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1.
J Endovasc Ther ; : 1526602820935611, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618486

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the outcomes of orbital atherectomy (OA) for the treatment of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) manifesting as claudication or chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI). Materials and Methods: The database from the LIBERTY study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01855412) was interrogated to identify 503 PAD patients treated with any commercially available endovascular devices and adjunctive OA for 617 femoropopliteal and/or infrapopliteal lesions. Cox regression analyses were employed to examine the association between baseline Rutherford category (RC) stratified as RC 2-3 (n=214), RC 4-5 (n=233), or RC 6 (n=56) and all-cause mortality, target vessel revascularization (TVR), major amputation, major adverse event (MAE), and major amputation/death at up to 3 years of follow-up. The mean lesion lengths were 78.7±73.7, 131.4±119.0, and 95.2±83.9 mm, respectively, for the 3 groups. Results: After OA, balloon angioplasty was used in >98% of cases, with bailout stenting necessary in 2.0%, 2.8%, and 0% of the RC groups, respectively. A small proportion (10.8%) of patients developed angiographic complications, without differences based on presentation. During the 3-year follow-up, claudicants were at lower risk for MAE, death, and major amputation/death than patients with CLTI. The 3-year Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were 84.6% for the RC 2-3 group, 76.2% for the RC 4-5 group, and 63.7% for the RC 6 group. The 3-year freedom from major amputation was estimated as 100%, 95.3%, and 88.6%, respectively. Among CLTI patients only, the RC at baseline was correlated with the combined outcome of major amputation/death, whereas RC classification did not affect TVR, MAE, major amputation, or death rates. Conclusion: Peripheral artery angioplasty with adjunctive OA in patients with CLTI or claudication is safe and associated with low major amputation rates after 3 years of follow-up. These results demonstrate the utility of OA for patients across the spectrum of PAD.

2.
J Endovasc Ther ; : 1526602820931488, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571125

RESUMO

Endovascular revascularization has been increasingly utilized to treat patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI), particularly atherosclerotic disease in the infrapopliteal arteries. Lesions of the infrapopliteal arteries are the result of 2 different etiologies: medial calcification and intimal atheromatous plaque. Although several devices are available for endovascular treatment of infrapopliteal lesions, balloon angioplasty still comprises the mainstay of therapy due to a lack of purpose-built devices. The mechanism of balloon angioplasty consists of adventitial stretching, medial necrosis, and dissection or plaque fracture. In many cases, the diffuse nature of infrapopliteal disease and plaque complexity may lead to dissection, recoil, and early restenosis. Optimal balloon angioplasty requires careful attention to assessment of vessel calcification, appropriate vessel sizing, and the use of long balloons with prolonged inflation times, as outlined in a treatment algorithm based on this systematic review. Further development of specific devices for this arterial segment are warranted, including devices for preventing recoil (eg, dedicated atherectomy devices), treating dissections (eg, tacks, stents), and preventing neointimal hyperplasia (eg, novel drug delivery techniques and drug-eluting stents). Further understanding of infrapopliteal disease, along with the development of new technologies, will help optimize the durability of endovascular interventions and ultimately improve the limb-related outcomes of patients with CLTI.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563709

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Advancements in the endovascular treatment of femoropopliteal atherosclerotic lesions have led to treatment of more complex lesions, particularly long lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the meta-analytic primary patency and need for re-intervention among patients treated for very long lesions (>200 mm) at the femoropopliteal segment and to identify potential risk factors for loss of patency. METHODS: This study was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. A random effects model meta-analysis was conducted, and the I-square was used to assess heterogeneity. RESULTS: Fifty-one studies comprised of 3029 patients were included. The mean lesion length was 269 mm. The primary patency rate at 30 days, 6 m, 1-, 2- and 5-years of follow-up was 98%, 76%, 62%, 55%, and 39% respectively. The incidence of TLR was 16% at one year and 32% at two years. The secondary patency rate at 1, 2, 3 and 5 years was 85%, 71%, 64%, and 64% respectively. Heparin bonded ePTFE covered stents (69%) and paclitaxel eluting stents (73%) demonstrated higher 1-year primary patency rates than self-expanding nitinol stents (55%) or uncoated percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with provisional stenting (54%). Lesions treated with a heparin bonded ePTFE covered stent had statistically significant higher odds of remaining patent at 1-year of follow-up (OR: 2.74; 95%CI: 1.63-4.61; p < 0.001) than lesions treated with BMS or PTA. Patients with long femoropopliteal lesions causing critical limb ischemia (CLI) developed restenosis or occlusion more often than patients treated for claudication (HR: 1.63; 95%CI: 1.06-2.49; p = 0.026) during an average follow-up of 26 months. CONCLUSION: Primary stenting of femoropopliteal TASC D lesions using drug eluting stents or covered stents results in sustained patency over time. PTA or uncoated nitinol stents demonstrated lower patency rates. However, additional comparative studies are needed to determine the efficacy of newer technologies for the treatment of complex femoropopliteal lesions and provide evidence for the most optimal treatment approach.

