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1.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e041757, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fast diagnostic algorithms using high-sensitivity troponin (hsTn) in suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are regarded as beneficial to expedite diagnosis and safe discharge of patients in crowded emergency departments (ED). This study investigates the effects of crowding on process times related to the diagnostic protocol itself or other time delays, and outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective single-centre observational study. SETTING: ED (Germany). PARTICIPANTS: Final study population of 2525 consecutive patients with suspected ACS within 12 months, after exclusion of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, missing blood samples, referral from other hospitals or repeated visits. INTERVENTIONS: Use of fast algorithms as per 2015 European Society of Cardiology guidelines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Crowding was defined as mismatch between patient numbers and monitoring capacities, or mean physician time per case, categorised as normal, high and very high crowding. Outcome measures were length of ED stay, direct discharge from ED, laboratory turn around times (TAT), utilisation of fast algorithms, absolute and relative non-laboratory time, as well as mortality. RESULTS: Crowding was associated with increased length of ED stay (3.75-4.89 hours, p<0.001). While median TAT of the first hsTnT increased (53-57 min, p<0.001), total TAT of serial hsTnT did not increase significantly with higher crowding (p=0.170). Lower utilisation of fast algorithms (p=0.009) and increase of additional hsTnT measurements after diagnosis (p=0.001) were observed in higher crowding. Most importantly, crowding was significantly associated with prolonged absolute (p<0.001), and particularly relative non-laboratory time (63.3%-71.3%, p<0.001). However, there was no significant effect of crowding on mortality, even after adjustment for relevant clinical variables. CONCLUSIONS: Process times, and particularly non-laboratory times, are prolonged in a crowded ED diminishing some positive effects of fast diagnostic algorithms in suspected ACS. Higher crowding levels were not significantly associated with higher all-cause mortality rates. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03111862.

2.
Herz ; 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest pain units (CPU) and stroke units (SU) have both become established as essential components of clinical emergency care. For both instances dedicated certification processes are installed. Up to summer 2020, 290 CPUs and 335 SUs have been successfully certified. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to compare the structures and the current certification situation of CPUs and SUs. Also, the younger CPU certification process is compared to the long established SU certification standard. MATERIAL UND METHODS: The comparison includes the historical background, the certification process, quality benchmarking, possible additive structures, the current status of certification in Germany, the transfer of the concept to the European level as well as reimbursement issues. RESULTS: Both certification concepts show clear analogies. Evidence for SUs is supported by a positive Cochrane analysis and for CPUs there are many studies from the German CPU registry. The main differences include a uniform CPU system versus a multistep SU system of certification. Furthermore, SU have obligatory elements of quality documentation but only facultative quality indicator assessment for CPUs. From an economic viewpoint operation and procedural key (OPS) numbers guarantee a better reflection of the use of resources in the complex treatment of stroke, which could not yet be established for CPUs. CONCLUSION: The well-established CPU concept could additionally benefit from a superordinate quality control. Adequate quality benchmarking appears to be fundamental for gap analyses and for the establishment of a separate remuneration structure. In this respect the German Society for Cardiology as the certifying institution is required to establish an appropriate mechanism within the framework of regular updates of criteria.

3.
Cardiology ; 145(9): 562-569, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781458

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gender-specific atypical clinical presentation in acute coronary syndrome and sex-specific outcomes in cardiovascular disease in women are well known. The aim of this study is to analyze possible differences between men and women presenting to certified German chest pain units (CPUs). METHODS: Data from 13,900 patients derived from the German CPU registry were analyzed for gender differences in patient characteristics, cardiovascular disease manifestation, critical time intervals, treatment and prognosis. RESULTS: A total of 37.8% of patients were female. Typical chest pain occurred more frequently in men, while atypical symptoms occurred more frequently in women. Female gender was associated with longer pre- and in-hospital time delays. Women were more often diagnosed with a nonischemic origin of pain. In a 3-month follow-up, there was no gender-specific difference in combined major adverse coronary and cerebrovascular events. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: This study points out gender-specific differences in prehospital time intervals and a significantly higher percentage of atypical symptoms in suspected myocardial ischemia as well as more noncoronary diagnoses in women. Symptom awareness and a broader diagnostic workup in women are essential.

