Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 155
Filtrar
1.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 82(5): 483-490, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714427

RESUMO

There are limited data on infants with HIV starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the neonatal period. We investigated the association between the timing of ART initiation and time-to-suppression among infants who tested HIV-positive and initiated ART within the first 28 days of life. The effect was estimated using cumulative probability flexible parametric spline models and a multivariable generalized additive mixed model was performed to test nonlinear associations. Forty-four neonates were included. Nineteen (43.2%) initiated ART within 7 days of life and 25 (56.8%) from 8 to 28 days. Infants treated within 7 days were 4-fold more likely to suppress earlier than those treated after 7 days [Hazard ratio (HR) 4.01 (1.7-9.5)]. For each week the ART initiation was delayed, the probability of suppression decreased by 35% (HR 0.65 [0.46-0.92]). Age at ART start was linearly associated with time-to-suppression. However, a linear association with normally distributed residuals was not found between baseline viral load and time-to-suppression, with no association found when baseline viral loads were ≤5 log(10) copies/mL, but with exponential increase in time-to-suppression with > log5 copies/mL at baseline. Starting ART within 7 days of life led to 4-fold faster time to viral suppression, in comparison to initiation from 8 to 28 days.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(20): e15532, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096455

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused one of the most challenging global infectious epidemics in recent years because of its causal association with severe microcephaly and other congenital malformations. The diagnosis of viral infections usually relies on the detection of virus proteins or genetic material in clinical samples as well as on the infected host immune responses. Serial serologic testing is required for the diagnosis of congenital infection when diagnostic molecular biology is not possible. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 2-year-old girl, born to a mother with confirmed ZIKV infection during pregnancy, with a confirmed ZIKV infection in utero, showed at birth a severe microcephaly and clinical characteristics of fetal brain disruption sequence compatible with a congenital ZIKV syndrome (CZS). DIAGNOSIS: ZIKV-RNA and ZIKV-IgM serological response performed at birth and during the follow-up time tested always negative. Serial serologic ZIKV-IgG tests were performed to assess the laboratory ZIKV diagnosis, ZIKV-IgG seroreversion was observed at 21 months of age. ZIKV diagnosis of this baby had to be relied on her clinical and radiological characteristics that were compatible with a CZS. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was followed-up as per protocol at approximately 1, 4, 9, 12, 18-21, and 24 months of age. Neurological, radiological, audiological, and ophthalmological assessment were performed during this period of time. Prompt rehabilitation was initiated to prevent potential adverse long-term neurological outcomes. OUTCOMES: The growth of this girl showed a great restriction at 24 months of age with a weight of 8.5 kg (-2.5 z-score) and a head circumference of 40.5 cm (-4.8 z-score). She also had a great neurodevelopmental delay at the time of this report. CONCLUSION: We presume that as a consequence of prenatal ZIKV infection, the fetal brain and other organs are damaged before birth through direct injury. Following this, active infection ends during intrauterine life, and as a consequence the immune system of the infant is unable to build up a consistent immune response thereafter. Further understanding of the mechanisms taking part in the pathogenesis of ZIKV congenital infection is needed. This finding might change our paradigm regarding serological response in the ZIKV congenital infection.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Microcefalia/etiologia , Gravidez , Testes Sorológicos , Espanha , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações
3.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 4(6): 466-476, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982722

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of acute and chronic liver disease and associated morbidity and mortality worldwide. Vertical (mother-to-child) and horizontal early childhood transmission are the main routes of HBV transmission and are responsible for most chronic infections, including among adults who bear the greatest burden of morbidity and mortality. Universal hepatitis B immunisation at birth and in infancy is the key strategy for global elimination of HBV infection, and has been highly effective in reducing new vertical infections. However, global progress in scale-up of HBV testing and treatment has been slow in adults and children. In this Series paper, we summarise knowledge on the epidemiology, natural history, and treatment of chronic HBV infection in adolescents and children, and we highlight key differences from HBV infection in adults. The estimated global prevalence of HBV infection in children aged 5 years or younger is 1·3%. Most children are in the high-replication, low-inflammation phase of infection, with normal or only slightly raised aminotransferases; cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are rare. Although entecavir is approved and recommended for children aged 2-17 years, and tenofovir for those aged 12-18 years, a conservative approach to treatment initiation in children is recommended. Key actions to address current policy gaps include: validation of non-invasive tests for liver disease staging; additional immunopathogenesis studies in children with HBV infection; long-term follow-up of children on nucleoside or nucleotide analogue regimens to inform guidance on when to start treatment; evaluation of different treatment strategies for children with high rates of HBV replication; and establishment of paediatric treatment registries and international consortia to promote collaborative research.

