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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate myocardial injury and infarction (MI) following elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: The substantially higher analytical power of high-sensitivity troponin (hsTn) assays allows detection of minor cardiac troponin (cTn) levels, which may be useful in monitoring myocardial injury and guiding therapies. METHODS: Serial hsTnT measurements were conducted in patients undergoing elective PCI and were related to the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) as reflected by the SYNTAX score risk categories and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association classification of coronary lesions. Myocardial injury and MI were diagnosed according to the second and third versions of universal MI definition. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 530 patients, who were grouped into low (41.3%), intermediate (35.4%), and high (23.3%) SYNTAX risk categories. The treated coronary lesions were classified into A 7.8%, B1 24.1%, B2 21.1%, C1 24.6%, and C2 22.4%. Postprocedural hsTnT increases correlated significantly with the complexity of treated coronary lesions (p < 0.05) and CAD magnitude (p < 0.05). Rates of MI type 4a according to the second and third MI definition criteria were 98 (27.5%) and 15 (4.2%) cases in patients with normal baseline hsTnT values (N = 357, 67.4%), as well as 137 (79.2%) and 27 (15.6%) cases in those with elevated baseline hsTnT values (N = 173, 32.6%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: After elective PCI, cTn releases correlate significantly with lesion complexity and CAD extent. Use of hsTnT assay enables precise monitoring of PCI-related myocardial injury and may identify patients at higher risk for ischemic events, who may benefit from potent platelet inhibition, which needs to be investigated in randomized trials.

2.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620788

RESUMO

AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a gut incretin hormone inducing post-prandial insulin secretion. Glucagon-like peptide 1 levels were recently found to be increased in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive capacity of GLP-1 serum levels for cardiovascular outcome in patients with myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 918 patients presenting with myocardial infarction [321 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and 597 non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)] total GLP-1, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels and the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score were assessed at time of hospital admission. The primary composite outcome of the study was the first occurrence of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke. Kaplan-Meier survival plots and univariable Cox regression analyses found GLP-1 to be associated with adverse outcome [hazard ratio (HR) of logarithmized GLP-1 values: 6.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.67-14.81; P < 0.0001]. After further adjustment for age, sex, family history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterinaemia, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) CKD-EPI, hs-CRP, hs-Troponin T, and NT-proBNP levels the HR remained significant at 10.98 (95% CI: 2.63-45.90; P = 0.0010). Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analyses illustrated that GLP-1 levels are a strong indicator for early events. For events up to 30 days after admission, GLP-1 proved to be superior to other biomarkers including hs-Troponin T, GFR CKD-EPI, hs-CRP, and NT-proBNP. Adjustment of the GRACE risk estimate by addition of GLP-1 increased the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve over time in NSTEMI patients. CONCLUSION: In patients hospitalized for myocardial infarction, GLP-1 levels are associated with cardiovascular events.

3.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523852

RESUMO

Immune cells drive atherosclerotic lesion progression and plaque destabilization. Coronary heart disease patients undergoing noncardiac surgery are at risk for perioperative major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). It is unclear whether differential leukocyte subpopulations contribute to perioperative MACCE and thereby could aid identification of patients prone to perioperative cardiovascular events. First, we performed a hypothesis-generating post hoc analysis of the LeukoCAPE-1 study (n = 38). We analyzed preoperative counts of 6 leukocyte subpopulations in coronary heart disease patients for association with MACCE (composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery, thromboembolic stroke) within 30 d after surgery. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) were the only leukocyte subgroup associated with MACCE. We found reduced Tregs in patients experiencing MACCE versus no-MACCE (0.02 [0.01; 0.03] vs. 0.04 [0.03; 0.05] Tregs nl-1 , P = 0.002). Using Youden index, we derived the optimal threshold value for association with MACCE to be 0.027 Tregs nl-1 . Subsequently, we recruited 233 coronary heart disease patients for the prospective, observational LeukoCAPE-2 study and independently validated this Treg cutoff for prediction of MACCE within 30 d after noncardiac surgery. After multivariate logistic regression, Tregs < 0.027 cells nl-1 remained an independent predictor for MACCE (OR = 2.54 [1.22; 5.23], P = 0.012). Tregs improved risk discrimination of the revised cardiac risk index based on ΔAUC (area under the curve; ΔAUC = 0.09, P = 0.02), NRI (0.26), and IDI (0.06). Preoperative Treg levels below 0.027 cells nl-1 predicted perioperative MACCE and can be measured to increase accuracy of established preoperative cardiac risk stratification in coronary heart disease patients undergoing noncardiac surgery.

