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1.
Protein Eng Des Sel ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397874

RESUMO

Intrinsically disordered protein regions may fold upon binding to an interaction partner. It is often argued that such coupled binding and folding enables the combination of high specificity with low affinity. The basic tenet is that an unfavorable folding equilibrium will make the overall binding weaker while maintaining the interaction interface. While theoretically solid, we argue that this concept may be misleading for intrinsically disordered proteins. In fact, experimental evidence suggests that interactions of disordered regions usually involve extended conformations. In such cases, the disordered region is exceptionally unlikely to fold into a bound conformation in the absence of its binding partner. Instead, these disordered regions can bind to their partners in multiple different conformations and then fold into the native bound complex, thus, if anything, increasing the affinity through folding. We concede that (de)stabilization of native structural elements such as helices will modulate affinity, but this could work both ways, decreasing or increasing the stability of the complex. Moreover, experimental data show that intrinsically disordered binding regions display a range of affinities and specificities dictated by the particular side chains and length of the disordered region and not necessarily by the fact that they are disordered. We find it more likely that intrinsically disordered regions are common in protein-protein interactions because they increase the repertoire of binding partners, providing an accessible route to evolve interactions rather than providing a stability-affinity trade-off.

2.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 671: 255-261, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326517

RESUMO

Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) are a class of protein that exert their function despite lacking a well-defined three-dimensional structure, which is sometimes achieved only upon binding to their natural ligands. This feature implies the folding of IDPs to be generally coupled with a binding event, representing an interesting challenge for kinetic studies. In this review, we recapitulate some of the most important findings of IDPs binding-induced folding mechanisms obtained by analyzing their binding kinetics. Furthermore, by focusing on the interaction between the Measles virus NTAIL protein, a prototypical IDP, and its physiological partner, the X domain, we recapitulate the major theoretical and experimental approaches that were used to describe binding induced folding.

3.
FEBS J ; 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287606

RESUMO

Src Homology 2 (SH2) domains are a class of protein domains that present a conserved three-dimensional structure and possess a crucial role in mediating protein-protein interactions. Despite their importance and abundance in the proteome, knowledge about the folding properties of SH2 domain is limited. Here we present an extensive mutational analysis (Φ value analysis) of the folding pathway of the N-SH2 domain of the Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-2 (SHP2) protein, a 104 residues domain that presents the classical SH2 domain fold (two α-helices flanking a central ß-sheet composed of 3-5 antiparallel ß-strands), with a fundamental role in mediating the interaction of SHP2 with its substrates and triggering key metabolic pathways in the cell. By analysing folding kinetic data we demonstrated that the folding pathway of N-SH2 presents an obligatory on-pathway intermediate that accumulates during the folding reaction. The production of 24 conservative site-directed variants allowed us to perform a Φ value analysis, by which we could fully characterize the intermediate and the transition state native-like interactions, providing a detailed quantitative analysis of the folding pathway of N-SH2. Results highlight the presence of a hydrophobic nucleus that stabilizes the intermediate, leading to a higher degree of native-like interactions in the transition state. Data are discussed and compared with previous works on SH2 domains.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8279, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164678

RESUMO

SH3 domains are very abundant protein-protein interactions modules, involved in the regulation of several cellular processes. Whilst they have been associated to allosteric communication pathways between contiguous domains in multi-domain proteins, there is lack of information regarding the intra-domain allosteric cross-talk within the SH3 moiety. Here we scrutinize the presence of an allosteric network in the C-terminal SH3 domain of Grb2 protein, upon binding the Grb2-associated binding 2 protein. To explore allostery, we performed double mutant cycle analysis, a powerful quantitative approach based on mutagenesis in conjunction with kinetic experiments. Data reveal the presence of an unexpected allosteric sparse network that modulates the affinity between the SH3 domain and its physiological partner.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074541