4.
J Viral Hepat ; 26(8): 961-968, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980773

RESUMO

The burden of paediatric Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection across Europe is unknown, as are current policies regarding monitoring and treatment. This collaborative study aimed to collect aggregate data to characterise the population of ≤18-year-olds with HCV infection in specialist follow up in a 12-month period (2016) across the PENTAHep European consortium, and investigate current policies around monitoring and treatment. A cross-sectional, web-based survey was distributed in April 2017 to 50 paediatricians in 19 European countries, covering patients' profile, and monitoring and treatment practices. Responses were received from 38/50 clinicians collectively caring for 663 children with chronic HCV infection of whom three-quarters were aged ≥6 years and 90% vertically infected. HCV genotype 1 was the most common (n 380; 57.3%), followed by genotype 3, 4 and 2. Seventeen children (3%) with chronic HCV infection were diagnosed with cirrhosis, and six were reported to have received liver transplantation for HCV-related liver disease. The majority (n 425; 64.1%) of the European children with HCV infection remained treatment-naive in 2016. Age affected clinicians' attitudes towards treatment; 94% reported being willing to use direct-acting antivirals, if available, in adolescents (aged ≥11 years), 78% in children aged 6-10 and 42% in those 3-5 years of age (Pearson correlation coefficient -0.98; P 0.0001). This survey provides the largest characterisation of the population of children in clinical follow-up for chronic HCV infection in Europe, alongside important contextual information on their management and treatment. Discussion is needed around strategies and criteria for use of direct-acting antivirals in these children.

5.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 4(6): 477-487, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982721

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease and associated morbidity and mortality worldwide. Short-course, oral, curative, direct-acting antiviral regimens have transformed treatment for HCV infection. Since the 2016 launch of the first global strategy towards elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030, the predominant focus of the global response has been on the treatment of adults, who bear the greatest burden of morbidity and mortality of HCV-related chronic liver disease. Compared with adults, there has been little attention paid to addressing the response to HCV in children and adolescents, in part because of the scarcity of data to inform specific paediatric management practices and policy. In this Series paper, we summarise knowledge on the epidemiology, natural history, and treatment of chronic HCV infection in adolescents and children, and we highlight key differences from infection acquired in adulthood. The estimated global prevalence and burden of HCV infection in children aged 1-19 years is 0·15%, corresponding to 3·5 million people (95% CI 3·1-3·9 million). HCV infection is usually asymptomatic during childhood, and cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are rare. Sofosbuvir with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir with ribavirin have received regulatory approval and guidelines recommend their use in adolescents aged 12 years and older with HCV infection. In April, 2019, glecaprevir with pibrentasvir also received regulatory approval for adolescents aged 12-17 years. Key actions to address the current policy gaps and achieve treatment scale-up that is comparable to that in adults include: establishment of a campaign on access to testing and treatment that is targeted at children and adolescents; fast-track evaluation of pan-genotypic regimens; and accelerated approval of paediatric formulations. Research gaps that need to be addressed include: age-specific prevalence studies of HCV viraemia in priority countries; further validation of non-invasive tests for staging of liver disease in children; and establishment of paediatric treatment registries and international consortia to promote collaborative research agendas.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675340