4.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is sparse and inconsistent on the role of a dual marker strategy (DMS) combining Copeptin with cardiac troponin T (cTnT) for instant rule-out of a non-ST-segment myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) when high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) is used. METHODS: Data on 10,329 patients from 5 trials were pooled to evaluate initial Copeptin in combination with hs-cTnT against a single marker strategy (SMS) based on hs-cTnT < limit of detection. Endpoints were sensitivities and negative predictive values (NPV) for rule-out of NSTEMI, 30-day all-cause mortality and rates of applicability for DMS or SMS. RESULTS: NPV for rule-out of NSTEMI was high, exceeding 99.0% for the lower limits of the 95% confidence intervals (99.0% vs 99.2%) for DMS and SMS, and NPV for all cause death at 30 days was similar with very low mortality after rule-out [0.07% (0.0-0.4%) vs 0.0% (0.0-1.2%), p = 1.0], but applicability was 2.4-fold higher [64.6% (63.0-66.2%) vs 27.9% (26.2%-29.7%), p < 0.001] with DMS than SMS. In a secondary analysis on DMS after inclusion of high risk patients, performance and applicability were similar. CONCLUSION: Findings corroborate the 2015 European Society of Cardiology recommendation to use dual marker strategy for instant rule-out of NSTEMI, extending evidence to hs-cTnT. Novel data demonstrate a comparably safe and effective instant rule-out with Copeptin in combination with hs-cTnT versus a single marker strategy based on very low hs-cTnT but a more than twofold higher applicability of the dual marker strategy without the need to exclude very early presenters or other important subgroups. Dual marker strategy using hs-cTnT at 99th percentile and Copeptin versus ESC 0-h immediate rule-out based on hs-cTnT < limit of detection.

5.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to determine structure and changes in organisation and bed capacities of certified German chest pain units (CPU) in response to the emergency plan set-up as a response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was conducted in the form of a standardised telephone interview survey in certified German CPUs. Analyses comprised the overall setting of the CPU, bed capacities, possibilities for ventilation, possible changes in organisation and resources, chest pain patient admittance, overall availability of CPUs and bail-out strategies. The response rate was 91%. Nationwide, CPU bed capacities decreased by 3% in the early phase of COVID-19 pandemic response, exhibiting differences within and between the federal states. Pre-pandemic and pandemic bed capacities stayed below 1 CPU bed per 50,000 inhabitants. 97% of CPUs were affected by internal reorganisation pandemic plans at variable extent. While we observed a decrease of CPU beds within an emergency room (ER) set-up and on intermediate care units (ICU), beds in units being separated from ER and ICU were even increased in numbers. CONCLUSIONS: Certified German CPUs are able to maintain adequate coverage for chest pain patients in COVID-19 pandemic despite structural changes. However, at this time, it appears important to add operating procedures during pandemic outbreaks to the certification criteria of forthcoming guidelines either at the individual CPU level or more centrally steered by the German Cardiac Society or the European Society of Cardiology.

6.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(11): 755-760, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-545794

RESUMO

Current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 inducing viral COVID-19 pneumonia, is categorized in 3 stages. Some biomarkers could be assigned to one of these stages, showing a correlation to mortality in COVID-19 patients. Laboratory findings in COVID-19, especially when serially evaluated, may represent individual disease severity and prognosis. These may help planning and controlling therapeutic interventions. Biomarkers for myocardial injury (high sensitive cardiac troponin, hsTn) or hemodynamic stress (NTproBNP) may occur in COVID-19 pneumonia such as in other pneumonias, correlating with severity and prognosis of the underlying disease. In hospitalized COVID-19 patients' mild increases of hsTn or NTproBNP may be explained by cardiovascular comorbidities and direct or indirect cardiac damage or stress caused by or during COVID-19 pneumonia. In case of suspected NSTE-ACS and COVID-19, indications for echocardiography or reperfusion strategy should be carefully considered against the risk of contamination.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias/classificação , Pneumonia Viral/classificação , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Risco , Troponina C/metabolismo
7.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(11): 755-760, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492745