4.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; : 2048872619861911, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the value of fast diagnostic protocols in suspected acute coronary syndrome has been validated, there is insufficient real world evidence including patients with lower pre-test probability, atypical symptoms and confounding comorbidities. The feasibility, efficacy and safety of European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 0/1 and 0/3-hour algorithms using high-sensitivity troponin T were evaluated in a consecutive cohort with suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: During 12 months, 2525 eligible patients were enrolled. In a pre-implementation period of 6 months, the prevalence of protocols, disposition, lengths of emergency department stay and treatments were registered. Implementation of the 0/1-hour protocol was monitored for another 6 months. Primary endpoints comprised the change of diagnostic protocols and 30-day mortality after direct discharge from the emergency department. RESULTS: Use of the ESC 0/1-hour algorithm increased by 270% at the cost of the standard 0/3-hour protocol. After rule-out (1588 patients), 1309 patients (76.1%) were discharged directly from the emergency department, with an all-cause mortality of 0.08% at 30 days (one death due to lung cancer). Median lengths of stay were 2.9 (1.9-3.8) and 3.2 (2.7-4.4) hours using a single high-sensitivity troponin T below the limit of detection (5 ng/L) at presentation and the ESC 0/1-hour algorithm, respectively, as compared to 5.3 (4.7-6.5) hours using the ESC 0/3-hour rule-out protocol (P<0.001). Discharge rates increased from 53.9% to 62.8% (P<0.001), without excessive use of diagnostic resources within 30 days. CONCLUSION: Implementation of the ESC 0/1-hour algorithm is feasible and safe, is associated with shorter emergency department stay than the ESC 0/3-hour protocol, and an increase in discharge rates. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , Unique identifier: NCT03111862.

5.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e028311, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is sparse information on the safety of early primary discharge from the emergency department (ED) after rule-out of myocardial infarction in suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This prospective registry aimed to confirm randomised study results in patients at low-to-intermediate risk, with a broader spectrum of symptoms, across different institutional standards and with a range of local troponin assays including high-sensitivity cTn (hs-cTn), cardiac troponin (cTn) and point-of-care troponin (POC Tn). DESIGN: Prospective, multicentre European registry. SETTING: 18 emergency departments in nine European countries (Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France, Spain, UK, Turkey, Lithuania and Hungary) PARTICIPANTS: The final study cohort consisted of 2294 patients (57.2% males, median age 57 years) with suspected ACS. INTERVENTIONS: Using the new dual markers strategy, 1477 patients were eligible for direct discharge, which was realised in 974 (42.5%) of patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 30 days. RESULTS: Compared with conventional workup after dual marker measurement, the median length of ED stay was 60 min shorter (228 min, 95% CI: 219 to 239 min vs 288 min, 95% CI: 279 to 300 min) in the primary dual marker strategy (DMS) discharge group. All-cause mortality was 0.1% (95% CI: 0% to 0.6%) in the primary DMS discharge group versus 1.1% (95% CI: 0.6% to 1.8%) in the conventional workup group after dual marker measurement. Conventional workup instead of discharge despite negative DMS biomarkers was observed in 503 patients (21.9%) and associated with higher prevalence of ACS (17.1% vs 0.9%, p<0.001), cardiac diagnoses (55.2% vs 23.5%, p<0.001) and risk factors (p<0.01), but with a similar all-cause mortality of 0.2% (95% CI: 0% to 1.1%) versus primary DMS discharge (p=0.64). CONCLUSIONS: Copeptin on top of cardiac troponin supports safe discharge in patients with chest pain or other symptoms suggestive of ACS under routine conditions with the use of a broad spectrum of local standard POC, conventional and high-sensitivity troponin assays. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02490969.