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program based on a Clinical Pathway (CP) to improve appropriateness in perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP). Materials and methods: This pre-post quasi-experimental study was conducted in a 12 month period (six months before and six months after CP implementation), in a tertiary Pediatric Surgical Centre. All patients from 1 month to 15 years of age receiving one or more surgical procedures were eligible for inclusion. PAP was defined appropriate according to clinical practice guidelines. Results: Seven hundred sixty-six children were included in the study, 394 in pre-intervention and 372 in post-intervention. After CP implementation, there was an increase in appropriate PAP administration, as well as in the selection of the appropriate antibiotic for prophylaxis, both for monotherapy (p = 0.02) and combination therapy (p = 0.004). Even the duration of prophylaxis decreased during the post-intervention period, with an increase of correct PAP discontinuation from 45.1 to 66.7% (p < 0.001). Despite the greater use of narrow-spectrum antibiotic for fewer days, there was no increase in treatment failures (10/394 (2.5%) pre vs 7/372 (1.9%) post, p = 0.54). Conclusions: CPs can be a useful tool to improve the choice of antibiotic and the duration of PAP in pediatric patients.

7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 10(11): 3610-3625, 2018 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Premature aging and related diseases have been documented in HIV-infected adults. Data are now emerging also regarding accelerated aging process in HIV-infected children. METHODS: A narrative review was performed searching studies on PubMed published in English language in 2004-2017, using appropriate key words, including "aging", "children", "HIV", "AIDS", "immunosenescence", "pathogenesis", "clinical conditions". RESULTS: Premature immunosenescence phenotype of B and T cells in HIV-infected children is mediated through immune system activation and chronic inflammation. Ongoing inflammation processes have been documented by increased levels of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS), increased mitochondrial damage, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and a positive correlation between sCD14 levels and percentages of activated CD8+ cells. Other reported features of premature aging include cellular replicative senescence, linked to an accelerated telomeres shortening. Finally, acceleration of age-associated methylation pattern and other epigenetic modifications have been described in HIV-infected children. All these features may favor the clinical manifestations related to premature aging. Lipid and bone metabolism, cancers, cardiovascular, renal, and neurological systems should be carefully monitored, particularly in children with detectable viremia and/or with CD4/CD8 ratio inversion. CONCLUSION: Aging processes in children with HIV infection impact their quality and length of life. Further studies regarding the mechanisms involved in premature aging are needed to search for potential targets of treatment.

8.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408002

RESUMO

Varicella is a common vaccine-preventable disease that usually presents as a mild disorder but can lead to severe complications. Before the implementation of universal varicella vaccination (UVV) in some European countries, the burden of varicella disease was broadly similar across the region. Despite this, countries adopted heterogeneous varicella vaccination strategies. UVV is currently recommended in 12 European countries. Known barriers to UVV implementation in Europe include: 1) a perceived low disease burden and low public health priority, 2) cost-effectiveness and funding availability, 3) concerns related to a shift in varicella disease and incidence of HZ, and 4) safety concerns related to MMRV-associated febrile seizures after the first dose. Countries that implemented UVV experienced decreases in varicella incidence, hospitalizations, and complications, showing overall beneficial impact. Alternative strategies targeting susceptible individuals at higher risk of complications have been less effective. This paper discusses ways to overcome the barriers to move varicella forward as a truly vaccine preventable disease.

10.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 79(2): 269-276, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Future strategies aiming to achieve HIV-1 remission are likely to target individuals with small reservoir size. SETTING: We retrospectively investigated factors associated with HIV-1 DNA levels in European, perinatally HIV-infected children starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) <6 months of age. METHODS: Total HIV-1 DNA was measured from 51 long-term suppressed children aged 6.3 years (median) after initial viral suppression. Factors associated with log10 total HIV-1 DNA were analyzed using linear regression. RESULTS: At ART initiation, children were aged median [IQR] 2.3 [1.2-4.1] months, CD4% 37 [24-45] %, CD8% 28 [18-36] %, log10 plasma viral load (VL) 5.4 [4.4-5.9] copies per milliliter. Time to viral suppression was 7.98 [4.6-19.3] months. After suppression, 13 (25%) children had suboptimal response [≥2 consecutive VL 50-400 followed by VL <50] and/or experienced periods of virological failure [≥2 consecutive VL ≥400 followed by VL <50]. Median total HIV-1 DNA was 43 [6195] copies/10 PBMC. Younger age at therapy initiation was associated with lower total HIV-1 DNA (adjusted coefficient [AC] 0.12 per month older, P = 0.0091), with a month increase in age at ART start being associated with a 13% increase in HIV DNA. Similarly, a higher proportion of time spent virally suppressed (AC 0.10 per 10% higher, P = 0.0022) and the absence of viral failure/suboptimal response (AC 0.34 for those with fail/suboptimal response, P = 0.0483) were associated with lower total HIV-1 DNA. CONCLUSIONS: Early ART initiation and a higher proportion of time suppressed are linked with lower total HIV-1 DNA. Early ART start and improving adherence in perinatally HIV-1-infected children minimize the size of viral reservoir.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169837