RESUMO

Current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 inducing viral COVID-19 pneumonia, is categorized in 3 stages. Some biomarkers could be assigned to one of these stages, showing a correlation to mortality in COVID-19 patients. Laboratory findings in COVID-19, especially when serially evaluated, may represent individual disease severity and prognosis. These may help planning and controlling therapeutic interventions. Biomarkers for myocardial injury (high sensitive cardiac troponin, hsTn) or hemodynamic stress (NTproBNP) may occur in COVID-19 pneumonia such as in other pneumonias, correlating with severity and prognosis of the underlying disease. In hospitalized COVID-19 patients' mild increases of hsTn or NTproBNP may be explained by cardiovascular comorbidities and direct or indirect cardiac damage or stress caused by or during COVID-19 pneumonia. In case of suspected NSTE-ACS and COVID-19, indications for echocardiography or reperfusion strategy should be carefully considered against the risk of contamination.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias/classificação , Pneumonia Viral/classificação , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Risco , Troponina C/metabolismo
8.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to determine structure and changes in organisation and bed capacities of certified German chest pain units (CPU) in response to the emergency plan set-up as a response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was conducted in the form of a standardised telephone interview survey in certified German CPUs. Analyses comprised the overall setting of the CPU, bed capacities, possibilities for ventilation, possible changes in organisation and resources, chest pain patient admittance, overall availability of CPUs and bail-out strategies. The response rate was 91%. Nationwide, CPU bed capacities decreased by 3% in the early phase of COVID-19 pandemic response, exhibiting differences within and between the federal states. Pre-pandemic and pandemic bed capacities stayed below 1 CPU bed per 50,000 inhabitants. 97% of CPUs were affected by internal reorganisation pandemic plans at variable extent. While we observed a decrease of CPU beds within an emergency room (ER) set-up and on intermediate care units (ICU), beds in units being separated from ER and ICU were even increased in numbers. CONCLUSIONS: Certified German CPUs are able to maintain adequate coverage for chest pain patients in COVID-19 pandemic despite structural changes. However, at this time, it appears important to add operating procedures during pandemic outbreaks to the certification criteria of forthcoming guidelines either at the individual CPU level or more centrally steered by the German Cardiac Society or the European Society of Cardiology.

9.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381877

RESUMO

Coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) has become a worldwide pandemic affecting people at high risk and particularly at advanced age, cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. As cardiovascular patients are at high risk but also have dyspnea and fatigue as leading symptoms, prevention, diagnostics and treatment in these patients are important to provide adequate care for those with or without COVID-19 but most importantly when comorbid cardiovascular conditions are present. Severe COVID-19 with acute respiratory distress (ARDS) is challenging as patients with elevated myocardial markers such as troponin are at enhanced high risk for fatal outcomes. As angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is regarded as the viral receptor for cell entry and as the Coronavirus is downregulating this enzyme, which provides cardiovascular and pulmonary protection, there is ongoing discussions on whether treatment with cardiovascular drugs, which upregulate the viral receptor ACE2 should be modified. As most of the COVID-19 patients have cardiovascular comorbidities like hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease and heart failure, which imposes a high risk on these patients, cardiovascular therapy should not be modified or even withdrawn. As cardiac injury is a common feature of COVID-19 associated ARDS and is linked with poor outcomes, swift diagnostic management and specialist care of cardiovascular patients in the area of COVID-19 is of particular importance and deserves special attention.