6.
Diagnosis (Berl) ; 6(3): 189-201, 2019 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271552

RESUMO

Skeletal myopathies have been suggested as a non-cardiac cause of elevations of cardiac troponin (cTn), particularly cardiac troponin T (cTnT). This is of major clinical relevance and concern as cTn plays a major role in the early diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI). While both the incidence as well as the true pathophysiology (cardiac versus non-cardiac) underlying elevations in cTn in skeletal myopathies remain largely unknown, re-expression of cTnT in regenerating adult skeletal muscle has been suggested as a possible contributor. However, unequivocal protein characterization in skeletal muscle and quantification of the relative amounts of this possible signal versus the cTn signal derived from true cardiomyocyte injury remains elusive. Alternatively, minor cross-reactivity of the cTnT (and possibly at times also cTnI) detection and capture antibodies used in current monoclonal immunoassays with the skeletal troponin T or I isoform may be considered. Both would represent "false positive" elevations from a clinical perspective and would need to be reliably differentiated from "true positive elevations" from subclinical cardiomyocyte injury not detectable by currently available imaging techniques such as echocardiography and contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which have at least a 5 times lower sensitivity for cardiomyocyte injury. This review aims to explore the currently available data, its methodological limitations and provide guidance to clinicians to avoid misinterpretation of cTn concentrations.

7.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with unstable angina (UA) are regarded to be at low risk for future coronary events. Guidelines discourage routine coronary angiography and recommend early discharge after individualized risk stratification. The relative value of clinical risk indicators as compared to cardiac troponin (cTn) alone is unsettled in the era of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hsTn) assays. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics, therapies, and outcomes of UA patients with different hsTnT concentrations. METHODS: During 12 months, 2525 patients were enrolled. UA was defined as unstable symptoms and either undetectable (< 5 ng/L), normal (5-14 ng/L) or stable elevated hsTnT (15-51 ng/L). Follow-up for 1-year mortality was available in 98.7%. RESULTS: A total of 280 patients (11.1%) received a diagnosis of UA. Mortality rates at 12 months were 0%, 1.9% and 6.9% in presence of undetectable, normal and stable elevated hsTnT. Elevated hsTnT > 99th percentile but not unstable symptoms carried an independent 3.25-fold (1.78-5.93) higher risk for all-cause death after adjustment for other clinical risk indicators or the GRACE score. Utilization of guideline-recommended therapies was high albeit lower than for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Significantly fewer patients with UA received dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT, odds ratio (OR) 0.51 [95% CI 0.44-0.59], P < 0.0001), coronary angiography (CA, OR 0.79, [95% CI 0.74-0.87], P < 0.0001), and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, OR 0.50, [95% CI 0.40-0.61], P < 0.0001), compared to NSTEMI. However, prevalence of significant obstructive coronary artery disease requiring PCI was 31.8%, even in patients with undetectable hsTnT, indicating the need for stress testing. CONCLUSIONS: The current dichotomization of patients into UA and NSTEMI is no longer appropriate. Additional risk stratification seems warranted including the presence and magnitude of hsTn concentration and additional risk indicators. Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT03111862.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2529-2540, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. METHODS: In 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research [DZHK]; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00470587, NCT02355457, NCT01852123, NCT01994577, and NCT03227159; and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry numbers, ACTRN12611001069943, ACTRN12610000766011, ACTRN12613000745741, and ACTRN12611000206921.).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina I/sangue
9.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 5(1): 39, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171787