RESUMO

Background: Assays to estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reservoir size require large amounts of blood, which represents a drawback especially in pediatric settings. We investigated whether HIV-antibody repertoire could estimate the viral reservoir size. Moreover, we assessed the magnitude of HIV-antibody response as a predictor of time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus-antibody responses to 10 different viral proteins were evaluated by HIV Western blot (WB) kit and a WB score was assigned to each patient. Patients were classified in 2 subgroups based on the timing of ART initiation (early treated [ET], 0-24 weeks and late treated [LT], >24 weeks). Human immunodeficiency virus-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction on total peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Logistic regression and principal component analysis were built on these data to test the ability of WB score to predict the expected value of HIV-DNA and the timing of ART initiation. Results: Sixty-nine perinatally HIV-infected children were evaluated. Reduced HIV-specific antibody responses and lower size of HIV-DNA were observed in ET compared with LT patients (P < .001 and P = .02, respectively). We found that WB score correlates with HIV-DNA (P = .032) and timing of ART initiation (P < .001). Based on the logistic regression analysis, we found that WB score can predict the HIV-DNA size and the timing of ART initiation with an Akaike information criterion of -118.13 and -151.51, respectively. Conclusions: Western blot score can estimate HIV-DNA size and timing of ART initiation in long-term virally suppressed children. This rapid, inexpensive, and easily reproducible tool can provide useful information to identify potential candidates for HIV remission studies.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 703, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29879951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2013, Mozambique implemented task-shifting (TS) from clinical officers to maternal and child nurses to improve care for HIV positive children < 5 years old. A retrospective, pre-post intervention study was designed to evaluate effectiveness of a new pathway of care in a sample of Beira District Local Health Facilities (LHFs), the primary, local, community healthcare services. METHODS: The study was conducted by accessing registries of At Risk Children Clinics (ARCCs) and HIV Health Services. Two time periods, pre- and post-intervention, were compared using a set of endpoints. Variables distribution was explored using descriptive statistics. T-student, Mann Whitney and Chi-square tests were used for comparisons. RESULTS: Overall, 588 HIV infected children (F = 51.4%) were recruited, 330 belonging to the post intervention period. The mean time from referral to ARCC until initiation of ART decreased from 2.3 (± 4.4) to 1.1 (± 5.0) months after the intervention implementation (p-value: 0.000). A significant increase of Isoniazid prophylaxis (O.R.: 2.69; 95%CI: 1.7-4.15) and a decrease of both regular nutritional assessment (O.R. = 0.45; 95%CI: 0.31-0.64) and CD4 count at the beginning of ART (O.R. = 0.46; 95%CI: 0.32-0.65) were documented after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Despite several limitations and controversial results on nutrition assessment and CD4 count at the initiation of ART reported after the intervention, it could be assumed that TS alone may play a role in the improvement of the global effectiveness of care for HIV infected children only if integrated into a wider range of public health measures.

