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1.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 481: 26-34, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528377

RESUMO

Expression of the glucose transporter GLUT4, encoded by Slc2a4 gene, is reduced in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D), contributing to glycemic impairment. The present study investigated epigenetic regulations at the Slc2a4 promoter in skeletal muscle of T1D- and T2D-like experimental models. Slc2a4/GLUT4 repression was observed in T1D and T2D and that was reversed by insulin and resveratrol treatments, respectively. In both T1D-like and T2D-like animals, tri-methylation at lysine 9 of histone 3 (H3K9me3) increased in the Slc2a4 enhancer segment, whereas MEF2A/D binding into this segment was reduced; all effects were reversed by respective treatments. This study reveals that increased H3K9me3 in the Slc2a4 promoter enhancer segment contributes to reduce GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle and to worse glycemic control in diabetes, pointing to the H3K9me3 of Slc2a4 promoter as a potential target for development of new approaches for treating diabetes.

2.
Obes Surg ; 28(10): 3012-3019, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704228

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the effects of the sleeve gastrectomy with transit bipartition (SG + TB) procedure with standard medical therapy (SMT) in mildly obese patients with type II diabetes (T2D). METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Twenty male adults, ≤ 65 years old, with T2D, body mass index (BMI) > 28 kg/m2 and < 35 kg/m2, and HbA1c level > 8% were randomized to SG + TB or to SMT. Outcomes were the remission in the metabolic and cardiovascular risk variables up to 24 months. RESULTS: At 24 months, SG + TB group showed a significant decrease in HbaA1c values (9.3 ± 2.1 versus 5.5 ± 1.1%, P = < 0.05) whereas SMT group maintained similar levels from baseline (8.0 ± 1.5 versus 8.3 ± 1.1%, P = NS). BMI values were lower in the SG + TB group (25.3 ± 2.8 kg/m2 versus 30.9 ± 2.5 kg/m2; P = < 0.001). At 24 months, none patient in SG + TB group needed medications for hyperlipidemia/hypertension. HDL-cholesterol levels increased in the SG + TB group (33 ± 8 to 45 ± 15 mg/dL, P < 0.001). After 24 months, the area under the curve (AUC) of GLP1 increased and in the SG + TB group and the AUC of the GIP concentrations was lower in the SG + TB group than in the SMT. At 3 months, SG + TB group showed a marked increase in FGF19 levels (74.1 ± 45.8 to 237.3 ± 234 pg/mL; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: SG + TB is superior to SMT and was associated with a better metabolic and cardiovascular profile.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gastrectomia , Obesidade , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Gastrectomia/métodos , Gastrectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Clin Immunol ; 187: 46-49, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29031829

RESUMO

Although inflammasome plays a well-known role in animal models of renal injury, limited studies in humans are available, and its participation in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains unknown. Aim of this study was to elucidate the contribution of inflammasome genetics in the development of DKD in type-1 diabetes (T1D). The association of functional variants in inflammasome genes with DKD was assessed by multivariate analysis in a retrospective and in a prospective cohort. NLRP1 rs2670660 and rs11651270 polymorphisms were significantly associated with a decrease risk to develop DKD (padj<0.01), and rs11651270 also with a lower risk of new renal events during follow-up (padj=0.01). Supporting these findings, diabetes metabolites (glycated albumin and high glucose) were able to modulate NLRP1 expression. This study is the first to suggest a protective role of NLRP1 in DKD, highlighting an emerging role of NLRP1 as a homeostatic factor against metabolic stress.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Feminino , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Inflamassomos/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Adulto Jovem
4.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 15(1): 81-89, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027826