10.
Herz ; 45(6): 509-519, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468140

RESUMO

The 4th edition of the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (MI) recommends measurement of cardiac troponin (cTn) T or I for the diagnosis of MI due to their absolute cardiac tissue specificity. In this MI definition, values exceeding the 99th percentile of a healthy reference population distinguish between detectable troponin due to physiological cell turnover as opposed to pathological myocardial injury. In clinical routine, high-sensitivity (hs) troponin assays that allow earlier diagnosis of MI and detection of myocardial injury that would have escaped detection due to the lower sensitivity of previous assay generations are increasingly used. While the 2015 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines already recommend a re-testing of cTn after 3 h, if an hs-cTn assay is available, faster protocols that reassess hs-cTn after 60-120 min are increasingly performed, since these protocols allow faster patient disposition, increase discharge rates from the emergency department (ED), and are at least as safe as the standard protocol for the guidance of discharge after rule-out. However, decision cut-offs are lower than the 99th percentile and concentration change criteria depend on the individual hs-cTn assay and protocol used. The following article provides an overview of the recommendations of the 4th universal MI definition as well as the current 2015 ESC guidelines on cTn and other potential biomarker candidates for patients presenting with suspected acute coronary syndromes. Limitations and areas of controversy are discussed.

11.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462267

RESUMO

Coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) has become a worldwide pandemic affecting people at high risk and particularly at advanced age, cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. As cardiovascular patients are at high risk but also have dyspnea and fatigue as leading symptoms, prevention, diagnostics and treatment in these patients are important to provide adequate care for those with or without COVID-19 but most importantly when comorbid cardiovascular conditions are present. Severe COVID-19 with acute respiratory distress (ARDS) is challenging as patients with elevated myocardial markers such as troponin are at enhanced high risk for fatal outcomes. As angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is regarded as the viral receptor for cell entry and as the Coronavirus is downregulating this enzyme, which provides cardiovascular and pulmonary protection, there is ongoing discussions on whether treatment with cardiovascular drugs, which upregulate the viral receptor ACE2 should be modified. As most of the COVID-19 patients have cardiovascular comorbidities like hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease and heart failure, which imposes a high risk on these patients, cardiovascular therapy should not be modified or even withdrawn. As cardiac injury is a common feature of COVID-19 associated ARDS and is linked with poor outcomes, swift diagnostic management and specialist care of cardiovascular patients in the area of COVID-19 is of particular importance and deserves special attention.

12.
Biomarkers ; 25(4): 322-330, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362195

RESUMO

Purpose: The Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (MI) has highlighted the different pathophysiological mechanisms that may lead to ischaemic and non-ischaemic myocardial injury and has emphasised that the diagnosis of myocardial infarction requires the presence of acute myocardial ischaemia in the setting of acute myocardial injury. This case based review intends to illustrate basic principles on how to apply this new, revised definition in clinical practice.Methods and Results: The distinction between different types of MIs (type 1 or type 2) and the delineation of MI from acute non-ischaemic myocardial injury may be challenging in individual patients, which is illustrated by presenting and discussing real-life routine cases.Conclusions: Type 1 MI is a consequence of coronary plaque rupture or erosion with intracoronary thrombus formation that is usually apparent on coronary angiography. Plausible triggering mechanisms causing myocardial oxygen supply/demand mismatch must be identified for the diagnosis of type 2 MI and its treatment should focus initially on management of the underlying disease attributable to acute myocardial ischaemia.