RESUMO

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is the most acute manifestation of coronary artery disease and is associated with great morbidity and mortality. A complete thrombotic occlusion developing from an atherosclerotic plaque in an epicardial coronary vessel is the cause of STEMI in the majority of cases. Early diagnosis and immediate reperfusion are the most effective ways to limit myocardial ischaemia and infarct size and thereby reduce the risk of post-STEMI complications and heart failure. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the preferred reperfusion strategy in patients with STEMI; if PCI cannot be performed within 120 minutes of STEMI diagnosis, fibrinolysis therapy should be administered to dissolve the occluding thrombus. The initiation of networks to provide around-the-clock cardiac catheterization availability and the generation of standard operating procedures within hospital systems have helped to reduce the time to reperfusion therapy. Together with new advances in antithrombotic therapy and preventive measures, these developments have resulted in a decrease in mortality from STEMI. However, a substantial amount of patients still experience recurrent cardiovascular events after STEMI. New insights have been gained regarding the pathophysiology of STEMI and feed into the development of new treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina I/análise , Troponina I/sangue
10.
Heart ; 105(20): 1559-1567, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the setting of left bundle branch block (LBBB) present an important diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the clinician. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the incidence of AMI and diagnostic performance of specific ECG and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) criteria in patients presenting with chest discomfort to 26 emergency departments in three international, prospective, diagnostic studies. The final diagnosis of AMI was centrally adjudicated by two independent cardiologists according to the universal definition of myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Among 8830 patients, LBBB was present in 247 (2.8%). AMI was the final diagnosis in 30% of patients with LBBB, with similar incidence in those with known LBBB versus those with presumably new LBBB (29% vs 35%, p=0.42). ECG criteria had low sensitivity (1%-12%) but high specificity (95%-100%) for AMI. The diagnostic accuracy as quantified by the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI concentrations at presentation (area under the ROC curve (AUC) 0.91, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.96 and AUC 0.89, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.95), as well as that of their 0/1-hour and 0/2-hour changes, was very high. A diagnostic algorithm combining ECG criteria with hs-cTnT/I concentrations and their absolute changes at 1 hour or 2 hours derived in cohort 1 (45 of 45(100%) patients with AMI correctly identified) showed high efficacy and accuracy when externally validated in cohorts 2 and 3 (28 of 29 patients, 97%). CONCLUSION: Most patients presenting with suspected AMI and LBBB will be found to have diagnoses other than AMI. Combining ECG criteria with hs-cTnT/I testing at 0/1 hour or 0/2 hours allows early and accurate diagnosis of AMI in LBBB. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: APACE: NCT00470587; ADAPT: ACTRN12611001069943; TRAPID-AMI: RD001107;Results.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3866, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846742

RESUMO

Recordings of aortic root movement represent one of the first accomplishments of ultrasound in medicine and mark the beginning of functional cardiac imaging. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. Since the aortic root is directly connected to the cardiac skeleton we hypothesize, that the amplitude of systolic aortic root motion (SARM) may be mainly caused by displacement of the cardiac base towards the apex and might therefore be used as measure of left ventricular longitudinal function (LV-LF). One hundred and eighty patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and 180 healthy controls were prospectively included into this study. SARM was lower in patients compared to controls (9 ± 3 mm vs. 12 ± 2 mm, p < 0.001) and lowest in patients with cardiovascular events (9 ± 3 mm vs. 7 ± 3 mm, p < 0.001). During a median follow-up time of 38 months, the combined end-point of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure was reached by 25 patients (13.9%). Reduced SARM had significant prognostic impact on outcome (hazard ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.88, p < 0.001) and remained an independent predictor in the multivariate analysis. Compared to parameters with potential influence on its mechanism, SARM correlated best (r = 0.75, p < 0.001) with global longitudinal strain (GLS). SARM may therefore represent an alternative echocardiographic parameter for the assessment of LV-LF, particularly when GLS is not feasible or apical views are not available.

12.
Clin Biochem ; 67: 7-11, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long term biological variation of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) in stable outpatients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: After applying 8 exclusion criteria to 965 patients, hs-cTnT was measured at index visit and at a 12-month interval in 169 stable outpatients presenting for routine follow-up visits for any CVD. Stability was defined as absence of any endpoint within the follow-up period. Reference change values (RCVs) and minimal important differences (MIDs) were determined to assess biological variation of hs-cTnT. RESULTS: MID and RCV for the 12 months interval in patients were 3.8 ng/L or 44.2%, respectively. MID and transformed MID values were lower than the corresponding RCV with a value of 5.1 ng/L for the transformed RCV and 28.1% for the transformed MID. Similar patterns were shown in different subgroups as sex, age, and renal function. We observed a baseline hs-cTnT value dependent change of MID and RCV with increasing values for MID and decreasing values for RCV which converge to stable values between a baseline hs-cTNT value of 11 to 25 ng/L. CONCLUSIONS: Biological variation of hs-cTnT over 12 months in stable outpatients depends on the concentration at index visit, and is consistent among important prespecified subgroups. MID shows a low biovariability over 12 months. Clinical Trials Identifier:NCT01954303.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
13.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212278, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753246