RESUMO

Human frataxin is an iron-binding protein involved in the mitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters assembly, a process fundamental for the functional activity of mitochondrial proteins. Decreased level of frataxin expression is associated with the neurodegenerative disease Friedreich ataxia. Defective function of frataxin may cause defects in mitochondria, leading to increased tumorigenesis. Tumor-initiating cells show higher iron uptake, a decrease in iron storage and a reduced Fe-S clusters synthesis and utilization. In this study, we selected, from COSMIC database, the somatic human frataxin missense variants found in cancer tissues p.D104G, p.A107V, p.F109L, p.Y123S, p.S161I, p.W173C, p.S181F, and p.S202F to analyze the effect of the single amino acid substitutions on frataxin structure, function, and stability. The spectral properties, the thermodynamic and the kinetic stability, as well as the molecular dynamics of the frataxin missense variants found in cancer tissues point to local changes confined to the environment of the mutated residues. The global fold of the variants is not altered by the amino acid substitutions; however, some of the variants show a decreased stability and a decreased functional activity in comparison with that of the wild-type protein.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4058, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858483

RESUMO

SH2 domains are protein domains that mediate protein-protein interaction through the recognition and binding of specific sequences containing phosphorylated tyrosines. The p85 protein is the regulatory subunit of the heterodimeric enzyme PI3K, an important enzyme involved in several molecular pathways. In this work we characterize the folding kinetics of the NSH2 domain of p85. Our data clearly reveal peculiar folding kinetics, characterized by an apparent mismatch between the observed folding and unfolding kinetics. Taking advantage of double mixing stopped flow experiments and site directed mutagenesis we demonstrate that such behavior is due to the cis/trans isomerization of the peptide bond between D73 and P74, being in a cis conformation in the native protein. Our data are discussed in comparison with previous works on the folding of other SH2 domains.

7.
ACS Chem Biol ; 14(3): 337-341, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715849

RESUMO

The interaction between NTAIL and XD from the measles virus represents a paradigmatic example of molecular recognition between an intrinsically disordered protein and a folded partner. By binding to XD, a small portion of NTAIL (classically denoted as MoRE) undergoes a disorder-to-order transition, populating an α-helical structure, while the reminder of the protein remains disordered. Here, we demonstrate an unexpected crosstalk between such a disordered region and the adjacent molecular recognition element (MoRE). This result was obtained by producing a series of truncation and site-directed variants of NTAIL while measuring the effects on the kinetics of folding and binding. We show that the disordered region of NTAIL exerts its inhibitory role by slowing the folding step of the MoRE, thereby tuning the affinity of the interaction.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(2)2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669253

RESUMO

Beta-2 microglobulin (ß2m) is a protein responsible for a pathologic condition, known as dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA), caused by its aggregation and subsequent amyloid formation. A naturally occurring mutation of ß2m, D76N, presents a higher amyloidogenic propensity compared to the wild type counterpart. Since the three-dimensional structure of the protein is essentially unaffected by the mutation, the increased aggregation propensity of D76N has been generally ascribed to its lower thermodynamic stability and increased dynamics. In this study we compare the equilibrium unfolding and the aggregation propensity of wild type ß2m and D76N variant at different experimental conditions. Our data revealed a surprising effect of the D76N mutation in the residual structure of the denatured state, which appears less compact than that of the wild type protein. A careful investigation of the structural malleability of the denatured state of wild type ß2m and D76N pinpoint a clear role of the denatured state in triggering the amyloidogenic propensity of the protein. The experimental results are discussed in the light of the previous work on ß2m and its role in disease.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Mutação , Agregados Proteicos , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas , Microglobulina beta-2/genética , Microglobulina beta-2/metabolismo , Alelos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Concentração Osmolar , Desnaturação Proteica , Desdobramento de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes , Microglobulina beta-2/química
9.
J Biol Chem ; 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514761

RESUMO

Many intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) attain a well-defined structure in a coupled folding and binding reaction with another protein. Such reactions may involve early to late formation of different native structural regions along the reaction pathway. To obtain insights into the transition state for a coupled binding and folding reaction, we performed restrained molecular dynamics simulations using previously determined experimental binding Φb values of the interaction between two IDP domains, the activation domain from the p160 transcriptional co-activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptors (ACTR) and the nuclear co-activator binding domain (NCBD) of CREB-binding protein, each forming three well-defined α-helices upon binding. These simulations revealed that both proteins are largely disordered in the transition state for complex formation, except for two helices, one from each domain, that display a native-like structure. The overall transition state structure was extended and largely dynamic with many weakly populated contacts. To test the transition state model, we combined site-directed mutagenesis with kinetic experiments, yielding results consistent with overall diffuse interactions and formation of native intramolecular interactions in the third NCBD helix during the binding reaction. Our findings support the view that the transition state and, by inference, any encounter complex in coupled binding and folding reactions are structurally heterogeneous and largely independent of specific interactions. Furthermore, experimental Φb values and Brønsted plots suggested that the transition state is globally robust with respect to most mutations, but can display more native-like features for some highly destabilizing mutations, possibly due to Hammond behavior or ground-state effects.

