NCT02736266). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three courses of pembrolizumab were administered before radical cystectomy and extended pelvic lymph node dissection in clinical T2-4aN0M0 MIBC based on contrast-enhanced CT scan. LNI was also assessed with PET/CT before and after treatment. PET/CT results were compared with histopathological findings. The ability of baseline and post-therapy PET/CT to evaluate LNI was assessed, and univariate logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: From February 2017 to August 2019, a total of 108 patients and 105 patients had evaluable baseline and post-pembrolizumab scans, respectively. The sensitivity to detect LNI was 27% and 37.5% for pre- and post-pembrolizumab PET/CT, and specificity was 97% and 98%, respectively. In total, 4 of 7 patients (57%) showing baseline FDG-uptake had LNI vs. 11 of 101 (11%) with no baseline uptake. All but 1 of the 7 patients did not respond to pembrolizumab. Both pre- and post-pembrolizumab PET/CT significantly predicted LNI (P = 0.004 and P < 0.001) at univariate analyses. Our results warrant further validation in larger datasets. CONCLUSIONS: PET/CT performance does not justify its use in routine practice for cN0 MIBC. However, our preliminary data revealed opportunities for the use of baseline PET/CT, within clinical trials, to optimally select patients with MIBC who are best suited for neoadjuvant immunotherapy strategies. Validation in larger datasets, as well as a cost analysis, are needed.

9.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 4(5): 802-810, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection status and outcomes for perioperative treatments for patients with lymph node-involved penile squamous-cell carcinoma (PSCC) are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the benefit from perioperative radiotherapy (RT) for PSCC according to HPV infection status. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In an international multicenter database of 1254 patients with PSCC who received inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND), 507 had suitable clinical information. INTERVENTION: ILND, with or without chemotherapy or RT for involved lymph nodes. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Kaplan-Meier and restricted mean survival time (RMST) analyses for overall survival (OS) were performed for all patients and after propensity score-matching (PSM; n = 136), for which patient age, histology, type of penile surgical procedure, pathological tumor and nodal stage, ILND laterality, pelvic LND, and perioperative treatment were taken into account when assessing differences between HPV+ and HPV- patients. Finally, we looked at genomic alterations in PSCC using data from the Foundation Medicine database (n = 199) to characterize HPV+ PSCC. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Patients with HPV+ PSCC (n = 86; 17%) had lower clinical N stage (p < 0.001) and inguinal lymph node metastasis density (p < 0.001). Perioperative RT was delivered in 49 patients (9.7%), with the vast majority receiving adjuvant RT (n = 40). HPV+ patients had similar median OS (p = 0.1) but longer RMST than HPV- patients at different time points. Nevertheless, HPV+ patients treated with perioperative RT exhibited longer median OS (p = 0.015) and longer RMST compared to HPV- patients. In the PSM cohorts, HPV+ status remained significantly associated with longer OS after RT. The HPV- PSCC group had a higher frequency of TP53 mutations compared to HPV+ PSCC (75% vs 15%; p < 0.001). The results are limited by the retrospective nature of the data. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative RT was more effective in the HPV+ PSCC subgroup. Reasons for the enhanced radiosensitivity may be related to the lack of TP53 mutations. PATIENT SUMMARY: We analyzed data from a large multicenter database for patients with penile cancer who had received inguinal lymph node dissection, with or without chemotherapy or radiotherapy. We found that for tumors positive for human papillomavirus (HPV), use of radiotherapy resulted in prolonged survival compared to HPV-negative tumors. On the basis of these results we are inspired to design studies on the use of radiotherapy in HPV-selected patients.