4.
Vascular ; : 1708538120929506, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease requiring coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) frequently coexists with critical carotid stenosis. The most optimized strategy for treating concomitant carotid and coronary artery disease remains debatable. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare synchronous CAS and CABG versus staged CAS and CABG for patients with concomitant coronary artery disease and carotid artery stenosis in terms of peri-operative (30-day) and long-term clinical outcomes. METHODS: This study was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Eligible studies were identified through a search of PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane database until December 2019. A meta-analysis was conducted with the use of a random effects model. The I-square statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. RESULTS: Four studies comprising 357 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Patients who were treated with the synchronous approach had a statistically significant higher risk for peri-operative stoke (OR: 3.71; 95% CI: 1.00-13.69; I2 = 0%) compared tο the staged group. Peri-operative mortality (OR: 4.50; 95% CI: 0.88-23.01; I2 = 0%), myocardial infarction (MI) (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 0.18- 13.09; I2 = 0%), postoperative bleeding (OR: 0.27;95% CI: 0.02-3.12; I2 = 0%), transient ischemic attacks (TIA) (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.04- 9.20; I2 = 0.0%), acute kidney injury (AKI) (OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.03-4.03; I2 = 0.0%) and atrial fibrillation rates (OR:0.27; 95% CI: 0.02-3.12; I2 = 0.0%) were similar between the two groups. Synchronous CAS-CABG and staged CAS followed by CABG were associated with similar rates of late mortality (OR: 3.75; 95% CI: 0.50-27.94; I2 = 0.0%), MI (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.01-12.03; I2 = 0.0%) and stroke (OR:3.58; 95% CI:0.84-15.20; I2 = 0.0%) after a mean follow-up of 47 months. CONCLUSION: The simultaneous approach was associated with an increased risk of 30-day stroke compared to staged CAS and CABG. However, no statistically significant difference was found in long-term results of mortality, MI and stroke between the two approaches. Future studies are warranted to validate our results.

5.
J Endovasc Ther ; : 1526602820931559, 2020 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508220

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of drug-coated balloons (DCB) for the treatment of femoropopliteal or infrapopliteal lesions in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI). Materials and Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Central up to January 2020 to identify randomized trials and observational studies presenting data on the effectiveness and safety of DCBs in the treatment of femoropopliteal or infrapopliteal lesions. A meta-analysis utilizing random effects modeling was conducted to investigate primary patency and all-cause mortality at 12 months; the results are reported as the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Secondary outcomes were procedural success, bailout stenting, target lesion revascularization (TLR), reocclusion, major amputation, wound healing, and major adverse limb events. Results: Twenty-six studies, 12 retrospective and 14 prospective, comprising 2108 CLTI patients treated with DCBs for femoropopliteal (n=1315) or infrapopliteal (n=793) lesions were analyzed. The average lesion lengths were 121±44 and 135±53 mm, respectively. The overall 12-month all-cause mortality and major amputation rates were 9% (95% CI 6% to 13%) and 5% (95% CI 2% to 8%), respectively. Primary patency rates were 82% (95% CI 76% to 87%) and 64% (95% CI 58% to 70%), respectively. A sensitivity analysis of the infrapopliteal lesions demonstrated no difference between DCB and balloon angioplasty in terms of primary patency, TLR, major amputation, or mortality over 12 months. However, patients with infrapopliteal lesions undergoing DCB angioplasty did have a significantly lower risk for reocclusion (10% vs 25%; OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.70, p=0.002). Conclusion: DCB angioplasty of femoropopliteal and infrapopliteal lesions in patients with CLTI results in acceptable 12-month patency rates, although comparative data have not shown a patency benefit for infrapopliteal lesions. The 12-month mortality rate of DCB vs balloon angioplasty was not significantly different, but studies with longer-term outcomes are necessary to determine any association between DCB use and mortality in patients with CLTI.