RESUMO

AIMS: Elevated levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hsTnT) are associated with adverse outcomes in numerous patient populations. Their value in prediction of stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is in debate. METHODS: The study population included 2898 consecutive patients presenting with AF to the emergency department of the Department of Cardiology, Heidelberg University Hospital. Associations between hsTnT and stroke risk were assessed using multivariable Cox regression. RESULTS: Elevated hsTnT levels (>14 ng/L) were associated with increased risk of stroke. Even after adjustment for various risk factors, elevated hsTnT remained independently associated with stroke risk in patients with AF, adjusted hazard ratio 2.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26-4.36] (P = 0.007). These results were consistent across important subgroups (age, renal function, ejection fraction, CHA2DS2-VASc score and main admission diagnosis). For hsTnT, area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.659 [95% CI: 0.575-0.742], compared to 0.610 [95% CI: 0.526-0.694] for the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Inclusion of hsTnT in the multivariable model for stroke risk prediction consisting of all variables of the CHA2DS2-VASc score was associated with a significant improvement of its discriminatory power. CONCLUSION: Elevated hsTnT levels are significantly associated with higher risk of stroke and provide prognostic information independent of CHA2DS2-VASc score variables. Measurement of hsTnT may improve prediction of stroke risk in patients presenting to an emergency department with AF as compared to risk stratification based only on clinical variables.

14.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 18(1): 10-15, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747759

RESUMO

The TRAPID-AMI (High Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T assay for rapid Rule-out of Acute Myocardial Infarction) study evaluated a rapid "rule-out" acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We evaluated what symptoms were associated with AMI as part of a substudy of TRAPID-AMI. There were 1282 patients evaluated from 12 centers in Europe, the United States of America, and Australia from 2011 to 2013. Multiple symptom variables were prospectively obtained and evaluated for association with the final diagnosis of AMI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done, and odds ratios (OR) were calculated. There were 213/1282 (17%) AMIs. Four independent predictors for the diagnosis of AMI were identified: radiation to right arm or shoulder [OR = 3.0; confidence interval (CI): 1.8-5.0], chest pressure (OR = 2.5; CI: 1.3-4.6), worsened by physical activity (OR = 1.7; CI: 1.2-2.5), and radiation to left arm or shoulder (OR = 1.7; CI: 1.1-2.4). In the entire group, 131 (10%) had radiation to right arm or shoulder, 897 (70%) had chest pressure, 385 (30%) worsened with physical activity, and 448 (35%) had radiation to left arm or shoulder. Duration of symptoms was not predictive of AMI. There were no symptoms predictive of non-AMI. Relationship between AMI size and symptoms was also studied. For 213 AMI patients, cardiac troponins I values were divided into 4 quartiles. Symptoms including pulling chest pain, supramammillary right location, and right arm/shoulder radiation were significantly more likely to occur in patients with larger AMIs. In a large multicenter trial, only 4 symptoms were associated with the diagnosis of AMI, and no symptoms that were associated with a non-AMI diagnosis.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 93(5): E293-E297, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the potential association between early tirofiban treatment and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Whether the use of adjunctive early glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPIs) therapy, may affect the level of NT-proBNP after primary PCI is poorly studied. METHODS: Nine hundred and eighty four ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary PCI were randomized to either pre-hospital tirofiban administration or placebo. NT-proBNP levels were evaluated on admission before angiography (baseline) and 18-96 hr after PCI. RESULTS: There were 918 (93.3%) patients with NT-proBNP values available at baseline and 865 (87.9%) post-PCI. Post-PCI NT-proBNP level dichotomized with median value as cut-off (968.8 pg/mL, IQR 430.9-1970.0) was significantly lower in patients treated with early tirofiban as compared to placebo (45.5% vs. 54.2% P = 0.011). At multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of post-PCI NT-proBNP level above the median were: NT-proBNP baseline level (OR 5.19; 95% CI, 2.92-9.25, P < 0.001), Killip class>I (OR 4.07; 95% CI 1.24-13.36, P = 0.021), anterior infarct location (OR 2.61; 95% CI 1.84-3.70, P < 0.001), age (years) (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.03-1.06, P < 0.001), male gender (OR 0.38; 95% CI 0.26-0.57, P < 0.001), prior PCI (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.27-0.90, P = 0.021) and tirofiban administration (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.51-0.99; P = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of STEMI patients, pre-hospital tirofiban administration was independently associate with a lower risk of high NT-proBNP level after primary PCI, supporting the potential benefit of early antithrombotic treatment administration in STEMI patients. The trial is registered under No. ISRCTN06195297.