11.
Eur Urol Focus ; 7(5): 1092-1099, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the incidence and prognostic impact of immune-related imaging changes, assessed by 18[F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan, in patients receiving immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are lacking. We relied on the population of patients enrolled in the PURE-01 study to evaluate such changes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of PET/CT to visualize the immune-related adverse events (irAEs) following pembrolizumab. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: From February 2017 to August 2019, in 103 patients with nonmetastatic, clinical T2-4aN0M0 bladder cancer, PET/CT scan was performed before and after neoadjuvant pembrolizumab (N = 206 scans), before radical cystectomy. INTERVENTION: PET/CT before and after neoadjuvant pembrolizumab, before radical cystectomy. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We analyzed the occurrence of irAEs, evaluated according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 5.0, against the development of inflammatory FDG uptake described at PET/CT (irAEs + PET/CT). Logistic regression analyses evaluated the association between irAEs + PET/CT and the pathological response to pembrolizumab. Kaplan-Meier curves tested their association with progression-free survival (PFS) after pembrolizumab and radical cystectomy. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Forty patients (39%) developed irAEs + PET/CT in several target organs. The most frequent target organs were the thyroid (N = 18), stomach (N = 14), mediastinal lymph nodes (N = 9), and lung (N = 5). These changes were clinically evident in 18 (45%) and were not associated with the pathological response, neither in terms of complete response (ypT0N0, p = 0.07) nor as downstaging to ypT≤1N0 disease (p = 0.1), although ypT0N0 responses were numerically more frequent in patients with irAEs+ PET/CT (47.5% vs 32%). Furthermore, irAE+ PET/CT events were associated with longer, not statistically significant, 24-mo PFS: 88.3% versus 76.5% (p = 0.5). Our results warrant further validation in larger datasets. CONCLUSIONS: We presented unique surrogate data of PET/CT that could help improve our understanding of nonclinically evident effects of ICI administration, especially in patients at the early disease stage. PATIENT SUMMARY: We evaluated the utility of PET/CT to visualize the occurrence of inflammatory changes after pembrolizumab in patients with localized bladder cancer without metastases. After immunotherapy, 39% of the patients developed 18[F] fluorodeoxyglucose uptake consistent of inflammatory changes. Overall, our data improve our knowledge on the effects induced by immunotherapy, which may have a clinical impact at longer follow-up. Take Home Message ● In the PURE-01 study, T2-4N0M0 muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients were staged with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) before and after pembrolizumab. ● PET/CT after pembrolizumab revealed inflammatory FDG uptake in 39% of patients, but only 45% of these cases of uptake corresponded to clinically evident adverse events. ● The development of inflammatory uptake was associated with a higher pathological complete response rate and longer progression-free survival, although these differences were not statistically significant.

12.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 19(3): 237-245.e2, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced seminoma have an exceedingly favorable prognosis. Studies aiming to reduce the total treatment burden and side effects in patients with well-defined disease and very good prognosis are warranted. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a prospective observational study, patients with advanced stage seminoma were treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) or EP according to guidelines. Fluorodeoxyglucose with positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) examinations were performed at baseline, after 2 cycles (PET/CT2) in all patients, and after chemotherapy at the physician's discretion. Disease response to treatment assessed by PET/CT was qualitatively evaluated by 2 independent nuclear medicine physicians. Contrast-enhanced CT scans were also performed according to guidelines (at baseline, after treatment, during follow-up). The study's primary endpoint was to evaluate the association between PET/CT2 findings and relapse-free survival. RESULTS: From January 2009 to January 2017, a total of 75 consecutive patients were enrolled, of whom 70 were included for analysis. The clinical disease stage was IIA-B and IIC-III in 40% and 60%, respectively. By local assessment, 46 PET/CT2 scans (65.7%) were reported as negative, and 46% of these patients had stage IIC-III disease. Five-year relapse-free survival of PET/CT2-positive patients was 75% (95% confidence interval, 60-95) compared to 97.8% (95% confidence interval, 93.7-100) of PET/CT2-negative patients (P = .002). In univariate analyses, PET/CT2 was significantly associated with relapse-free survival (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: No residual FDG uptake after 2 cycles of conventional chemotherapy is prognostic in advanced seminoma, but it may be useful to optimize the standard prognostic risk groups and may be tested within larger prospective clinical trials of chemotherapy deescalation.


Assuntos
Seminoma , Neoplasias Testiculares , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Seminoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Seminoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 4(5): 829-833, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605888

RESUMO

Interim data from the PURE-01 study, using pembrolizumab before radical cystectomy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), suggested that multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) was able to predict the pathologic response. Owing to the availability of novel effective therapies in MIBC, the possibility to assess tumor response easily has become exceedingly important. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between individual and combined MRI sequences, and the pathologic response in the final PURE-01 population. Images were internally evaluated and the diagnostic performance was analyzed for separate sequences, along with their combination. From February 2017 to December 2019, 143 patients were enrolled in PURE-01, and 123 with suitable paired imaging assessments before and after pembrolizumab tests (N = 246 mpMRI in total) were analyzed in relation to the pathologic response. The area under the curve (AUC) of the combination of all sequences to predict ypT0ypN0 response was 0.74. By excluding dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) assessment, the AUC was 0.74. When looking at ypT1/a/is ypN0 response, the AUC was 0.87 in both cases. Without DCE, 95% of patients with no evidence of disease resulted in ypT1/a/is ypN0 and 65% ypT0ypN0 responders. In conclusion, the final results confirmed the reliability of mpMRI and suggested the opportunity to avoid intravenous gadolinium contrast to personalize bladder-sparing strategies in radiologically complete responders. PATIENT SUMMARY: We evaluated the reliability of multiparametric bladder magnetic resonance imaging to predict the pathologic response to pembrolizumab administered before radical cystectomy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We observed that this radiologic examination is promising in the attempt to identify opportunities to spare the bladder in selected, radiologically defined complete responders. We also observed that the use of intravenous gadolinium contrast can be avoided in future studies. ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02736266.