6.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472995

RESUMO

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects more than 200 million patients worldwide and chronic limb threating ischemia (CLTI) is the most advanced stage of PAD with very high morbidity and mortality rates. Cardiovascular medicine is trending towards a more personalized approach where each individual patient will be managed according to specific risk factors, disease characteristics, expectations related to their disease and individualized assessment of potential outcomes. For this reason, a number of risk models and scores have been developed the last few years. Our aim with this comprehensive review article is to provide an overview of selected risk models and scores for patients with PAD and CLTI. Given that some of the published scores were of low quality (minimal discriminatory ability), we included scores that were already externally validated or scores that had promising initial findings. Available scoring systems were grouped in the five following categories according to their utility: i) scores that can detect asymptomatic patients who should be screened for PAD, ii) scores for assessment of functional status and quality of life in patients with PAD, iii) scores assessing risk for amputation and other major adverse limb events among patients with CLTI, iv) scores for the optimal revascularization strategy in each patient and scores predicting successful procedural outcomes; v) scores predicting short or long-term cardiovascular and limb related outcomes after either revascularization or at least angiographic assessment. Limitations of available scoring systems include development and validation in specific populations, lack of external validation (for some of them) and also lack of synchrony with current era endovascular technology. However, with further optimization of current scores and development of new scores, the field of PAD and CLI can be transitioned to a personalized medicine approach.

7.
Vasc Med ; : 1358863X20916526, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460647

RESUMO

The association between active smoking and wound healing in critical limb ischemia (CLI) is unknown. Our objective was to examine in a retrospective cohort study whether active smoking is associated with higher incomplete wound healing rates in patients with CLI undergoing endovascular interventions. Smoking status was assessed at the time of the intervention, comparing active to no active smoking, and also during follow-up visits at 6 and 9 months. Cox regression analysis was conducted to compare the incomplete wound healing rates of the two groups during follow-up. A total of 264 patients (active smokers: n = 41) were included. Active smoking was associated with higher rates of incomplete wound healing in the 6-month univariate Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio (HR) for incomplete wound healing: 4.54; 95% CI: 1.41-14.28; p = 0.012). The 6-month Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimates for incomplete wound healing were 91.1% for the active smoking group versus 66% for the non-current smoking group. Active smoking was also associated with higher rates of incomplete wound healing in the 9-month univariable (HR for incomplete wound healing: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.11-4.76; p = 0.026) and multivariable analysis (HR for incomplete wound healing: 9.09; 95% CI: 1.06-100.0; p = 0.044). The 9-month KM estimates for incomplete wound healing were 75% in the active smoking group versus 54% in the non-active smoking group. In conclusion, active smoking status at the time of intervention in patients with CLI is associated with higher rates of incomplete wound healing during both 6- and 9-month follow-up.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endovascular therapy is often the preferred first treatment option for chronic limb threatening ischemia (CLTI) patients. Drug coated balloons (DCB) reduce restenosis rates compared to percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), however DCB use has not been studied systematically in patients with CLTI. Thus, the optimal treatment option for these complex lesions remains controversial. METHODS: We report on 327 patients with CLTI treated either with DCB (n = 105) or non-DCB (n = 222) for femoropopliteal disease. Data were retrieved from the Excellence in Peripheral Artery Disease (XLPAD) registry (NCT01904851). Two DCB types were used at the discretion of the operator: Lutonix® (BARD Peripheral Vascular, Inc., Tempe, AZ, USA) and IN.PACT AdmiralTM (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, CA, USA). Odds ratios and the respective 95% confidence interval were synthesized to examine the association between the two groups in terms of all-cause mortality, target limb repeat endovascular or surgical revascularization, target vessel revascularization (TVR), major and minor amputation at 12 months of follow up. RESULTS: The mean lesion length was 150.0 mm (SD:123.2) and 151.2 mm (SD:108.3) for the DCB and non-DCB group respectively. No difference between the two groups was detected in terms of all-cause mortality (2.86%vs2.7%,p = .94), target limb repeat endovascular or surgical revascularization (16.19%vs12.61%,p = .25), TVR (16.19%vs.11.71%,p = .26) or minor amputation (15.24%vs10.81%,p = .25) at 12 months of follow up. Although a higher incidence of 12 months major amputation was observed in the DCB group (11%vs.4%,p = .01), after adjusting for several risk factors the odds of major amputation were not statistically different between the DCB and non-DCB groups (OR:1.54;95%CI:0.53-4.51;p = .43). CONCLUSIONS: Both DCB and non-DCB strategies are effective modalities for revascularization of patients with CLTI. No differences were identified between the DCB and non-DCB group in terms of late outcomes during 12 months of follow up.