16.
Anal Chem ; 91(2): 1302-1308, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543396

RESUMO

Myeloid-derived growth factor (MYDGF in humans, Mydgf in mice) is a secreted protein with previously unknown biological functions. In a recent study, Mydgf was shown to mediate cardiac repair after acute myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. Lack of a sensitive assay to measure MYDGF in the circulation has hampered its further investigation. Here, we developed a liquid chromatography/multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry MYDGF assay, employing SDS-PAGE-based protein fractionation to deplete high-abundant proteins and a stable isotope-labeled synthetic standard peptide for quantification. The assay had a lower limit of quantification of 0.8 ng/mL and a linear range up to 190 ng/mL. Within-run and total imprecision ranged from 8 to 17% and 11 to 20%, respectively. MYDGF plasma concentrations were not affected by either storage at room temperature for 4 h or up to three freeze-thaw cycles. Apparently healthy adults presented with a median (range) MYDGF concentration of 3.3 (1.3-6.7) ng/mL ( n = 120). MYDGF concentrations were elevated 2.7-fold ( P < 0.001) in patients with acute MI ( n = 101) and were associated with inflammatory biomarkers, renal dysfunction, and long-term cardiovascular mortality. The new assay and the favorable preanalytic characteristics of the analyte will facilitate studies into the pathophysiology of MYDGF and its potential use as a biomarker or protein therapeutic in patients with acute MI or other disease states.

17.
Int J Cardiol ; 275: 13-19, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352705

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sex- and age-specific high-sensitivity Troponin T (hs-cTnT) cutpoints for the diagnosis and prognosis in acute coronary syndromes are not well established. We evaluated the use of such dichotomous thresholds for calculation of the GRACE score. METHODS: We analyzed a retrospective cohort study of 1146 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Sex-dependent hs-cTnT cutpoints comprised 15.5 ng/L for men and 9.0 ng/L for women, while the sex-/age-specific cutpoints comprised 17 ng/L for 50-64-year-old men and ≥65-year-old women, 31 ng/L for ≥65-year-old men and 14 ng/L for the remainder of patients. RESULTS: For the diagnosis of NSTEMI using sex-specific hs-cTnT cutpoints, in women, the positive likelihood ratio (LR+) was 2.04 (1.68-2.47) while in men, the negative likelihood ratio (LR-) was 0.05 (0.04-0.07). Using sex-/age-specific hs-cTnT cutpoints, in ≥65-year-old women the LR- was 0.09 (0.06-0.15), in 50 to 64-year-old men the LR- was 0.08 (0.04-0.13) while in ≥65-year-old men the LR- was 0.32 (0.28-0.37). Sex-specific hs-cTnT cutpoints achieved an NRI of -0.020 (95% CI, -0.101-0.118) for women and 0.030 (95% CI, -0.013-0.079) for men, and the sex-/age-specific hs-cTnT cutpoints achieved an NRI of 0.061 (95% CI, -0.019-0.132) for women and 0.021 (95% CI, -0.062-0.108) for men, while net benefit and clinical utility were highest for women using the sex-/age-specific hs-cTnT cutpoints. CONCLUSIONS: Sex-dependent hs-cTNT cutpoints imply increasing diagnostic sensitivity for women at the cost of specificity. Considering age for hs-cTNT cutoffs slightly improves risk reclassification, although the overall gain in terms of the clinical management appears negligible.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia , Troponina T/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Int J Cardiol ; 2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to directly compare the diagnostic and prognostic performance of a dual maker strategy (DMS) with combined testing of copeptin and high-sensitivity (hs) cardiac troponin T (cTnT) at time of presentation with other algorithms for rapid rule-out of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: 922 patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected AMI and available baseline copeptin measurements qualified for the present TRAPID-AMI substudy. Diagnostic measures using the DMS (copeptin <10, <14 or < 20 pmol/L and hs-cTnT≤14 ng/L), the 1 h-algorithm (hs-cTnT<12 ng/L and change <3 ng/L at 1 h), as well as the hs-cTnT limit-of-blank (LoB, <3 ng/L) and -detection (LoD, <5 ng/L) were compared. Outcomes were assessed as combined end-points of death and myocardial re-infarction. RESULTS: True-negative rule-out using the DMS could be achieved in 50.9%-62.3% of all patients compared to 35.0%, 45.3% and 64.5% using LoB, LoD or the 1 h-algorithm, respectively. The DMS showed NPVs of 98.1%-98.3% compared to 99.2% for the 1 h-algorithm, 99.4% for the LoB and 99.3% for the LoD. Sensitivities were 93.5%-94.8%, as well as 96.8%, 98.7% and 98.1%, respectively. Addition of clinical low-risk criteria such as a HEART-score ≤ 3 to the DMS resulted in NPVs and sensitivities of 100% with a true-negative rule-out to 33.8%-41.6%. Rates of the combined end-point of death/MI within 30 days ranged between 0.2% and 0.3% for all fast-rule-out protocols. CONCLUSION: Depending on the applied copeptin cut-off and addition of clinical low-risk criteria, the DMS might be an alternative to the hs-cTn-only-based algorithms for rapid AMI rule-out with comparable diagnostic measures and outcomes.