14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(1): 48-53, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the PURE-01 study (NCT02736266), we aimed to evaluate the ability to predict the pathologic complete response (pT0N0) after pembrolizumab by using clinical and tumor biomarkers. METHODS: In an open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study, 3 courses of 200 mg pembrolizumab preceding radical cystectomy were administered in patients with T2-4aN0M0 muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The analyses included a comprehensive genomic profiling and programmed cell-death-ligand-1 (PD-L1)-combined positive score assessment (CPS; Dako 22C3 antibody) of pre- and posttherapy samples. Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated baseline clinical T stage and tumor biomarkers in association with pT0N0 response. Corresponding coefficients were used to develop a calculator of pT0N0 response based on the tumor mutational burden (TMB), CPS, and the clinical T stage. Decision-curve analysis was also performed. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: From February 2017 to June 2019, 112 patients with biomarker data were enrolled (105 with complete TMB and CPS data). Increasing TMB and CPS values featured a linear association with logistic pT0N0 probabilities (P = .02 and P = .004, respectively). For low TMB values (≤11 mut/Mb, median value, n = 53), pT0N0 probability was not associated with increasing CPS. Conversely, for high TMB values (>11 mut/Mb, n = 52), pT0N0 was statistically significantly associated with higher CPS (P = .004). The C index of the pT0N0 probability calculator was 0.77. On decision-curve analysis, the net benefit of the model was higher than the "treat-all" option within the clinically meaningful threshold probabilities of 40%-50%. CONCLUSIONS: The study presents a composite biomarker-based pT0N0 probability calculator that reveals the complex interplay between TMB and CPS, added to the clinical T stage.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Cistectomia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos/patologia , Mutação/genética , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considerable numbers of patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) develop bone metastases (BoM). Their impact on the efficacy of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is not yet investigated. METHODS: Between July 2014 and August 2020 data on pts treated with single-agent ICIs after failure of at least 1 previous line of chemotherapy for advanced disease, were retrospectively collected across 14 Italian centers. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was performed evaluating potential prognostic factors for OS and PFS. Each factor was evaluated in univariable (UVA) and multivariable analysis (MVA). RESULTS: A total of 208 evaluable patients treated with ICIs were identified, including 122 (59%) without BoM (BoM-) and 86 (41%) with bone metastases (BoM+). After a median follow-up of 22.3 months, BoM+ patients showed shorter OS (median 3.9 vs 7.8 months, HR 1.59 [95%CI, 1.15-2.20], P = .005) and shorter PFS (median 2.0 vs 2.6 months, HR 1.76 [95%CI, 1.31-2.37], P < .001). Probability of being alive was 62% vs 40% after 6 months, 38% vs 23% after 1 year and 24% vs 13% after 2 years, in BoM- and BoM+ respectively. Within each Bellmunt score, OS and PFS of BoM+ patients were shorter. Both presence of BoM and higher Bellmunt risk score were significantly associated with shorter OS and PFS in UVA and MVA. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with single-agent ICIs for BoM+ mUC have a dismal prognosis compared to BoM-. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism behind these outcomes.

16.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(18): 2199-2204, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870051