RESUMO

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was employed to quantify expression of two genes coding for advanced glycation end-product receptors [RAGE ( AGER) and AGER1 ( DDOST)] and of the gene coding the deacetylase SIRT1 ( SIRT1) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from type 1 diabetes patients without [Group A, n = 35; 28.5 (24-39) years old; median (interquartile interval)] or with at least one microvascular complication [Group B, n = 117; 34.5 (30-42) years old]; 31 healthy controls were also included. In a subgroup of 48 patients, daily advanced glycation end-products intake before blood collection was assessed. Lower expression of DDOST was found in patients than in controls after adjustment for sex, age, use of statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers. Higher expressions of AGER, DDOST and SIRT1 were observed in Group A. Stratifying by complications, AGER and DDOST expressions were higher in those without retinopathy and without diabetic kidney disease, respectively, compared to patients with these complications. Patients using statins or angiotensin receptor blockers presented higher expression of DDOST. Expression of SIRT1 was higher in patients consuming ≥12,872 KU daily of advanced glycation end-products. Although AGER, DDOST and SIRT1 are differently expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from type 1 diabetes patients with and without microvascular complications, they are also influenced by dietary advanced glycation end-products and by statins and angiotensin receptor blockers.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Dieta , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/sangue , Hexosiltransferases/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/enzimologia , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , Sirtuína 1/sangue , Adulto , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/enzimologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Angiopatias Diabéticas/sangue , Angiopatias Diabéticas/enzimologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Nefropatias Diabéticas/enzimologia , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Hexosiltransferases/genética , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/sangue , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/genética , Sirtuína 1/genética
5.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 9: 46, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28638444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex disease, particularly in a continental country like Brazil. We attempted to understand and evaluate the perceptions and routines of Brazilians with T2DM and physicians, compared with other countries. METHODS: We compared the results from a 20-min online survey in Brazil with simultaneously collated data from India, Japan, Spain, UK and USA. RESULTS: In total, 652 adults with T2DM and 337 treating physicians were enrolled, of whom 100 patients and 55 physicians were from Brazil. The numbers of primary care physicians from the five countries were 221 versus 43 in Brazil, diabetes specialists were 61 versus 12. There was disconnect between the opinions of physicians and people with diabetes globally. Further, there were differences between clinical practices in Brazil versus the rest of the world, in many areas Brazilians were performing better. CONCLUSIONS: Communication between patients and physicians should be clearer. There is an urgent need to identify the deficits in education, in order to address the clinical inertia within the diabetes management team. There is a necessity to understand the specific requirements of the Brazilian population in order to contextualise international guidelines and implement local changes in practice.

6.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 9: 15, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28250848

RESUMO

Eating habits, lifestyles, and exposure to specific environmental factors can greatly impact the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), influence the genome epigenetically, and affect the expression of genes, including genes related to glycemic control, at any stage of life. The epigenetic mechanism underlying obesity and T2D pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Conventional strategies for the treatment of obesity and its comorbidities often have poor long-term adherence, and pharmacological interventions are limited. Bariatric surgery is the most effective current option to treat severe obesity, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most applied technique worldwide. Epigenetic changes differ depending on the approach used to treat obesity and its associated comorbidities (clinical or surgical). Compared to primary clinical care, bariatric surgery leads to much greater loss of body weight and higher remission rates of T2D and metabolic syndrome, with methylation profiles in promoter regions of genes in obese individuals becoming similar to those of normal-weight individuals. Bariatric surgery can influence DNA methylation in parallel with changes in gene expression pattern. Changes in clinical biomarkers that reflect improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism after RYGB often occur before major weight loss and are coordinated by surgery-induced changes in intestinal hormones. Therefore, the intestine methylation profile would assist in understanding the mechanisms involved in improved glycemic control after bariatric surgery. The main objectives in this area for the future are to identify epigenetic marks that could be used as early indicators of metabolic risk, and to develop treatments able to delay or even reverse these epigenetic changes. Studies that provide the "human epigenetic profile" will be of considerable value to identify tissue-specific epigenetic signatures and their role in the development of chronic diseases. Further studies should apply methods based on global analysis of the genome to identify methylated sites associated with disease and epigenetic marks associated with the remodeling response to bariatric surgery. This review describes the main epigenetic alterations associated with obesity and T2D and the potential role of RYGB in remodeling these changes.