13.
Heart ; 106(13): 985-991, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 0/1 hour algorithm has been primarily validated in Europe, America and Australasia with less knowledge of its performance outside of these settings. We aim to evaluate the performance of the ESC 0/1 hour algorithm across different contexts. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for relevant studies published between 1 January 2008 and 31 May 2019. The primary outcome was index myocardial infarction and the secondary outcome was major adverse cardiac event or mortality. A bivariate random-effects meta-analysis was used to derive the pooled estimate of each outcome. RESULTS: A total of 11 014 patients from 10 cohorts were analysed for the primary outcome. The algorithm based on high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn)T (Roche), hs-cTnI (Abbott) and hs-cTnI (Siemens) had pooled sensitivity of 98.4% (95% CI=95.1% to 99.5%), 98.1% (95% CI=94.6% to 99.3%) and 98.7% (95% CI=97.3% to 99.3%), respectively. The algorithm based on hs-cTnT (Roche) and hs-cTnI (Siemens) had pooled specificity of 91.2% (95% CI=86.0% to 94.6%) and 95.9% (95% CI=94.1% to 97.2%), respectively. Among patients in the rule-out category, the pooled mortality rate at 30 days and at 1 year was 0.1% (95% CI=0.0% to 0.4%) and 0.8% (95% CI=0.5% to 1.2%), respectively. Among patients in the observation zone, the pooled mortality rate was 0.7% (95% CI=0.3% to 1.2%) at 30 days but increased to 8.1% (95% CI=6.1% to 10.4%) at 1 year, comparable to the mortality rate in the rule-in group. CONCLUSION: The ESC 0/1 hour algorithm has high diagnostic accuracy but may not be sufficiently safe if the 1% miss-rate for myocardial infarction is desired. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019142280.

14.
Herz ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232516

RESUMO

In 2008, the German Cardiac Society (GCS) introduced a certification program for specialized chest pain units (CPUs). In order to benchmark the performance of the certified CPUs, a nationwide German CPU registry was established. Since then, data for more than 34,000 patients have been included. The concept of certified CPUs in Germany has been widely accepted and its success is underlined by its recent inclusion in national and international guidelines. As of December 2019, 286 CPUs have been successfully certified or recertified by the GCS. This review focuses on the data retrieved from the CPU registry during the first decade of certification. As demonstrated by 16 manuscripts stemming from the registry, certified German CPUs demonstrate high quality of care in acute coronary syndrome and beyond. It is also noted that the German CPU registry allowed for further analysis of the gap in guideline adherence. With the current update of the CPU certification criteria, central data collection as a best-practice criterion will be abandoned, and after some productive years the registry has temporarily been stopped.

15.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac troponins are the preferred biomarkers of acute myocardial infarction. Despite superior sensitivity, serial testing of Troponins to identify patients suffering acute coronary syndromes is still required in many cases to overcome limited specificity. Moreover, unstable angina pectoris relies on reported symptoms in the troponin-negative group. In this study, we investigated genome-wide miRNA levels in a prospective cohort of patients with clinically suspected ACS and determined their diagnostic value by applying an in silico neural network. METHODS: PAXgene blood and serum samples were drawn and hsTnT was measured in patients at initial presentation to our Chest-Pain Unit. After clinical and diagnostic workup, patients were adjudicated by senior cardiologists in duty to their final diagnosis: STEMI, NSTEMI, unstable angina pectoris and non-ACS patients. ACS patients and a cohort of healthy controls underwent deep transcriptome sequencing. Machine learning was implemented to construct diagnostic miRNA classifiers. RESULTS: We developed a neural network model which incorporates 34 validated ACS miRNAs, showing excellent classification results. By further developing additional machine learning models and selecting the best miRNAs, we achieved an accuracy of 0.96 (95% CI 0.96-0.97), sensitivity of 0.95, specificity of 0.96 and AUC of 0.99. The one-point hsTnT value reached an accuracy of 0.89, sensitivity of 0.82, specificity of 0.96, and AUC of 0.96. CONCLUSIONS: Here we show the concept of neural network based biomarkers for ACS. This approach also opens the possibility to include multi-modal data points to further increase precision and perform classification of other ACS differential diagnoses.