13.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 79(1): 54-61, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strategies for prevention of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) have been continuously optimized. However, cases of vertical transmission continue to occur in high-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To investigate changes in PMTCT strategies adopted by Italian clinicians over time and to evaluate risk factors for transmission. METHODS: Data from mother-child pairs prospectively collected by the Italian Register, born in Italy in 1996-2016, were analyzed. Risk factors for MTCT were explored by logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Six thousand five hundred three children (348 infections) were included. In our cohort, the proportion of children born to foreign mothers increased from 18.3% (563/3078) in 1996%-2003% to 66.2% (559/857) in 2011-2016 (P < 0.0001). Combination neonatal prophylaxis use significantly (P < 0.0001) increased over time, reaching 6.3% (56/857) after 2010, and it was largely (4.2%) adopted in early preterm infants. The proportion of vaginal deliveries in women with undetectable viral load (VL) increased over time and was 9.9% (85/857) in 2011-2016; no infection occurred among them. In children followed up since birth MTCT, rate was 3.5% (96/2783) in 1996-2003; 1.4% (36/2480) in 2004-2010; and 1.1% (9/835) in 2011-2016. At a multivariate analysis, factors associated with MTCT were vaginal delivery with detectable or missing VL or nonelective caesarean delivery, prematurity, breastfeeding, lack of maternal or neonatal antiretroviral therapy, detectable maternal VL, and age at first observation. Previously described increased risk of offspring of immigrant women was not confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of MTCT in Italy is ongoing, even in recent years, underling the need for implementation of the current screening program in pregnancy. Large combination neonatal prophylaxis use in preterm infants was observed, even if data on safety and efficacy in prematures are poor.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Future strategies aiming to achieve HIV-1 remission are likely to target individuals with small reservoir size. SETTING: We retrospectively investigated factors associated with HIV-1 DNA levels in European, perinatally HIV-infected children starting ART <6 months of age. METHODS: Total HIV-1 DNA was measured from 51 long-term suppressed children 6.3 years (median) after initial viral suppression. Factors associated with log10 total HIV-1 DNA were analyzed using linear regression. RESULTS: At ART initiation, children were aged median [IQR] 2.3 [1.2,4.1] months, CD4% 37 [24,45] %, CD8% 28 [18,36] %, log10 plasma viral load (VL) 5.4 [4.4,5.9] copies/ml. Time to viral suppression was 7.98 [4.6,19.3] months. Following suppression, 13 (25%) children had suboptimal response [≥2 consecutive VL50-400 followed by VL<50] and/or experienced periods of virological failure [≥2 consecutive VL≥400 followed by VL<50]. Median total HIV-1 DNA was 43 [6,195] copies/10 PBMC.Younger age at therapy initiation was associated with lower total HIV-1 DNA (adjusted coefficient [AC] 0.12 per month older, p=0.0091), with a month increase in age at ART start being associated with a 13% increase in HIV DNA. Similarly, a higher proportion of time spent virally suppressed (AC 0.10 per 10% higher, p=0.0022) and absence of viral failure/suboptimal response (AC 0.34 for those with fail/ suboptimal response, p=0.0483) were associated with lower total HIV-1 DNA. CONCLUSION: Early ART initiation and a higher proportion of time suppressed are linked with lower total HIV-1 DNA. Early ART start and improving adherence in perinatally HIV-1 infected children minimize the size of viral reservoir.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal.

15.
Pediatr. infect. dis. j ; 37(5): 459-465, May 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IIERPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1021502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maraviroc is a CC-chemokine receptor 5 antagonist approved to treat adults infected with CC-chemokine receptor 5-tropic (R5) HIV-1. Study A4001031 was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of maraviroc in combination with optimized background therapy in treatment-experienced pediatric patients infected with R5 HIV-1 and support registration of maraviroc for pediatric use. METHODS: This is an open-label, 2-stage, age-stratified, noncomparative multicenter study. One-hundred and three participants were enrolled into 4 age/formulation cohorts and dosed twice daily. Initial doses were determined by body surface area and optimized background therapy, based on drug interactions with maraviroc in adults. Dose adjustment and pharmacokinetic reevaluation occurred if the average concentrations (Cavg) at Week 2 were <100 ng/mL (Stage 1-dose finding). RESULTS: Data from the Week 48 analysis demonstrated that 49/50 Stage 1 participants rolling over into Stage 2 (safety and efficacy) achieved Cavg ≥100 ng/mL. Doses were identified that achieved similar concentration ranges to those seen in adults. The majority (90/103) received optimized background therapy containing potent cytochrome P450 3A inhibitors. Maraviroc was well tolerated and the safety and efficacy were comparable to those of adults. All cohorts had a mean decrease from baseline in HIV-1 RNA of >1 log10. Increases from baseline in the median CD4+ cell count and percentage were seen for all age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The maraviroc dosing strategy resulted in participants achieving the target Cavg, with exposure ranges similar to those observed in adults on approved doses. The safety and efficacy of maraviroc in this pediatric population were comparable to those seen in adults