9.
Future Cardiol ; 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253940

RESUMO

Aim: To summarize all available literature regarding the Wirion™ embolic protection system (EPS) and present examples from our center. Materials & methods: A review of literture was performed about the utilization of Wirion EPS. Results: One study was identified investigating the outcomes of Wirion during carotid artery stenting. The study demonstrated 98.3% procedural success with stroke occurring in only 2.5%. Two single arm studies were identified investigating the efficacy of the Wirion filter during lower extremity endovascular interventions. The reported device success ranged from 95.1 to 97.3%. Conclusion: While carotid artery stenting should always be performed with adjunctive EPS in order to decrease the risk of cerebrovascular accidents, the routine use of EPS in femorpopliteal interventions remains an active area of investigation.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265128

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is inferior to open surgical repair in terms of adverse events during late follow up, defined as >8 years after the procedure. BACKGROUND: EVAR is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality compared to open surgery in the early perioperative period. However, it is unknown whether this pattern remains during long-term follow up >8 years. METHODS: A meta-analysis was conducted with the use of random effects modeling. Hazard ratios were calculated for mortality at different time intervals, and risk ratios were calculated in cases where the total number of events was available. RESULTS: There was no difference in all-cause mortality during follow up of each study (HR: 1.04; 95%CI: 0.93-1.17; I2 = 16.0%). Subgroup analyses for all-cause mortality at 4 to 8 years of follow up (HR: 1.13; 95%CI: 0.94-1.35; I2 = 0.0%) and all-cause mortality at follow up >8 years (HR: 1.07; 95%CI: 0.89-0.28; I2 = 36.6%) also did not show any significant difference between the two approaches. The risks of aneurysm-related mortality and aneurysm rupture were similar during follow-up. However, the cumulative risk for reintervention during follow up was greater in the EVAR group (RR: 2.18; 95%CI: 1.50-3.17; I2 = 76.1%) and occurred in 29% vs 15% of patients in the EVAR vs surgery groups respectively. CONCLUSIONS: EVAR and open surgical repair of AAA are equally safe and have no difference in all-cause mortality. However, endovascular repair is associated with an increased need for re-intervention. Emerging technology in endovascular devices will likely further improve the outcomes of EVAR. Subject codes: Meta-analysis; aneurysm; atherosclerosis; complications.

12.
Am J Surg ; 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107011

RESUMO

AIM: The incidence of esophageal malignancies is higher in cirrhotic patients due to the fact that cirrhosis and esophageal cancer share common risk factors. Our goal was to define the impact of cirrhosis on postoperative outcomes following esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. METHODS: This study was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Eligible studies were identified through search of PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane (end-of-search date: March 8th, 2019). A meta-analysis was conducted using random effects modeling. RESULTS: We included 12 observational studies reporting on a total of 1938 patients who underwent surgery for esophageal cancer. Cirrhotic patients were more likely to develop postoperative pulmonary complications (OR: 2.60; 95% CI: 1.53-4.42), ascites (OR: 37.77; 95% CI: 10.95-130.28) and anastomotic leak/fistula within 30 days (OR: 2.81; 95% CI: 1.05-7.49) after esophageal cancer surgery. Cirrhotic patients had higher 30-day (OR: 3.04; 95% CI: 1.71-5.39) mortality rate. Liver disease did not appear to influence 90-day (OR: 2.84; 95% CI: 0.94-8.93) or late mortality rates (at a mean of 24 months of postoperative follow up) (OR: 1.70; 95% CI: 0.53-5.51). Esophagectomy for carcinoma in Child-Turcotte-Pugh class A cirrhotic patients was associated with significantly lower 30-day mortality rates compared to class B patients (OR: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.04-0.54). CONCLUSIONS: Cirrhotic patients have higher odds of developing pulmonary complications, ascites, and anastomotic leak during the first postoperative month. Although, 30-day mortality was higher among cirrhotic patients after esophagectomy, liver disease does not seem to influence long-term prognosis.