7.
Obes Surg ; 27(4): 1123-1127, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28213664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal expression of regenerating pancreatic islet-derived protein-encoding genes (REG) would be enhanced after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and would affect postoperative type 2 diabetes remission (T2Dr). METHODS: Intestinal biopsy samples were collected from 20 adult obese women with T2D before and 3 months after RYGB. Levels of REG expression and the gene encoding its putative receptor (EXTL3) were assessed by microarray and validated by quantitative RT-PCR. T2Dr was assessed according to ADA criteria 1 year after RYGB. RESULTS: After RYGB, only patients with T2Dr had significantly increased REG1α and REG3γ expression in the jejunum, as validated by quantitative RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide support for the hypothesis that increased jejunal expression of REG genes after RYGB affects T2Dr, possibly by playing an endocrine function.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Jejuno/metabolismo , Obesidade/cirurgia , Proteínas Associadas a Pancreatite/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade Mórbida/metabolismo , Obesidade Mórbida/patologia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Proteínas Associadas a Pancreatite/biossíntese , Proteínas Associadas a Pancreatite/fisiologia , Indução de Remissão , Adulto Jovem
8.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 8(1): e212, 2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28055029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is highly prevalent and may contribute to postoperative complications. Decreased production of intrinsic factor owing to gastric fundus removal is thought to have a major role, but other components of B12 metabolism may also be affected. We evaluated changes in the expression levels of multiple B12 pathway-encoding genes in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues to evaluate the potential roles in contributing to post-RYGB B12 deficiency. METHODS: During double-balloon enteroscopy, serial GI biopsies were collected from 20 obese women (age, 46.9±6.2 years; body mass index, 46.5±5.3 kg/m2) with adult-onset type 2 diabetes (fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dl; hemoglobin A1c≥6.5%) before and, at the same site, 3 months after RYGB. Gene expression levels were assessed by the Affymetrix Human GeneChip 1.0 ST microarray. Findings were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). RESULTS: Gene expression levels with significant changes (P≤0.05) included: transcobalamin I (TCN1) in remnant (-1.914-fold) and excluded (-1.985-fold) gastric regions; gastric intrinsic factor (GIF) in duodenum (-0.725-fold); and cubilin (CUBN) in duodenum (+0.982-fold), jejunum (+1.311-fold), and ileum (+0.685-fold). Validation by RT-qPCR confirmed (P≤0.05) observed changes for TCN1 in the remnant gastric region (-0.132-fold) and CUBN in jejunum (+2.833-fold). CONCLUSIONS: RYGB affects multiple pathway-encoding genes that may be associated with postoperative B12 deficiency. Decreased TCN1 levels seem to be the main contributing factor. Increased CUBN levels suggest an adaptive genetic reprogramming of intestinal tissue aiming to compensate for impaired intestinal B12 delivery.

9.
J Int Med Res ; 44(6): 1359-1375, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27834300

RESUMO

Objective To describe the protocol of the SURgically induced Metabolic effects on the Human GastroIntestinal Tract (SURMetaGIT) study, a clinical pan-omics study exploring the gastrointestinal tract as a central organ driving remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The main points considered in the study's design and challenges faced in its application are detailed. Methods This observational, longitudinal, prospective study involved collection of gastrointestinal biopsy specimens, faeces, urine, and blood from 25 obese women with T2DM who were candidates for RYGB (20 patients for omics assessment and 5 for omics validation). These collections were performed preoperatively and 3 and 24 months postoperatively. Gastrointestinal transcriptomics; faecal metagenomics and metabolomics; plasma proteomics, lipidomics, and metabolomics; and biochemical, nutritional, and metabolic data were assessed to identify their short- and long-term correlations with T2DM remission. Results Data were collected from 20 patients before and 3 months after RYGB. These patients have nearly completed the 2-year follow-up assessments. The five additional patients are currently being selected for omics data validation. Conclusion The multi-integrated pan-omics approach of the SURMetaGIT study enables integrated analysis of data that will contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in T2DM remission after RYGB.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Derivação Gástrica , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Proteoma/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Biópsia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Fezes/química , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Obesidade Mórbida/urina , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteoma/genética , Indução de Remissão , Projetos de Pesquisa , Perda de Peso
10.
Metabolism ; 65(6): 816-24, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27173460