10.
Biomolecules ; 9(1)2018 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591682

RESUMO

In this paper we review our recent findings on the different interaction mechanisms of the C-terminal domain of the nucleoprotein (N) of measles virus (MeV) NTAIL, a model viral intrinsically disordered protein (IDP), with two of its known binding partners, i.e., the C-terminal X domain of the phosphoprotein of MeV XD (a globular viral protein) and the heat-shock protein 70 hsp70 (a globular cellular protein). The NTAIL binds both XD and hsp70 via a molecular recognition element (MoRE) that is flanked by two fuzzy regions. The long (85 residues) N-terminal fuzzy region is a natural dampener of the interaction with both XD and hsp70. In the case of binding to XD, the N-terminal fuzzy appendage of NTAIL reduces the rate of α-helical folding of the MoRE. The dampening effect of the fuzzy appendage on XD and hsp70 binding depends on the length and fuzziness of the N-terminal region. Despite this similarity, NTAIL binding to XD and hsp70 appears to rely on completely different requirements. Almost any mutation within the MoRE decreases XD binding, whereas many of them increase the binding to hsp70. In addition, XD binding is very sensitive to the α-helical state of the MoRE, whereas hsp70 is not. Thus, contrary to hsp70, XD binding appears to be strictly dependent on the wild-type primary and secondary structure of the MoRE.


Assuntos
Vírus do Sarampo/metabolismo , Nucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Humanos , Mutagênese , Nucleoproteínas/química , Nucleoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/química , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética
11.
Methods Enzymol ; 611: 137-192, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471687

RESUMO

In this chapter we detail various experimental approaches to characterize the fuzziness of complexes made of the C-terminal domain of the nucleoprotein (NTAIL) from three representative paramyxoviruses and of the C-terminal X domain (XD) of the homologous phosphoprotein. We discuss the advantages, the limitations, as well as the caveats of the various methods. We describe experimental data showing that paramyxoviral NTAIL-XD complexes are characterized by a considerable amount of conformational heterogeneity. We also detail recent data that revealed that NTAIL is highly malleable, i.e., it displays a partner-mediated polymorphism. All the results suggest that NTAIL plasticity and fuzziness play a role in the coordination and regulation of the NTAIL interaction network so as to ensure efficient transcription and replication.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(39): 12795-12798, 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098087

RESUMO

Metamorphic proteins are biomolecules prone to adopting alternative conformations. Because of this feature, they represent ideal systems to investigate the general rules allowing primary structure to dictate protein topology. A comparative molecular dynamics study was performed on the denatured states of two proteins, sharing nearly identical amino-acid sequences (88 %) but different topologies, namely an all-α-helical bundle protein named GA 88 and an α+ß-protein named GB 88. The analysis allowed successful design of and experimental validation of a site-directed mutant that promotes, at least in part, the switch in folding from GB 88 to GA 88. The mutated position, in which a glutamic acid was replaced by a glutamine, does not make any intramolecular interactions in the native state of GA 88, such that its stabilization can be explained by considering the effects on the denatured state. The results represent a direct demonstration of the role of the denatured state in sculpting native structure.

13.
J Phys Chem B ; 2018 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091591

RESUMO

SH3 domains are small protein modules involved in the regulation of important cellular pathways. These domains mediate protein-protein interactions recognizing motifs rich in proline on the target protein. The SH3 domain from Grb2 (Grb2-SH3) presents the typical structure of an SH3 domain composed of two three-stranded antiparallel ß-sheets orthogonally packed onto each other, to form a single hydrophobic core. Grb2 interacts, via SH3 domain, with Gab2, a scaffolding disordered protein, triggering some key metabolic pathways involved in cell death and differentiation. In this work we report a mutational analysis (Φ value analysis) of the folding pathway of Grb2-SH3 that, coupled with molecular dynamic simulations, allows us to assess the structure of the transition state and the mechanism of folding of this domain. Data suggest that Grb2-SH3 folds via a native-like, diffused transition state with a concurrent formation of native-like secondary and tertiary structure (nucleation-condensation mechanism) and without the accumulation of folding intermediates. The comparison between our data and previous folding studies on SH3 domains belonging to other proteins highlights that proteins of this class may fold via alternative pathways, stabilized by different nuclei leading or not to accumulation of folding intermediates. This comparative analysis suggests that the alternative folding pathways for this class of SH3 domains can be selectively regulated by the specific amino acid sequences.