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , /farmacocinética
16.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0196239, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29684092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weekends off antiretroviral therapy (ART) may help engage HIV-1-infected young people facing lifelong treatment. BREATHER showed short cycle therapy (SCT; 5 days on, 2 days off ART) was non-inferior to continuous therapy (CT) over 48 weeks. Planned follow-up was extended to 144 weeks, maintaining original randomisation. METHODS: BREATHER was an open-label, non-inferiority trial. Participants aged 8-24yrs with virological suppression on efavirenz-based first-line ART were randomised 1:1, stratified by age and African/non-African sites, to remain on CT or change to SCT. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the proportion of participants with viral rebound (confirmed VL≥50 copies/mL) under intent-to-treat at 48 weeks (primary outcome), and in extended follow-up at 96, 144, and 192 weeks. SCT participants returned to CT following viral rebound, 3 VL blips or discontinuation of efavirenz. FINDINGS: Of 199 participants (99 SCT, 100 CT), 97 per arm consented to extended follow-up. Median follow-up was 185.3 weeks (IQR 160.9-216.1). 69 (70%) SCT participants remained on SCT at last follow-up. 105 (53%) were male, baseline median age 14 years (IQR 12-18), median CD4 count 735 cells/µL (IQR 576-968). 16 SCT and 16 CT participants had confirmed VL≥50 copies/mL by the end of extended follow-up (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.50-2.00). Estimated difference in percentage with viral rebound (SCT minus CT) by week 144 was 1.9% (90% CI -6.6-10.4; p = 0.72) and was similar in a per-protocol analysis. There were no significant differences between arms in proportions of participants with grade 3/4 adverse events (18 SCT vs 16 CT participants; p = 0.71) or ART-related adverse events (10 vs 12; p = 0.82). 20 versus 8 serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported in 16 SCT versus 4 CT participants, respectively (p = 0.005 comparing proportions between groups; incidence rate ratio 2.49, 95%CI 0.71-8.66, p = 0.15). 75% of SAEs (15 SCT, 6 CT) were hospitalisations for a wide range of conditions. 3 SCT and 6 CT participants switched to second-line ART following viral failure (p = 0.50). CONCLUSIONS: Sustainable non-inferiority of virological suppression in young people was shown for SCT versus CT over median 3.6 years. Standard-dose efavirenz-based SCT is a viable option for virologically suppressed HIV-1 infected young people on first-line ART with 3-monthly VL monitoring. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT 2009-012947-40 ISRCTN 97755073 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01641016.