RESUMO

PURPOSE: After observing variation in the expression of the housekeeping gene B2M in cells of the urinary sediment during a study of candidate genes potentially involved in diabetic kidney disease (DKD), we hypothesized that B2M mRNA expression in the urinary sediment could reflect the presence of DKD. METHODS: qPCR was used to quantify B2M mRNA expression in cells of the urinary sediment of 51 type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients (61% women, 33.5 [27.0-39.7] years old, with diabetes duration of 21.0 [15.0-28.0] years and HbA1c of 8.2% [7.3-8.9]; median [interquartile interval]) sorted according to the diabetic nephropathy (DN) stages; 8 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) patients and 10 healthy controls. B2M mRNA expression was also evaluated in human embryonic kidney epithelium-like (HEK-293) cells exposed to 25mM glucose and to albumin in order to mimic, respectively, a diabetic and a proteinuric milieu. RESULTS: No differences were found in B2M mRNA expression among healthy controls, FSGS and T1D patients. Nonetheless B2M mRNA expression was higher in the group composed by T1D patients with incipient or overt DN combined with FSGS patients versus T1D patients without DN combined with healthy controls (P=0.0007). B2M mRNA expression was higher in T1D patients with incipient or overt DN versus without DN (P=0.03). B2M mRNA expression positively correlated with albuminuria in the overall T1D population (r=0.43; P=0.01) and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate in male T1D patients (r=- 0.57; P=0.01). Increased B2M expression was observed in HEK-293 cells exposed to 25mM glucose and to albumin. CONCLUSIONS: Β2M mRNA expression in cells of the urinary sediment is higher in T1D patients with DKD and in patients with FSGS in comparison to healthy subjects, maybe reflecting a tubulointerstitial injury promoted by albumin. Given the proinflammatory nature of B2M, we suggest that this protein contributes to diabetic (and possibly, to non-diabetic) tubulopathy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/urina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/urina , Globulinas/urina , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/urina , Adulto , Albuminas/farmacologia , Albuminúria/genética , Albuminúria/urina , Biomarcadores , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Feminino , Globulinas/genética , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/genética , Glucose/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/urina
11.
Free Radic Res ; 50(1): 101-10, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26480949

RESUMO

AIMS: Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), an inhibitor of antioxidant thioredoxin (Trx), is upregulated by hyperglycemia and implicated in pathogenesis of diabetes complications. We evaluated mRNA expressions of genes encoding TXNIP and Trx (TXN) in urinary sediment and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients with different degrees of chronic complications. METHODS: qPCR was employed to quantify target genes in urinary sediment (n = 55) and PBMC (n = 161) from patients sorted by presence or absence of diabetic nephropathy (DN), retinopathy, peripheral and cardiovascular neuropathy; 26 healthy controls and 13 patients presenting non-diabetic nephropathy (focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, FSGS) were also included. RESULTS: Regarding the urinary sediment, TXNIP (but not TXN) expression was higher in T1D (p = 0.0023) and FSGS (p = 0.0027) patients versus controls. Expressions of TXNIP and TXN were higher, respectively, in T1D patients with versus without DN (p = 0.032) and in those with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 versus ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (p = 0.008). eGFR negatively correlated with TXNIP (p = 0.04, r = -0.28) and TXN (p = 0.04, r = -0.30) expressions. T1D patients who lost ≥5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) yearly of eGFR presented higher basal TXNIP expression than those who lost <5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) yearly after median follow-up of 24 months. TXNIP (p < 0.0001) and TXN (p = 0.002) expressions in PBMC of T1D patients were significantly higher than in controls but no differences were observed between patients with or without chronic complications. CONCLUSIONS: TXNIP and TXN are upregulated in urinary sediment of T1D patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD), but only TXNIP expression is associated with magnitude of eGFR decline.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/urina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/urina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/urina , Adulto , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro/urina , Tiorredoxinas/genética , Tiorredoxinas/urina , Urinálise
12.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 7: 84, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26435753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulinomas are the most common functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, whereas histopathological features do not predict their biological behaviour. In an attempt to better understand the molecular processes involved in the tumorigenesis of islet beta cells, the present study evaluated the expression of genes belonging to the hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor (HGF/MET) system, namely, MET, HGF; HGFAC and ST14 (encode HGF activator and matriptase, respectively, two serine proteases that catalyze conversion of pro-HGF to active HGF); and SPINT1 and SPINT2 (encode serine peptidase inhibitors Kunitz type 1 and type 2, respectively, two inhibitors of HGF activator and of matriptase). METHODS: Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was employed to assess RNA expression of the target genes in 24 sporadic insulinomas: 15 grade 1 (G1), six grade 2 (G2) and three hepatic metastases. Somatic mutations of MET gene were searched by direct sequencing of exons 2, 10, 14, 16, 17 and 19. RESULTS: Overexpression of MET was observed in the three hepatic metastases concomitantly with upregulation of the genes encoding HGF and matriptase and downregulation of SPINT1. A positive correlation was observed between MET RNA expression and Ki-67 proliferation index while a negative correlation was detected between SPINT1 expression and the mitotic index. No somatic mutations were found in MET gene. CONCLUSION: The final effect of the increased expression of HGF, its activator (matriptase) and its specific receptor (MET) together with a decreased expression of one potent inhibitor of matriptase (SPINT1) is probably a contribution to tumoral progression and metastatization in insulinomas.