13.
Head Neck ; 42(5): 1077-1088, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiation to the head and neck is a well-established risk factor for the development of carotid artery stenosis. Our objective was to identify the prevalence, incidence, and degree of carotid stenosis in patients with a history of head and neck irradiation. METHODS: This study was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. A random effects model meta-analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Nineteen studies comprising 1479 patients were included. The prevalence of carotid stenosis >50%, >70%, and carotid occlusion was 25% (95% CI: 19%-32%), 12% (95% CI: 7%-17%), and 4% (95% CI: 2%-8%), respectively. The cumulative 12-month incidence of carotid stenosis >50% was 4% (95% CI: 2%-5%), the 24-month was 12% (95% CI: 9%-15%), and the 36-month was 21% (95% CI: 9%-36%). CONCLUSIONS: The yearly incidence of carotid stenosis >50% increased every year during the first 3 years following radiotherapy. We propose routine yearly Doppler ultrasound screening beginning 1 year after head and neck radiotherapy.

14.
J Endovasc Ther ; 27(2): 334-344, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066317

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the prognostic role of contralateral carotid artery occlusion (CCO) in perioperative outcomes of patients undergoing carotid artery endarterectomy (CEA) vs carotid artery stenting (CAS). Materials and Methods: The PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases were searched up to September 2018 to identify observational or randomized studies that compared outcomes of carotid revascularization in patients with vs without CCO. Forty-three studies (46 arms) comprising 96,658 patients were selected (75,857 CEA and 20,801 CAS). The CCO group included 9258 patients. Heterogeneity was assessed with the Higgins I2 test. I2>75% indicated significant heterogeneity. A random effects model was used to account for heterogeneity among studies. The results were reported as the odds ratios (ORs) with the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Meta-regression analysis examined potential confounders. Publication bias was quantified by the Egger method. Results: Carotid revascularization in patients with CCO was associated with an increased risk of 30-day mortality (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.23, p<0.001; I2=0%), stroke (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.41 to 2.22, p<0.001; I2=46%), transient ischemic attack (TIA) (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.27, p=0.001; I2=15%), and the composite endpoint of stroke/death (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.05, p<0.001; I2=0%). No difference was noted in the risk of perioperative myocardial infarction (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.31; p=0.388; I2=0%). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that CEA in patients with CCO was associated with an increased risk of stroke (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.72 to 2.49, p<0.001; I2=14%), death (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.10, p<0.001; I2=0%), TIA (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.38 to 3.45, p<0.001; I2=13%), and stroke/death (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.10, p<0.001; I2=0%), whereas CCO patients who were treated with CAS were at an increased risk for death (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.60, p=0.023; I2=0%) but not stroke (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.47; p=0.080; I2=31%) or TIA (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.18 to 7.55; p=0.861; I2=43%). The meta-regression analysis did not find any significant association for any of the outcomes, and there was no evidence of publication bias. Conclusion: Carotid revascularization outcomes are adversely affected by the presence of CCO. Patients with CCO have a significantly higher risk of periprocedural stroke, death, and TIA. CEA in patients with CCO is associated with an increased risk of perioperative stroke, death, TIA, and death/stroke, while CAS in the presence of a CCO is associated with an increased risk of periprocedural death but not stroke or TIA.

15.
Vasc Med ; 25(2): 106-117, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964311

RESUMO

High-intensity statins are recommended for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the most advanced presentation of PAD. The benefit of statins in the CLI population is unclear based on the existent studies. Our objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the efficacy of statin therapy in patients with CLI. PRISMA guidelines were followed. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases were reviewed up to April 30, 2019. The primary outcomes included amputation rates and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included primary patency rates, amputation-free survival and major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Risk of bias was assessed with the Robins-I tool for observational studies. A random-effects model meta-analysis was performed. Heterogeneity was assessed with I2. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to assess publication bias. Nineteen studies including 26,985 patients with CLI were included in this systematic review. Among patients with known data on statin status, 12,292 (49.6%) were on statins versus 12,513 (50.4%) not on statins. Patients treated with statins were 25% less likely to undergo amputation (HR 0.75; 95% CI: 0.59-0.95; I2 = 79%) and 38% less likely to have a fatal event (HR 0.62; 95% CI: 0.52-0.75; I2 = 41.2%). Statin therapy was also associated with increased overall patency rates and lower incidence of MACCE. There was substantial heterogeneity in the analysis for amputation and amputation-free survival (I2 > 70%). In conclusion, statins are associated with decreased risk for amputation, mortality, and MACCE, as well as increased overall patency rates among patients with CLI. Future studies should assess whether other lipid-lowering medications in addition to high-intensity statins can further improve outcomes among patients with CLI. (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42019134160).