14.
J Phys Chem B ; 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30047735

RESUMO

SHP2 is a phosphatase protein, involved in many cellular pathways, comprising two SH2 domains (namely N-SH2 and C-SH2) and a phosphatase domain. Among others, the interaction between SHP2 and Gab2 (Grb2 associated binder) is critical in cell death and differentiation. SHP2 binds to Gab2 through its SH2 domains, which recognize specific regions of Gab2 characterized by the presence of a phosphorylated tyrosine. In order to shed light on the dynamic and functional properties of this protein-protein interaction, we studied the mechanism of folding of N-SH2 and the binding process to a peptide mimicking a region of Gab2. The data presented represent the first description by stopped-flow of the kinetics of binding of an SH2 domain in solution. By performing experiments at different ionic strengths, we elucidate the electrostatic nature of the interaction, highlighting a key role of the negative charge of the phosphotyrosine in the recognition event of the reaction. Furthermore, by analyzing the equilibrium and kinetics of folding of N-SH2 folding we demonstrate the presence of an intermediate along the folding pathway. These results are discussed in the light of previous works on another SH2 domain.

15.
J Biol Chem ; 293(26): 10303-10313, 2018 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760185

RESUMO

A set of missense mutations in the gene encoding profilin-1 has been linked to the onset of familial forms of ALS (fALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease. The pathogenic potential of these mutations is linked to the formation of intracellular inclusions of the mutant proteins and correlates with the mutation-induced destabilization of its native, fully folded state. However, the mechanism by which these mutations promote misfolding and self-assembly is yet unclear. Here, using temperature-jump and stopped-flow kinetic measurements, we show that, during refolding, WT profilin-1 transiently populates a partially folded (PF) state endowed with hydrophobic clusters exposed to the solvent and with no detectable secondary structure. We observed that this conformational state is marginally stable at neutral pH but becomes significantly populated at mildly acidic pH. Interestingly, the fALS-associated mutations did not cause a change in the refolding mechanism of profilin-1, but induced a stabilization of the PF state. In the presence of preformed profilin-1 aggregates, the PF state, unlike the unfolded and folded states, could interact with these aggregates via nonspecific hydrophobic interactions and also increase thioflavin-T fluorescence, revealing its amyloidogenic potential. Moreover, in the variants tested, we found a correlation between conformational stability of PF and aggregation propensity, defining this conformational state as an aggregation-prone folding intermediate. In conclusion, our findings indicate that mutation-induced stabilization of a partially folded state can enhance profilin-1 aggregation and thereby contribute to the pathogenicity of the mutations.

16.
Chem Sci ; 9(13): 3290-3298, 2018 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29780459

RESUMO

Significant advances in the understanding of the molecular determinants of fibrillogenesis can be expected from comparative studies of the aggregation propensities of proteins with highly homologous structures but different folding pathways. Here, we fully characterize, by means of stopped-flow, T-jump, CD and DSC experiments, the unfolding mechanisms of three highly homologous proteins, zinc binding Ros87 and Ml153-149 and zinc-lacking Ml452-151. The results indicate that the three proteins significantly differ in terms of stability and (un)folding mechanisms. Particularly, Ros87 and Ml153-149 appear to be much more stable to guanidine denaturation and are characterized by folding mechanisms including the presence of an intermediate. On the other hand, metal lacking Ml452-151 folds according to a classic two-state model. Successively, we have monitored the capabilities of Ros87, Ml452-151 and Ml153-149 to form amyloid fibrils under native conditions. Particularly, we show, by CD, fluorescence, DLS, TEM and SEM experiments, that after 168 hours, amyloid formation of Ros87 has started, while Ml153-149 has formed only amorphous aggregates and Ml452-151 is still monomeric in solution. This study shows how metal binding can influence protein folding pathways and thereby control conformational accessibility to aggregation-prone states, which in turn changes aggregation kinetics, shedding light on the role of metal ions in the development of protein deposition diseases.