13.
J Cell Physiol ; 230(6): 1250-7, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25413254

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end products (AGE) are elevated in diabetes mellitus (DM) and predict the development of atherosclerosis. AGE-albumin induces oxidative stress, which is linked to a reduction in ABCA-1 and cholesterol efflux. We characterized the glycation level of human serum albumin (HSA) isolated from poorly controlled DM2 (n = 11) patients compared with that of control (C, n = 12) individuals and determined the mechanism by which DM2-HSA can interfere in macrophage lipid accumulation. The HSA glycation level was analyzed by MALDI/MS. Macrophages were treated for 18 h with C- or DM2-HSA to measure the (14) C-cholesterol efflux, the intracellular lipid accumulation and the cellular ABCA-1 protein content. Agilent arrays (44000 probes) were used to analyze gene expression, and the differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time RT-PCR. An increased mean mass was observed in DM2-HSA compared with C-HSA, reflecting the condensation of at least 5 units of glucose. The cholesterol efflux mediated by apo AI, HDL3 , and HDL2 was impaired in DM2-HSA-treated cells, which was related to greater intracellular lipid accumulation. DM2-HSA decreased Abcg1 mRNA expression by 26%. Abca1 mRNA was unchanged, although the final ABCA-1 protein content decreased. Compared with C-HAS-treated cells, NADPH oxidase 4 mRNA expression increased in cells after DM2-HSA treatment. Stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1, janus kinase 2, and low density lipoprotein receptor mRNAs were reduced by DM2-HSA. The level of glycation that occurs in vivo in DM2-HSA-treated cells selectively alters macrophage gene expression, impairing cholesterol efflux and eliciting intracellular lipid accumulation, which contribute to atherogenesis, in individuals with DM2.


Assuntos
Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/genética , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Colesterol/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Albumina Sérica/genética
14.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 6(1): 87, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25152774

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is emerging as a worldwide public health problem, and is mainly associated with an increased incidence of obesity. Bariatric surgery is currently considered the most effective treatment for severely obese patients. After bariatric surgery, T2D patients have shown a significant improvement in glycemic control, even before substantial weight loss and often discontinuation of medication for diabetes control. A central role for enteroendocrine cells from the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract has been speculated in this postoperative phenomenon. These cells produce and secrete polypeptides - gut hormones - that are associated with regulating energy intake and glucose homeostasis through modulation of peripheral target organs, including the endocrine pancreas. This article reviews and discusses the biological actions of the gut hormones ghrelin, cholecystokinin, incretins, enteroglucagon, and Peptide YY, all of which were recently identified as potential candidates for mediators of glycemic control after bariatric surgery. In conclusion, current data reinforce the hypothesis that T2D reversion after bariatric surgery may be related to glycemic homeostasis developed by the intestine.

15.
BMC Nephrol ; 14: 215, 2013 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24103561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most serious public health problems. The increasing prevalence of CKD in developed and developing countries has led to a global epidemic. The hypothesis proposed is that patients undergoing dialysis would experience a marked negative influence on physiological variables of sleep and autonomic nervous system activity, compromising quality of life. METHODS/DESIGN: A prospective, consecutive, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial is proposed to address the effect of dialysis on sleep, pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics, upper airway collapsibility, autonomic nervous activity, depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life in patients with CKD. The measurement protocol will include body weight (kg); height (cm); body mass index calculated as weight/height(2); circumferences (cm) of the neck, waist, and hip; heart and respiratory rates; blood pressures; Mallampati index; tonsil index; heart rate variability; maximum ventilatory pressures; negative expiratory pressure test, and polysomnography (sleep study), as well as the administration of specific questionnaires addressing sleep apnea, excessive daytime sleepiness, depression, anxiety, stress, and quality of life. DISCUSSION: CKD is a major public health problem worldwide, and its incidence has increased in part by the increased life expectancy and increasing number of cases of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Sleep disorders are common in patients with renal insufficiency. Our hypothesis is that the weather weight gain due to volume overload observed during interdialytic period will influence the degree of collapsibility of the upper airway due to narrowing and predispose to upper airway occlusion during sleep, and to investigate the negative influences of haemodialysis in the physiological variables of sleep, and autonomic nervous system, and respiratory mechanics and thereby compromise the quality of life of patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol for this study is registered with the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC RBR-7yhr4w and World Health Organization under Universal Trial Number UTN: U1111-1127-9390 [http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-7yhr4w/]).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/reabilitação , Diálise Renal/psicologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/mortalidade , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/mortalidade , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Testes de Função Respiratória/estatística & dados numéricos , Mecânica Respiratória , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
16.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 5(1): 1, 2013 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23298687