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The treatment of low-grade upper tract urothelial carcinomas (UTUCs) after either surgery, or nephron-sparing techniques remains an unmet need in Genitourinary (GU) Oncology. UGN-101 is a novel drug in development for the treatment of UTUCs; it is composed of a sustained-release hydrogel polymer-based formulation containing the antitumor antibiotic mitomycin-C (MM-C); cold UGN-101 is liquid, but at body temperature, it becomes a gel, and thus, when administered through a ureteral catheter, it sticks to the upper tract urothelium, slowly releasing MM-C. AREAS COVERED: Here, the authors review the preclinical rationale for the development of UGN-101, as well as presently available clinical results for the treatment of low-grade UTUCs. EXPERT OPINION: The positive results of the recently completed OLYMPUS trial suggest the feasibility, activity (59% of complete responses, with just 6 of these complete responders on follow-up who recurred), and safety (68% of patients experiencing mild to moderate urinary adverse events) of UGN-101 instillations into the upper urinary tract. Our expectations are that UGN-101 will soon become a standard of treatment for low-grade UTUC at risk of relapse after either surgery, or nephron-sparing techniques.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrogéis/química , Mitomicina/farmacologia , Polímeros/química , Neoplasias Urológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Urotélio/patologia , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/química , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Mitomicina/química , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Urológicas/patologia
17.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2020 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847746

RESUMO

A 41-yr-old, otherwise healthy, premenopausal woman presented at our uro-oncology clinic with a diagnosis of muscle-invasive bladder cancer following a transurethral resection of the bladder performed at another center. After a thorough discussion with the patient, she was enrolled in the phase II PURE-01 trial (NCT02736266), testing three cycles of neoadjuvant pembrolizumab (200mg) every 3 wk before radical cystectomy. Before treatment, imaging studies were obtained as per the protocol using computed tomography (CT), [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT, and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of the bladder, defining a clinically localized T2N0M0 stage. As per the protocol, potential biomarkers were assessed, including PD-L1 expression (84% combined positive score), tumor mutational burden (16.67 mut/Mb), and genomic profiling (FoundationONE assay; somatic mutation in TP53, EZH2, APC, TERT, CDKN1A, CDKN1B, and ARID1A genes, and truncation in BRCA2 gene). After immunotherapy, the patient underwent a robot-assisted radical cystectomy with extended pelvic lymph node dissection. The final pathology report revealed absence of residual disease (ie, pathological complete response, ypT0ypN0). During follow-up, the only relevant and permanent immune-mediated adverse event was hypothyroidism secondary to an autoimmune thyroiditis. It appeared 2 mo after radical cystectomy and it was managed successfully with hormonal replacement therapy. Two years after treatment, the patient is asymptomatic and free from disease recurrence. PATIENT SUMMARY: Increasing evidence suggests that frontline neoadjuvant immunotherapy may be beneficial for patients diagnosed with non-locally advanced, muscle-invasive bladder cancer (cT2N0), with fewer drawbacks than traditional chemotherapy. Although further studies are needed in support, this vision opens the opportunity for future clinical trials testing the potential incremental benefits of immunotherapy and the utility of novel biomarker- and imaging-based strategies to assess response to therapy.

18.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417369

RESUMO

In the PURE-01 study, patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) who achieved a pathological complete response (CR; ypT0N0) had tumor features suggesting that pre-existing immunity may promote response. We focused on fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR3) genomic alterations (GAs) as potential tumor resistance features. The primary endpoint of our study was CR. FGFR3 GAs were assessed via comprehensive genomic profiling of sequenced DNA (N = 112), a transcriptome-based FGFR3 activity signature, an FGFR3 subtyping model based on long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), and gene expression profiling (N = 84 for all three). We used Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression analyses to analyze the associations between the various FGFR3 alterations and CR. High FGFR3 activity was defined as a signature score that was higher than the median value. Cases that were positive for lncRNA-FGFR3 subtype (lncRNA-FGFR3 active, N = 11) had consistent biology with published data: low epithelial-mesenchymal transition and immune-signature scores, high p53 activity, FGFR3 activity, and sonic hedgehog activity. In total, 17 (15.2%), 42 (50%), and 11 patients (13%) showed FGFR3 GAs or high FGFR3 signature scores, or had lncRNA-FGFR3-active tumors. Despite an association of high FGFR3 gene expression with a lower CR rate (p = 0.01), we did not find a correlation between FGFR3 activity or mutation/fusion and CR (p = 0.2 and p = 0.8). We conclude that the association of FGFR3 expression with pathological response is balanced by multiple factors. Overall, FGFR3-altered tumors should not be excluded from neoadjuvant immunotherapy studies at this time. PATIENT SUMMARY: In patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated within the PURE-01 trial, we analyzed the role of fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR3) alterations, at the DNA and RNA levels, in association with the pathological response. We did not find any robust association, mainly when analyzing the landscape of alterations defining tumors with higher biological FGFR activity. Overall, FGFR3 activity and gene alterations did not provide sufficiently robust data to exclude patients whose tumors harbor these alterations from neoadjuvant immunotherapy trials.