16.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(3): 254-263, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Both true and false extracranial carotid artery aneurysms (ECAA) are a potential source of morbidity and mortality. While ECAA have historically been treated surgically, endovascular reconstruction with stenting is an emerging treatment option. The aim of our study was to report clinical/radiologic outcomes following endovascular repair of ECAAs. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 68 case reports and case series, comprising 162 patients, were included. Most patients presented with at least one symptom or sign related to the ECAA (89.5%; N = 145/162). In 42.6% (N = 69/162) and 46.3% (N = 75/162) of the cases polytetrafluoroethylene covered and uncovered stents were deployed respectively. Immediate post-procedural imaging demonstrated complete aneurysm exclusion in 86.4% (N = 140/162) of the cases and minimal filling of the aneurysm sack in 10.5% (N = 17/162) of all cases. Perioperative adverse event rates were 3.1% for stroke, 1.2% for transient ischemic attack (TIA) and 4.3% for mortality. During a mean follow-up of 21.8months, there were additionally observed one stroke, two TIAs and three deaths. Overall 88.6 % of the patients (N = 117/132) remained asymptomatic, partially recovered or at least did not suffer from new neurologic deficits during follow up, with no signs of stenosis or occlusion of the carotid artery. CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular stenting for the treatment of ECAAs is feasible with acceptable short- and long-term clinical and radiologic outcomes. Prospective real-world studies are needed to further validate the safety and the long-term patency of endovascular repair.


Assuntos
Aneurisma/terapia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/terapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma/mortalidade , Aneurisma/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/mortalidade , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Stents , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular , Adulto Jovem
17.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(3): 264-271, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928171

RESUMO

Persistent sciatic artery (PSA) is an embryologic remnant of the internal iliac artery, and when is present, it undergoes aneurysmal degeneration in up to 60% of the cases. Endovascular repair is an increasingly utilized treatment strategy for PSA aneurysms (PSAAs). The objective was to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the endovascular repair in patients with PSAA and to identify potential risk factors for loss of patency or limb loss. This systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, and eligible studies were identified through search of the PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Central databases. Fifteen case reports, comprising 15 patients overall, were included. The median age of the patients was 68 years old (mean age 66 ± 13.4 years) with half of the reported patients being women. Most patients presented with progressive limb claudication, complaining about an enlarging palpable pulsatile buttock mass. The onset of symptoms was sudden in 78% of the reported cases. Additionally, the distal pulses on PSAA side were diminished or absent in 91% of the patients. Acute limb ischemia was the primary diagnosis in 75% of the cases. All patients underwent endovascular repair of the PSAA with a covered stent. Procedural outcomes were favorable in all patients demonstrating no symptoms recurrence, aneurysmal regression, or total obliteration evaluated by angiographic studies (computed tomography angiography [CTA] and angiogram). Periprocedural imaging evaluation was determined either with CTA or duplex ultrasound (DUS). Periprocedural complications included only 1 endoleak with distal dissection. This endoleak was identified after stent deployment and dissection distal to the aneurysm. Mean follow-up (with CTA and/or DUS) was 22 months, with all patients being asymptomatic with no recurrence of symptom. The endovascular treatment of PSAA with covered stent is safe and effective. Persistent sciatic artery aneurysms is associated with high procedural success, low periprocedural compilations, and favorable mid-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares , Aneurisma Ilíaco/terapia , Artéria Ilíaca/embriologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Ilíaco/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Ilíaco/embriologia , Artéria Ilíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 63: 427-438.e1, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the systemic nature of atherosclerosis, arteries at different sites are commonly simultaneously affected. As a result, severe coronary artery disease (CAD) requiring coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) frequently coexists with significant carotid stenosis that warrants revascularization. To compare simultaneous carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and CABG versus staged CEA and CABG for patients with concomitant CAD and carotid artery stenosis in terms of perioperative outcomes. METHODS: This study was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A meta-analysis was conducted with the use of a random effects model. The I2 statistic was used to assess for heterogeneity. RESULTS: Eleven studies comprising 44,895 patients were included in this meta-analysis (21,710 in the synchronous group and 23,185 patients in the staged group). The synchronous CEA and CABG group had a statistically significant lower risk for myocardial infarction (MI) (odds ratio [OR] 0.15, 95% CI 0.04-0.61, I2 = 0%) and higher risk for stroke (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.34-1.71, I2 = 0%) and death (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.01-1.75, I2 = 47.8%). Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.00-1.61, I2 = 0.0%), postoperative bleeding (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.22-3.05, I2 = 0.0%), and pulmonary complications (OR 1.52, 95% CI 0.24-9.60, I2 = 67.5%) were similar between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Patients in the simultaneous CEA and CABG group had a significantly higher risk of 30-day mortality and stroke and lower risk for MI as compared to staged CEA and CABG group. The rates of TIA, postoperative bleeding, and pulmonary complications were similar between the 2 groups. Future randomized trials or prospective cohorts are needed to validate our results.