RESUMO

To explore the molecular pathways underlying thiazolidinediones effects on pancreatic islets in conditions mimicking normo- and hyperglycemia, apoptosis rate and transcriptional response to Pioglitazone at both physiological and supraphysiological glucose concentrations were evaluated. Adult rat islets were cultured at physiological (5.6 mM) and supraphysiological (23 mM) glucose concentrations in presence of 10 µM Pioglitazone or vehicle. RNA expression profiling was evaluated with the PancChip 13k cDNA microarray after 24-h, and expression results for some selected genes were validated by qRT-PCR. The effects of Pioglitazone were investigated regarding apoptosis rate after 24-, 48- and 72-h. At 5.6 mM glucose, 101 genes were modulated by Pioglitazone, while 1,235 genes were affected at 23 mM glucose. Gene networks related to lipid metabolism were identified as altered by Pioglitazone at both glucose concentrations. At 23 mM glucose, cell cycle and cell death pathways were significantly regulated as well. At 5.6 mM glucose, Pioglitazone elicited a transient reduction in islets apoptosis rate while at 23 mM, Bcl2 expression was reduced and apoptosis rate was increased by Pioglitazone. Our data demonstrate that the effect of Pioglitazone on gene expression profile and apoptosis rate depends on the glucose concentration. The modulation of genes related to cell death and the increased apoptosis rate observed at supraphysiological glucose concentration raise concerns about Pioglitazone's direct effects in conditions of hyperglycemia and reinforce the necessity of additional studies designed to evaluate TZDs effects on the preservation of ß-cell function in situations where glucotoxicity might be more relevant than lipotoxicity.