19.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the gold standard for the quantitative assessment of cardiac volumes, mass and function. There are, however, various strategies for establishing endocardial borders, the cardiac phase used for measurements and the body dimensions used for indexing these results. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of different strategies on reference values. METHODS AND RESULTS: 362 healthy volunteers (190 men, mean age 51 ± 13 years) underwent a standard CMR protocol. Left ventricular end-diastolic (LV-EDV) and end-systolic (LV-ESV) volumes and LV mass (LV-M) were measured at end systole and end diastole in SSFP sequences using two methods, one of which included papillary muscles and trabecular tissue in the LV-M ("include" approach), while the other excluded this tissue ("exclude" approach). There was a strong correlation between the results for LV volumes and LV ejection fraction (LV-EF) between the "include" and the "exclude" approach, while the mean values were different: LV-EDV: 149.7 ± 32.5 ml vs 160.5 ± 35.0 ml, p < 0.0001; LV-ESV: 48.7 ± 14.5 ml vs 56.4 ± 16.7 ml, p < 0.0001; LV-EF: 67.7 ± 5.4% vs 65.1 ± 5.6%, p < 0.0001. When comparing end-systolic with end-diastolic data, values for LV-M were significantly higher in end systole irrespective of whether papillary muscles and trabecular tissues were included or not. Furthermore, LV-M missed overweight-induced LV hypertrophy when indexed to body surface area (BSA) instead of height. CONCLUSION: Quantitative assessment of LV volumes and mass with inclusion of papillary muscles and trabeculae to myocardial mass resulted in significantly different values, while indexing to BSA and not height may miss LV hypertrophy in terms of overweight.

20.
Eur Heart J ; 39(42): 3780-3794, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169752

RESUMO

Aims: We aimed to evaluate the impact of age on the performance of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 0/1h-algorithms and to derive and externally validate alternative cut-offs specific to older patients. Methods and results: We prospectively enrolled patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction in three large diagnostic studies. Final diagnoses were adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) T and I concentrations were measured at presentation and after 1 h. Patients were stratified according to age [<55 years (young), ≥55 to <70 years (middle-age), ≥70 years (old)]. Rule-out safety of the ESC hs-cTnT 0/1h-algorithm was very high in all age-strata: sensitivity 100% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 94.9-100] in young, 99.3% (95% CI 96.0-99.9) in middle-age, and 99.3% (95% CI 97.5-99.8) in old patients. Accuracy of rule-in decreased with age: specificity 97.0% (95% CI 95.8-97.9) in young, 96.1% (95% CI 94.5-97.2) in middle-age, and 92.7% (95% CI 90.7-94.3) in older patients. Triage efficacy decreased with increasing age (young 93%, middle-age 80%, old 55%, P < 0.001). Similar results were found for the ESC hs-cTnT 0/1h-algorithm. Alternative, slightly higher cut-off concentrations optimized for older patients maintained very high safety of rule-out, increased specificity of rule-in (P < 0.01), reduced overall efficacy for hs-cTnT (P < 0.01), while maintaining efficacy for hs-cTnI. Findings were confirmed in two validation cohorts (n = 2767). Conclusion: While safety of the ESC 0/1h-algorithms remained very high, increasing age significantly reduced overall efficacy and the accuracy of rule-in. Alternative slightly higher cut-off concentrations may be considered for older patients, particularly if using hs-cTnI. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00470587, number NCT00470587 and NCT02355457 (BACC).

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