19.
Neurosurg Rev ; 43(3): 931-940, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903316

RESUMO

Extracranial internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) is a potential source of morbidity and mortality in trauma patients and requires high degree of suspicion for diagnosis after the initial presentation. Occasionally, if standard therapy is contraindicated, endovascular reconstruction is a treatment option. The aim of this systematic review was to report clinical and radiographic outcomes following endovascular repair of ICAD of traumatic and iatrogenic etiology. A comprehensive systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Twenty-four studies comprising 191 patients (204 lesions) were included; 179 underwent traditional carotid artery stenting (CAS), whereas 12 patients underwent flow diversion with the pipeline embolization device (PED). In total, 75.7% of the CAS group and 66.6% of the PED group presented with ICAD-related symptomatology. Concomitant pseudoaneurysms were identified in 61.9% and 78.5% of lesions in the CAS and PED group, respectively. Adverse event rates among CAS-treated lesions after 30-day follow-up were below 2.2% for stroke, transient ischemic attack, and mortality. During follow-up in the CAS group, there was no incidence of ICAD-related stroke or death and 2.2% of patients underwent a repeat CAS procedure. In the PED group, no patient suffered stroke or death in the reported follow-up. In the PED cohort, there was an adequate occlusion rate and no patient had to be retreated. Endovascular reconstruction of traumatic or iatrogenic ICAD appears safe. This approach demonstrated acceptable short- and long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes in both groups.

20.
Neurosurgery ; 86(4): 464-477, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent randomized control trials (RCTs) established that mechanical thrombectomy is superior to medical therapy for patients with stroke due to a large vessel occlusion. OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy profile of the different mechanical thrombectomy strategies. METHODS: A random-effects meta-analysis was performed and the I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. RESULTS: Nineteen studies with a total of 2449 patients were included. No differences were identified between the stent retrieval and direct aspiration groups in terms of modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) 2b/3 and mTICI 3 recanalization rates, and favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] ≤ 2). Adverse event rates, including 90-d mortality, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), were similar between the stent retrieval and direct aspiration groups. The use of the stent retrieval was associated with a higher risk of vasospasm (odds ratio [OR]: 2.98; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-8.09; I2: 0%) compared to direct aspiration. When compared with the direct aspiration group, the subgroup of patients who underwent thrombectomy with the combined approach as a first-line strategy had a higher likelihood of successful mTICI 2b/3 (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.02-2.12; I2: 0%) and mTICI 3 recanalization (OR: 3.65; 95% CI: 1.56-8.54), although with a higher risk of SAH (OR: 4.33; 95% CI: 1.15-16.32). CONCLUSION: Stent retrieval thrombectomy and direct aspiration did not show significant differences. Current available evidence is not sufficient to draw conclusions on the best surgical approach. The combined use of a stent retriever and aspiration as a first-line strategy was associated with higher mTICI 2b/3 and mTICI 3 recanalization rates, although with a higher risk of 24-h SAH, when compared with direct aspiration.

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