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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(30): 27033-27047, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276370


The earth-abundant semiconductor Cu3BiS3 (CBS) exhibits promising photovoltaic properties and is often considered analogous to the solar absorbers copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) and copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) despite few device reports. The extent to which this is justifiable is explored via a thorough X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) analysis: spanning core levels, ionization potential, work function, surface contamination, cleaning, band alignment, and valence-band density of states. The XPS analysis overcomes and addresses the shortcomings of prior XPS studies of this material. Temperature-dependent absorption spectra determine a 1.2 eV direct band gap at room temperature; the widely reported 1.4-1.5 eV band gap is attributed to weak transitions from the low density of states of the topmost valence band previously being undetected. Density functional theory HSE06 + SOC calculations determine the band structure, optical transitions, and well-fitted absorption and Raman spectra. Valence band XPS spectra and model calculations find the CBS bonding to be superficially similar to CIGS and CZTS, but the Bi3+ cations (and formally occupied Bi 6s orbital) have fundamental impacts: giving a low ionization potential (4.98 eV), suggesting that the CdS window layer favored for CIGS and CZTS gives detrimental band alignment and should be rejected in favor of a better aligned material in order for CBS devices to progress.

Small ; 14(21): e1800547, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29673074


Semiconducting 2D materials, such as SnS2 , hold immense potential for many applications ranging from electronics to catalysis. However, deposition of few-layer SnS2 films has remained a great challenge. Herein, continuous wafer-scale 2D SnS2 films with accurately controlled thickness (2 to 10 monolayers) are realized by combining a new atomic layer deposition process with low-temperature (250 °C) postdeposition annealing. Uniform coating of large-area and 3D substrates is demonstrated owing to the unique self-limiting growth mechanism of atomic layer deposition. Detailed characterization confirms the 1T-type crystal structure and composition, smoothness, and continuity of the SnS2 films. A two-stage deposition process is also introduced to improve the texture of the films. Successful deposition of continuous, high-quality SnS2 films at low temperatures constitutes a crucial step toward various applications of 2D semiconductors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(48): 41916-41926, 2017 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29124940


The earth-abundant material CuSbS2 (CAS) has shown good optical properties as a photovoltaic solar absorber material, but has seen relatively poor solar cell performance. To investigate the reason for this anomaly, the core levels of the constituent elements, surface contaminants, ionization potential, and valence-band spectra are studied by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The ionization potential and electron affinity for this material (4.98 and 3.43 eV) are lower than those for other common absorbers, including CuInxGa(1-x)Se2 (CIGS). Experimentally corroborated density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the valence band maximum is raised by the lone pair electrons from the antimony cations contributing additional states when compared with indium or gallium cations in CIGS. The resulting conduction band misalignment with CdS is a reason for the poor performance of cells incorporating a CAS/CdS heterojunction, supporting the idea that using a cell design analogous to CIGS is unhelpful. These findings underline the critical importance of considering the electronic structure when selecting cell architectures that optimize open-circuit voltages and cell efficiencies.