17.
Biophys J ; 114(8): 1889-1894, 2018 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694866

RESUMO

The mechanism of interaction of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) with its physiological partner is characterized by a disorder-to-order transition in which a recognition and a binding step take place. Even if the mechanism is quite complex, IDPs tend to bind their partner in a cooperative manner such that it is generally possible to detect experimentally only the disordered unbound state and the structured complex. The interaction between the disordered C-terminal domain of the measles virus nucleoprotein (NTAIL) and the X domain (XD) of the viral phosphoprotein allows us to detect and quantify the two distinct steps of the overall reaction. Here, we analyze the robustness of the folding of NTAIL upon binding to XD by measuring the effect on both the folding and binding steps of NTAIL when the structure of XD is modified. Because it has been shown that wild-type XD is structurally heterogeneous, populating an on-pathway intermediate under native conditions, we investigated the binding to 11 different site-directed variants of NTAIL of one particular variant of XD (I504A XD) that populates only the native state. Data reveal that the recognition and the folding steps are both affected by the structure of XD, indicating a highly malleable pathway. The experimental results are briefly discussed in the light of previous experiments on other IDPs.

18.
Oncogene ; 37(24): 3301-3316, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29551770

RESUMO

Nuclear activated ß-catenin plays a causative role in colorectal cancers (CRC) but remains an elusive therapeutic target. Using human CRC cells harboring different Wnt/ß-catenin pathway mutations in APC/KRAS or ß-catenin/KRAS genes, and both genetic and pharmacological knockdown approaches, we show that oncogenic ß-catenin signaling negatively regulates the expression of NHERF1 (Na+/H+ exchanger 3 regulating factor 1), a PDZ-adaptor protein that is usually lost or downregulated in early dysplastic adenomas to exacerbate nuclear ß-catenin activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated that ß-catenin represses NHERF1 via TCF4 directly, while the association between TCF1 and the Nherf1 promoter increased upon ß-catenin knockdown. To note, the occurrence of a cytostatic survival response in settings of single ß-catenin-depleted CRC cells was abrogated by combining NHERF1 inhibition via small hairpin RNA (shRNA) or RS5517, a novel PDZ1-domain ligand of NHERF1 that prevented its ectopic nuclear entry. Mechanistically, dual NHERF1/ß-catenin targeting promoted an autophagy-to-apoptosis switch consistent with the activation of Caspase-3, the cleavage of PARP and reduced levels of phospho-ERK1/2, Beclin-1, and Rab7 autophagic proteins compared with ß-catenin knockdown alone. Collectively, our data unveil novel ß-catenin/TCF-dependent mechanisms of CRC carcinogenesis, also offering preclinical proof of concept for combining ß-catenin and NHERF1 pharmacological inhibitors as a mechanism-based strategy to augment apoptotic death of CRC cells refractory to current Wnt/ß-catenin-targeted therapeutics.

20.
J Mol Biol ; 430(16): 2493-2507, 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197511

RESUMO

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) recognize their partners through molecular recognition elements (MoREs). The MoRE of the C-terminal intrinsically disordered domain of the measles virus nucleoprotein (NTAIL) is partly pre-configured as an α-helix in the free form and undergoes α-helical folding upon binding to the X domain (XD) of the viral phosphoprotein. Beyond XD, NTAIL also binds the major inducible heat shock protein 70 (hsp70). So far, no structural information is available for the NTAIL/hsp70 complex. Using mutational studies combined with a protein complementation assay based on green fluorescent protein reconstitution, we have investigated both NTAIL/XD and NTAIL/hsp70 interactions. Although the same NTAIL region binds the two partners, the binding mechanisms are different. Hsp70 binding is much more tolerant of MoRE substitutions than XD, and the majority of substitutions lead to an increased NTAIL/hsp70 interaction strength. Furthermore, while an increased and a decreased α-helicity of the MoRE lead to enhanced and reduced interaction strength with XD, respectively, the impact on hsp70 binding is negligible, suggesting that the MoRE does not adopt an α-helical conformation once bound to hsp70. Here, by showing that the α-helical conformation sampled by the free form of the MoRE does not systematically commit it to adopt an α-helical conformation in the bound form, we provide an example of partner-mediated polymorphism of an IDP and of the relative insensitiveness of the bound structure to the pre-recognition state. The present results therefore contribute to shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which IDPs recognize different partners.

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