17.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 29(4): 296-307, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23315923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss of ß-cell function hastens deterioration of metabolic control in type 2 diabetes patients. Besides amyloid deposit and glucolipotoxicity, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) acting through their receptors (RAGE) seem to contribute to this process by promoting islet apoptosis. In order to investigate the role of AGEs in ß-cell deterioration, we evaluated the temporal and dose effects of AGE compounds on apoptosis rate, reactive oxygen species generation and expression of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes in cultured islets. METHODS: Rat pancreatic islets were exposed or not for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h to albumin modified by glycoaldehyde. Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species and superoxide content and NADPH oxidase activity were evaluated as well as RNA expression of the genes Ager (codes for RAGE), Bax, Bcl2 and Nfkb1. RESULTS: In 24 and 48 h, glycoaldehyde elicited a decrease in apoptosis rate in comparison with the control condition concomitantly with a reduction in Bax/Bcl2 RNA ratio and in Nfkb1 RNA expression. In contrast, after 72 and 96 h, glycoaldehyde promoted an increase in apoptosis rate concomitantly with an increase in Bax/Bcl2 RNA ratio and in Nfkb1 RNA expression. In 24 h, glycoaldehyde elicited a decrease in the islet content of reactive oxygen species, whereas after 48 and 72 h, it promoted an opposite effect, increasing superoxide generation. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor VAS2870 attenuated superoxide production, implicating NADPH oxidase as an important source of reactive oxygen species in islets exposed to AGEs. CONCLUSIONS: Albumin modified by glycoaldehyde exerted a dual effect in cultured pancreatic islets, being protective against apoptosis after short exposure but pro-apoptotic after prolonged exposure.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Albuminas/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Glucose/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/genética , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Luminescência , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/genética , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
18.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 29(1): 66-76, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23015358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effects of albumin isolated from control individuals and from patients with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus on macrophage gene expression and on reverse cholesterol transport. METHODS: Serum albumin was purified from control subjects (n = 12) and from patients with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 13). (14)C-cholesterol-labelled J774 macrophages treated with albumin were employed to measure cholesterol efflux mediated by apo A-I, HDL(3) or HDL(2), the intracellular lipid accumulation and the cellular ABCA-1 protein content. Agilent arrays (44000 probes) were used to analyse gene expression. Several differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time reverse transcription-PCR using TaqMan Two Step RT-PCR. RESULTS: Levels of glycation-modified and (carboxymethyl)lysine-modified albumin were higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects. Apo A-I-mediated and HDL(2)-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux were impaired in macrophages treated with albumin from diabetic patients in comparison with control albumin-treated cells, which was attributed to the reduction in ABCA-1 protein content. Even in the presence of cholesterol acceptors, a higher level of intracellular lipid was observed in macrophages exposed to albumin from diabetic individuals in comparison with the control. The reduction in ABCA-1 content was associated with enhanced expression of stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and decreased expression of janus kinase 2, which were induced by albumin from patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS: (Carboxymethyl)lysine-modified albumin isolated from poorly controlled type 1 diabetic patients impairs ABCA-1-mediated reverse cholesterol transport and elicits intracellular lipid accumulation, possibly contributing to atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adulto , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/genética , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL/genética , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Albumina Sérica/genética
19.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 67(9): 1013-8, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23018296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease is a permanent enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, which leads to an immunemediated inflammation of the small intestine mucosa. The prevalence of celiac disease varies among different nations and ethnic backgrounds, and its diversity is determined by genetic and environmental factors. São Paulo city is one of the largest cities in the world, with a vast population and an important history of internal migratory flow from other Brazilian regions, as well as immigration from other, primarily European, countries, resulting in significant miscegenation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of adults with undiagnosed celiac disease among blood donors of São Paulo by collecting information on the ancestry of the population studied. METHODS: The prevalence of celiac disease was assessed by screening for positive IgA transglutaminase and IgA endomysium antibodies in 4,000 donors (volunteers) in the Fundação Pró-Sangue Blood Center of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. The antibody-positive subjects were asked to undergo a small bowel biopsy. RESULTS: Of the 4,000 subjects, twenty-four had positive tests, although both antibody tests were not always concordant. For example, ten subjects were positive for IgA tissue transglutaminase only. In twenty-one positive patients, duodenal biopsies were performed, and the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in fourteen patients (Marsh criteria modified by Oberhuber). In this group, 67% claimed to have European ancestry, mainly from Italy, Portugal and Spain. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of celiac disease is at least 1:286 among supposedly healthy blood bank volunteers in São Paulo, Brazil.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bancos de Sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença Celíaca/etnologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transglutaminases/sangue , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clinics ; 67(9): 1013-1018, Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-649378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease is a permanent enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, which leads to an immunemediated inflammation of the small intestine mucosa. The prevalence of celiac disease varies among different nations and ethnic backgrounds, and its diversity is determined by genetic and environmental factors. São Paulo city is one of the largest cities in the world, with a vast population and an important history of internal migratory flow from other Brazilian regions, as well as immigration from other, primarily European, countries, resulting in significant miscegenation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of adults with undiagnosed celiac disease among blood donors of São Paulo by collecting information on the ancestry of the population studied. METHODS: The prevalence of celiac disease was assessed by screening for positive IgA transglutaminase and IgA endomysium antibodies in 4,000 donors (volunteers) in the Fundação Pró-Sangue Blood Center of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. The antibody-positive subjects were asked to undergo a small bowel biopsy. RESULTS: Of the 4,000 subjects, twenty-four had positive tests, although both antibody tests were not always concordant. For example, ten subjects were positive for IgA tissue transglutaminase only. In twenty-one positive patients, duodenal biopsies were performed, and the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in fourteen patients (Marsh criteria modified by Oberhuber). In this group, 67% claimed to have European ancestry, mainly from Italy, Portugal and Spain. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of celiac disease is at least 1:286 among supposedly healthy blood bank volunteers in São Paulo, Brazil.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Bancos de Sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença Celíaca/etnologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Transglutaminases/sangue
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