19.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 127-135, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic role of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serum levels in seminoma patients remains uncertain. This observational study evaluates the prognostic impact of tumour marker levels, and other clinicopathological findings, in hCG-positive seminoma patients. METHODS: Seminoma patients with serum hCG levels above normal at first diagnosis were eligible for recruitment. Statistical analysis, including multivariate regression, was performed to identify risk factors. Primary end-points were overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). RESULTS: We recruited 1031 hCG-positive patients (stage I: n = 586; stage II + III: n = 427) diagnosed between 1981 and 2018. In metastatic disease, LDH levels ≥3 above upper normal limit (UNL) pre- (n = 109) or post-orchiectomy (n = 73) and patients aged ≥40 years (n = 187) were associated with poor prognosis: 5-year OS rates of 84% (LDH ≥3 UNL pre-orchiectomy) versus 92% (<3 UNL pre-orchiectomy) (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.155, [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.28-7.75], P = 0.012), 82% (≥3 UNL post-orchiectomy) versus 92% (<3 UNL post-orchiectomy) (HR: 6.877, [95% CI: 1.61-29.34]; P = 0.009) and 86% (≥40 years) versus 91% (<40 years) (HR: 6.870, [95% CI: 1.45-13.37], P = 0.009), respectively. A subset of patients with hCG levels ≥2000 IU/l pre-orchiectomy (n = 17) exhibited a poor prognosis, with 5-year OS rates of 73% (≥2000 IU/l) versus 94% (<2000 IU/l) (HR: 3.936, [95% CI: 1.02-12.61], P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Age and LDH levels are significantly associated with poor prognosis in hCG-positive seminoma patients. A small number of patients, with levels of hCG ≥2000 IU/l, may represent a separate prognostic subgroup associated with impaired survival rates.


Assuntos
Gonadotropina Coriônica/metabolismo , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/mortalidade , Orquiectomia/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Seminoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias Testiculares/mortalidade , Adulto , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/patologia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seminoma/metabolismo , Seminoma/patologia , Seminoma/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/cirurgia
20.
Eur Urol ; 77(6): 701-710, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PURE-01 study (NCT02736266) evaluated the use of pembrolizumab before radical cystectomy (RC) in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of molecular signatures to predict the pathological complete response (CR: ypT0N0) and progression-free survival (PFS) after pembrolizumab and RC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed the expression data from patients with T2-4aN0M0 MIBC enrolled in the PURE-01 study (N=84) and from patients of a retrospective multicenter cohort treated with cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC; N=140). INTERVENTION: Neoadjuvant pembrolizumab or NAC and RC. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Immune signatures and molecular subtyping (The Cancer Genome Atlas, consensus model, and genomic subtyping classifier [GSC]) were evaluated in relation to CR and PFS. Multivariable logistic regression analyses for CR were used, adjusting for gender and clinical T stage. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The Immune190 signature was significant for CR on multivariable logistic regression analyses (p= 0.02) in PURE-01, but not in the NAC cohort (p= 0.7). Hallmark signatures for interferon gamma (IFNγ; p= 0.004) and IFNα response (p= 0.006) were also associated with CR for PURE-01, but not for NAC (IFNγ: p= 0.9 and IFNα: p= 0.8). In PURE-01, 93% of patients with the highest Immune190 scores (>1st quartile) had 2-yr PFS versus 79% of those with lower scores; no difference was observed in NAC patients, as well as for the other hallmarks in both groups. The neuroendocrine-like subtype had the worst 2-yr PFS in all three subtyping models (33%) and the GSC claudin-low subtype had the best, with no recurrences in 2 yr. Basal subtypes (across classifications) with higher Immune190 scores showed 100% 2-yr PFS after pembrolizumab therapy (p = 0.04, compared with basal-Immune190 low). Statistical analyses are limited by the small number of events and short follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Higher RNA-based immune signature scores were significantly associated with CR and numerically improved PFS outcomes after pembrolizumab, but not after NAC. These data emphasize that RNA profiling is a potential tool for personalizing neoadjuvant therapy selection. PATIENT SUMMARY: We used gene expression profiling to evaluate the association between immune gene expression and response to neoadjuvant immunotherapy, compared with standard chemotherapy, in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We found a significant association between immune gene expression and response to pembrolizumab, but not chemotherapy. We conclude that gene expression profiling has the potential to guide personalized neoadjuvant therapy in MIBC.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Cistectomia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Idoso , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Invasividade Neoplásica , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...