16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155309

RESUMO

AIMS: Low cardiac iron levels promote heart failure in experimental models. While cardiac iron concentration (CI) is decreased in patients with advanced heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), CI has never been measured in non-advanced HFrEF. We measured CI in left ventricular (LV) endomyocardial biopsies (EMB) from patients with non-advanced HFrEF and explored CI association with systemic iron status and disease severity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 80 consecutive patients with non-ischaemic HFrEF with New York Heart Association class II or III symptoms and a median (interquartile range) LV ejection fraction of 25 (18-33)%. CI was 304 (262-373) µg/g dry tissue. CI was not related to immunohistological findings or the presence of cardiotropic viral genomes in EMBs and was not related to biomarkers of systemic iron status or anaemia. Patients with CI in the lowest quartile (CIQ1 ) had lower body mass indices and more often presented with heart failure histories longer than 6 months than patients in the upper three quartiles (CIQ2-4 ). CIQ1 patients had higher serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels than CIQ2-4 patients [3566 (1513-6412) vs. 1542 (526-2811) ng/L; P = 0.005]. CIQ1 patients also had greater LV end-diastolic (P = 0.001) and end-systolic diameter indices (P = 0.003) and higher LV end-diastolic pressures (P = 0.046) than CIQ2-4 patients. CONCLUSION: Low CI is associated with greater disease severity in patients with non-advanced non-ischaemic HFrEF. CI is unrelated to systemic iron homeostasis. The prognostic and therapeutic implications of CI measurements in EMBs should be further explored.

17.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; : 2048872620907322, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: D-dimer is elevated in a variety of conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the positive predictive value of D-dimer to rule in patients with confirmed pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute aortic dissection or thrombosis of the upper extremity in comparison to patients with elevated D-dimer for other reasons. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 1334 patients presenting to the emergency department with pulmonary embolism (n=193), deep vein thrombosis (n=73), acute aortic dissection (n=22), thrombosis of the upper extremity (n=8) and 1038 controls. The positive predictive value was increased with higher D-dimer concentrations improving the ability to identify diseases with high thrombus burden. Patients with venous thromboembolism, acute aortic dissection and thrombosis of the upper extremity showed a maximum positive predictive value of 85.2% at a D-dimer level of 7.8 mg/L (95% confidence interval (CI) 78.1 to 90.4). The maximum positive predictive value was lower in cancer patients with venous thromboembolism, acute aortic dissection and thrombosis of the upper extremity, reaching 68.9% at a D-dimer level of 7.5 mg/L (95% CI 57.4 to 78.4). The positive likelihood ratio was very consistent with the positive predictive value. Using a cut-off level of 0.5 mg/L, D-dimer showed a high sensitivity of at least 93%, but a very low specificity of nearly 0%. Conversely, an optimised cut-off value of 4.6 mg/L increased specificity to 95% for the detection of life-threatening venous thromboembolism, acute aortic dissection or thrombosis of the upper extremity at the costs of moderate sensitivities (58% for pulmonary embolism, 41% for deep vein thrombosis, 65% for pulmonary embolism with co-existent deep vein thrombosis, 50% for acute aortic dissection and 13% for thrombosis of the upper extremity). Using the same cut-off in cancer patients, higher values were observed for sensitivity at a specificity level of more than 95%. The area under the curve for the discrimination of venous thromboembolism/acute aortic dissection/thrombosis of the upper extremity from controls was significantly higher in cancer versus non-cancer patients (area under the curve 0.905 in cancer patients, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.92, vs. area under the curve 0.857 in non-cancer patients, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.88; P=0.0349). CONCLUSION: D-dimers are useful not only to rule out but also to rule in venous thromboembolism and acute aortic dissection with an at least moderate discriminatory ability, both in patients with and without cancer.

18.
Herz ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest pain units (CPUs) and stroke units (SUs) provide specialized multidisciplinary in-hospital management for acute chest pain and ischemic stroke. We analyzed exemplary equivalent quality benchmarks in both concepts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from the German CPU registry (2012-2015; 45 certified CPUs, 5881 patients) were compared with data from the SU registry of Rhineland-Palatinate (2011-2015; 29 SUs; 40,380 patients). Parameters comprised demographics, symptoms, diagnosis, medication, critical time intervals, therapeutics, and in-unit outcome. RESULTS: Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (47.4%) and ischemic stroke (63.0%) were the most frequent entities. An electrocardiogram was performed on average within 7 min in CPUs, cranial imaging within 49 min in SUs. The mean time interval from admission until coronary intervention or lysis was 42 min or 57 min, respectively. Rates of antiplatelet therapy (90.1% vs. 96.0%), brain imaging, and coronary angiography were high (99.3% vs. 81.1%) and the mortality was low (0.8% for CPUs vs. 3.6% for SUs). The length of stay was shorter in CPUs (1.5 days vs. 4.4 days). CONCLUSION: As reimbursement for emergency medicine in Germany was recently rearranged, quality benchmarking has gained incremental importance. Mandatory joint quality measurement in both concepts ensuring gap analysis and process improvement is encouraged.