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Benzoxazinas/farmacologia , Criança , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0193581, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Italian pediatric antimicrobial prescription rates are among the highest in Europe. As a first step in an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program, we implemented a Clinical Pathway (CP) for Community Acquired Pneumonia with the aim of decreasing overall prescription of antibiotics, especially broad-spectrum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CP was implemented on 10/01/2015. We collected antibiotic prescribing and outcomes data from children aged 3 months-15 years diagnosed with CAP from 10/15/2014 to 04/15/2015 (pre-intervention period) and from 10/15/2015 to 04/15/2016 (post-intervention period). We assessed antibiotic prescription differences pre- and post-CP, including rates, breadth of spectrum, and duration of therapy. We also compared length of hospital stay for inpatients and treatment failure for inpatients and outpatients. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used to compare categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare quantitative outcomes. RESULTS: 120 pre- and 86 post-intervention clinic visits were identified with a diagnosis of CAP. In outpatients, we observed a decrease in broad-spectrum regimens (50% pre-CP vs. 26.8% post-CP, p = 0.02), in particular macrolides, and an increase in narrow-spectrum (amoxicillin) post-CP. Post-CP children received fewer antibiotic courses (median DOT from 10 pre-CP to 8 post-CP, p<0.0001) for fewer days (median LOT from 10 pre-CP to 8 post-CP, p<0.0001) than their pre-CP counterparts. Physicians prescribed narrow-spectrum monotherapy more frequently than broad-spectrum combination therapy (DOT/LOT ratio 1.157 pre-CP vs. 1.065 post-CP). No difference in treatment failure was reported before and after implementation (2.3% pre-CP vs. 11.8% post-CP, p = 0.29). Among inpatients we also noted a decrease in broad-spectrum regimens (100% pre-CP vs. 66.7% post-CP, p = 0.02) and the introduction of narrow-spectrum regimens (0% pre-CP vs. 33.3% post-CP, p = 0.02) post-CP. Hospitalized patients received fewer antibiotic courses post-CP (median DOT from 18.5 pre-CP to 10 post-CP, p = 0.004), while there was no statistical difference in length of therapy (median LOT from 11 pre-CP to 10 post-CP, p = 0.06). Days of broad spectrum therapy were notably lower post-CP (median bsDOT from 17 pre-CP to 4.5 post-CP, p <0.0001). No difference in treatment failure was reported before and after CP implementation (16.7% pre-CP vs. 15.4% post-CP, p = 1). CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of a CP for CAP in a Pediatric Emergency Department led to reduction of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescriptions, of combination therapy and of duration of treatment both for outpatients and inpatients.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Clínicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Falha de Tratamento
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 103, 2018 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monovalent varicella vaccines have been available in the Veneto Region of Italy since 2004. In 2006, a single vaccine dose was added to the immunisation calendar for children aged 14 months. ProQuad®, a quadrivalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine, was introduced in May 2007 and used, among other varicella vaccines, until October 2008. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a single dose of ProQuad, and the population impact of a vaccination program (VP) against varicella of any severity in children who received a first dose of ProQuad at 14 months of age in the Veneto Region, METHODS: All children born in 2006/2007, i.e., eligible for varicella vaccination after ProQuad was introduced, were retrospectively followed through individual-level data linkage between the Pedianet database (varicella cases) and the Regional Immunization Database (vaccination status). The direct effectiveness of ProQuad was estimated as the incidence rate of varicella in ProQuad-vaccinated children aged < 6 years compared to children with no varicella vaccination from the same birth cohort. The impact of the VP on varicella was measured by comparing children eligible for the VP to an unvaccinated historical cohort from 1997/1998. The vaccine impact measures were: total effect (the combined effect of ProQuad vaccination and being covered by the Veneto VP); indirect effect (the effect of the VP on unvaccinated individuals); and overall effect (the effect of the VP on varicella in the entire population of the Veneto Region, regardless of their vaccination status). RESULTS: The adjusted direct effectiveness of ProQuad was 94%. The vaccine impact measures total, indirect, and overall effect were 97%, 43%, and 90%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first results on the effectiveness and impact of ProQuad against varicella; data confirmed its high effectiveness, based on immunological correlates for protection. Direct effectiveness is our only ProQuad-specific measure; all impact measures refer at least partially to the VP and should be interpreted in the context of high vaccine coverage and the use of various varicella vaccines in this region. The Veneto Region offered a unique opportunity for this study due to an individual data linkage between Pedianet and the Regional Immunization database.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Varicela/imunologia , Varicela/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/imunologia , Adolescente , Varicela/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas Combinadas/imunologia
19.
PLoS Med ; 15(3): e1002514, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, the population of adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV (APHs) continues to expand. In this study, we pooled data from observational pediatric HIV cohorts and cohort networks, allowing comparisons of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV in "real-life" settings across multiple regions. We describe the geographic and temporal characteristics and mortality outcomes of APHs across multiple regions, including South America and the Caribbean, North America, Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and South and Southeast Asia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Through the Collaborative Initiative for Paediatric HIV Education and Research (CIPHER), individual retrospective longitudinal data from 12 cohort networks were pooled. All children infected with HIV who entered care before age 10 years, were not known to have horizontally acquired HIV, and were followed up beyond age 10 years were included in this analysis conducted from May 2016 to January 2017. Our primary analysis describes patient and treatment characteristics of APHs at key time points, including first HIV-associated clinic visit, antiretroviral therapy (ART) start, age 10 years, and last visit, and compares these characteristics by geographic region, country income group (CIG), and birth period. Our secondary analysis describes mortality, transfer out, and lost to follow-up (LTFU) as outcomes at age 15 years, using competing risk analysis. Among the 38,187 APHs included, 51% were female, 79% were from sub-Saharan Africa and 65% lived in low-income countries. APHs from 51 countries were included (Europe: 14 countries and 3,054 APHs; North America: 1 country and 1,032 APHs; South America and the Caribbean: 4 countries and 903 APHs; South and Southeast Asia: 7 countries and 2,902 APHs; sub-Saharan Africa, 25 countries and 30,296 APHs). Observation started as early as 1982 in Europe and 1996 in sub-Saharan Africa, and continued until at least 2014 in all regions. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) duration of adolescent follow-up was 3.1 (1.5-5.2) years for the total cohort and 6.4 (3.6-8.0) years in Europe, 3.7 (2.0-5.4) years in North America, 2.5 (1.2-4.4) years in South and Southeast Asia, 5.0 (2.7-7.5) years in South America and the Caribbean, and 2.1 (0.9-3.8) years in sub-Saharan Africa. Median (IQR) age at first visit differed substantially by region, ranging from 0.7 (0.3-2.1) years in North America to 7.1 (5.3-8.6) years in sub-Saharan Africa. The median age at ART start varied from 0.9 (0.4-2.6) years in North America to 7.9 (6.0-9.3) years in sub-Saharan Africa. The cumulative incidence estimates (95% confidence interval [CI]) at age 15 years for mortality, transfers out, and LTFU for all APHs were 2.6% (2.4%-2.8%), 15.6% (15.1%-16.0%), and 11.3% (10.9%-11.8%), respectively. Mortality was lowest in Europe (0.8% [0.5%-1.1%]) and highest in South America and the Caribbean (4.4% [3.1%-6.1%]). However, LTFU was lowest in South America and the Caribbean (4.8% [3.4%-6.7%]) and highest in sub-Saharan Africa (13.2% [12.6%-13.7%]). Study limitations include the high LTFU rate in sub-Saharan Africa, which could have affected the comparison of mortality across regions; inclusion of data only for APHs receiving ART from some countries; and unavailability of data from high-burden countries such as Nigeria. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, our study represents the largest multiregional epidemiological analysis of APHs. Despite probable under-ascertained mortality, mortality in APHs remains substantially higher in sub-Saharan Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and South America and the Caribbean than in Europe. Collaborations such as CIPHER enable us to monitor current global temporal trends in outcomes over time to inform appropriate policy responses.