19.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 9(1): 39-51, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the value of fast diagnostic protocols in suspected acute coronary syndrome has been validated, there is insufficient real world evidence including patients with lower pre-test probability, atypical symptoms and confounding comorbidities. The feasibility, efficacy and safety of European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 0/1 and 0/3-hour algorithms using high-sensitivity troponin T were evaluated in a consecutive cohort with suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: During 12 months, 2525 eligible patients were enrolled. In a pre-implementation period of 6 months, the prevalence of protocols, disposition, lengths of emergency department stay and treatments were registered. Implementation of the 0/1-hour protocol was monitored for another 6 months. Primary endpoints comprised the change of diagnostic protocols and 30-day mortality after direct discharge from the emergency department. RESULTS: Use of the ESC 0/1-hour algorithm increased by 270% at the cost of the standard 0/3-hour protocol. After rule-out (1588 patients), 1309 patients (76.1%) were discharged directly from the emergency department, with an all-cause mortality of 0.08% at 30 days (one death due to lung cancer). Median lengths of stay were 2.9 (1.9-3.8) and 3.2 (2.7-4.4) hours using a single high-sensitivity troponin T below the limit of detection (5 ng/L) at presentation and the ESC 0/1-hour algorithm, respectively, as compared to 5.3 (4.7-6.5) hours using the ESC 0/3-hour rule-out protocol (P<0.001). Discharge rates increased from 53.9% to 62.8% (P<0.001), without excessive use of diagnostic resources within 30 days. CONCLUSION: Implementation of the ESC 0/1-hour algorithm is feasible and safe, is associated with shorter emergency department stay than the ESC 0/3-hour protocol, and an increase in discharge rates. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , Unique identifier: NCT03111862.

20.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(4): 476-487, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with unstable angina (UA) are regarded to be at low risk for future coronary events. Guidelines discourage routine coronary angiography and recommend early discharge after individualized risk stratification. The relative value of clinical risk indicators as compared to cardiac troponin (cTn) alone is unsettled in the era of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hsTn) assays. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics, therapies, and outcomes of UA patients with different hsTnT concentrations. METHODS: During 12 months, 2525 patients were enrolled. UA was defined as unstable symptoms and either undetectable (< 5 ng/L), normal (5-14 ng/L) or stable elevated hsTnT (15-51 ng/L). Follow-up for 1-year mortality was available in 98.7%. RESULTS: A total of 280 patients (11.1%) received a diagnosis of UA. Mortality rates at 12 months were 0%, 1.9% and 6.9% in presence of undetectable, normal and stable elevated hsTnT. Elevated hsTnT > 99th percentile but not unstable symptoms carried an independent 3.25-fold (1.78-5.93) higher risk for all-cause death after adjustment for other clinical risk indicators or the GRACE score. Utilization of guideline-recommended therapies was high albeit lower than for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Significantly fewer patients with UA received dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT, odds ratio (OR) 0.51 [95% CI 0.44-0.59], P < 0.0001), coronary angiography (CA, OR 0.79, [95% CI 0.74-0.87], P < 0.0001), and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, OR 0.50, [95% CI 0.40-0.61], P < 0.0001), compared to NSTEMI. However, prevalence of significant obstructive coronary artery disease requiring PCI was 31.8%, even in patients with undetectable hsTnT, indicating the need for stress testing. CONCLUSIONS: The current dichotomization of patients into UA and NSTEMI is no longer appropriate. Additional risk stratification seems warranted including the presence and magnitude of hsTn concentration and additional risk indicators. Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT03111862.

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