20.
Nutrients ; 10(3)2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early nutrition affects the risk of atopy and infections through modifications of intestinal microbiota. The Prebiotics in the Prevention of Atopy (PIPA) study was a 24-month randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. It aimed to evaluate the effects of a galacto-oligosaccharide/polydextrose (GOS/PDX)-formula (PF) on atopic dermatitis (AD) and common infections in infants who were born to atopic parents and to investigate the relationship among early nutrition, gut microbiota and clinical outcomes. METHODS: A total of 201 and 199 infants were randomized to receive a PF and standard formula (SF), respectively; 140 infants remained on exclusive breastfeeding (BF). RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of AD and its intensity and duration were not statistically different among the three groups. The number of infants with at least one episode of respiratory infection (RI) and the mean number of episodes until 48 weeks of age were significantly lower in the PF group than in the SF group. The number of patients with recurrent RIs and incidence of wheezing lower RIs until 96 weeks were lower in the PF group than the SF group, but similar to the BF group. Bifidobacteria and Clostridium cluster I colonization increased over time in the PF group but decreased in the SF and BF groups. Bifidobacteria had a protective role in RIs, whereas Clostridium cluster I was associated with atopy protection. CONCLUSION: The early administration of PF protects against RIs and mediates a species-specific modulation of the intestinal microbiota. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrial.gov Identifier: NCT02116452.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/prevenção & controle , Alimentos Formulados/análise , Glucanos/farmacologia , Fórmulas Infantis/análise , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glucanos/administração & dosagem , Glucanos/química , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/classificação , Prebióticos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA