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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360216

RESUMO

Children who experience violence from a parent are more likely to experience and perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) later in life. Drawing on cross-sectional data among married women enrolled in the baseline of a randomized control trial in Afghanistan, we assess risk factors for women's use of violence against their children, focused on women's own adverse childhood experiences and experiences of IPV, poverty, poor mental health and gender attitudes. Analysis uses logistic regression and structural equation modelling (SEM). In total 744 married women reported on their use of violence against a child, with 71.8% (n = 534) reporting this in the past month. In regression models, their own experiences of witnessing their mother being physically abused, poverty during childhood, current food insecurity, their husband using corporal punishment on their child, current IPV experience, and other violence in the home were all associated with increased likelihood of women reporting corporal punishment. In the SEM, three pathways emerged linking women's childhood trauma and poverty to use of corporal punishment. One pathway was mediated by poor mental health, a second was mediated by wider use of violence in the home and a third from food insecurity mediated by having more gender inequitable attitudes. Addressing the culture of violence in the home is critical to reducing violence against children, as well as enabling treatment of parental mental health problems and generally addressing gender equity.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Pobreza , Fatores de Risco , Violência
2.
Cult Health Sex ; : 1-15, 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365901

RESUMO

Cellphones have impacted on people's intimate sexual relationships. Using the framework of relationship formation, maintenance and ending, we explore how cellphones and attendant social media have impacted on relationships among a group of young women living in urban informal settlements in Durban, South Africa. We conducted in-depth repeat interviews with 15 women enrolled in the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures trial, as well as group discussions and light-touch participant observation. Our data show that cellphones and social media are central to women's sexual relationships and allow women greater control over relationships - particularly their formation. However, cellphones and social media also enable greater control and monitoring by partners. In this study, cellphones were central in establishing (or not) trust in relationships, as well as being gifts, sometimes given by men to demonstrate love, but often becoming a snare for women who then struggled to end relationships because the phones 'remained' the property of the man. We conclude that while cellphones have created new spaces and opportunities for women's agency, overall the wider social and material forces of women's existence were deeply constraining and were the main driver of patterns in women's relationships.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e049282, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test associations between men's past year alcohol use and patterns of drinking, and their perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) and non-partner sexual violence (NPSV). To test the associations between women's reports of partner alcohol use and their experience of IPV, in three countries in Africa. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from men and women participating in four IPV prevention studies across Africa and Asia. SETTING: Data from five data sets generated by four violence against women and girls prevention studies in three countries in sub-Saharan Africa, South Africa, Ghana and Rwanda. PARTICIPANTS: 8104 men 18+ years old and 5613 women 18+ years old from a mix of volunteer and randomly selected samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Studies employed comparable measures of past year alcohol use, harmful alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test scale) and items from modified WHO Women's Health and Domestic Violence to measure physical IPV and NPSV perpetration among men and IPV experience among women. FINDINGS: Overall harmful alcohol use among men was associated with a substantially increased odds of perpetrating physical IPV (adjusted OR (aOR)=3.45 (95% CI 2.56 to 4.64)) and NPSV (aOR=2.64 (95% CI 1.85 to 3.76)) compared with non-drinkers. Women who had seen their partner occasionally drunk (aOR=2.68 (95% CI 2.13 to 3.36)) or frequently drunk (aOR=5.94 (95% CI 4.19 to 8.41)) in the past 12 months had an increased odds of experiencing physical IPV. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol use is associated with increased IPV and NPSV perpetration for men and (physical) IPV experience for women. Reported frequency of IPV and NPSV increase with increasing levels and frequency of alcohol use. Interventions aimed at reducing alcohol may also lead to reductions in IPV and NPSV perpetration and experience.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Adolescente , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Ruanda , Parceiros Sexuais , África do Sul
4.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1868960, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475473

RESUMO

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and workplace violence (WPV) against women are widespread globally, and we set out to establish whether an intervention on gender-transformative programming delivered to Bangladeshi garment factory workers could reduce women's experience of IPV and WPV. We developed and tested an intervention, HERrespect and encountered considerable obstacles. Objective: To describe the challenges in program implementation and evaluation in the factories and the serious implications that arose for the study outcomes. Methods: HERrespect is a participatory intervention with mostly parallel group sessions for female and male workers and the management staff, designed to be delivered weekly in three hourly sessions, and supported by some factory-wide and limited community information campaigns. It was evaluated in a quasi-experimental study conducted in eight garment factories in and around Dhaka city, with a cohort of 800 women workers and 395 management staff who were followed for 24 months. Results: The study was conducted in the ready-made garment industry with substantial power imbalances between buyers, factory management and workers. The factories were contacted through the buyers, and some factories had agreed to participate half-heartedly. Many did not make enough time available for optimal implementation. Thus, the sessions were shortened and spread out. The factories did not make all the group members available for sessions. Whilst agreeing to participate, some management undermined the research by warning workers against disclosing information that may harm the business, resulting in the endline data being unreliable. Conclusions: Future research on IPV prevention in this sector is advised to: (1) Gain genuine management buy-in prior to starting activities; (2) implement an optimally intensive programme for the workers and management; (3) engage men from the female workers' communities. WPV prevention will require a change in the structural violence of the just-in-time regime which contributes largely to WPV.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Violência no Trabalho , Bangladesh , Vestuário , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Parceiros Sexuais
5.
Glob Public Health ; 16(4): 590-596, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896218

RESUMO

Inadequate toilet facilities may increase women's risk of experiencing non-partner sexual violence. We sought to assess the association between young (18-24 year-olds) women's access to toilets and past year non-partner rape experience, in deprived communities in South Africa. Data came from cross-sectional, population-based survey from poor communities from four health districts in two provinces, namely, City of Johannesburg, and Ekurhuleni in Gauteng, and eThekwini and uMgungundlovu, in KwaZulu-Natal. Descriptive, unadjusted and adjusted associations, were estimated in STATA/IC16, accounting for study design. In total, 10,635 young women provided data on toilet access. Past year non-partner rape prevalence was 5.7%. In adjusted analyses, those reporting a shared toilet were more likely to report past year experience of non-partner rape (adjusted odds ratio: 1.45, 95% confidence intervals [1.17, 1.80]), compared to those with their own toilet indoors. Improving access to private, secure toilets is an important component for the prevention of non-partner sexual violence.

6.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(3): 223-232, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220790

RESUMO

Adolescent dating violence negatively affects millions of young people worldwide. Through a global systematic review, we synthesised evidence from rigorous studies of prevention programmes for adolescent dating violence. Our aims were to: (1) describe the breadth of research in this area and evidence of programme effects, and (2) identify gaps in the evidence base. We included experimental and controlled quasi-experimental programme evaluations, published before Jan 1, 2020, that assessed effects on victimisation or perpetration, or both, in adolescent dating violence and in which at least half of the study population was 10-19 years old. Study design, programme elements, and outcomes were compared between evaluations implemented in high-income countries (HICs) and low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). 52 evaluations met inclusion criteria, of which 20 (38%) were implemented in LMICs. Evaluations in HICs were more likely to assess effects on adolescent dating violence victimisation and perpetration, rather than just victimisation, than those in LMICs, and they were also more likely to include boys and girls, as opposed to just a single sex. Overall, 26 (50%) of the 52 evaluations reported a significant preventive effect on at least one outcome for adolescent dating violence, of which nine were implemented in LMICs. Across LMICs and HICs, findings suggest research is needed to shed light on how adolescent dating violence prevention programmes work and to identify whether programme effects generalise across different settings, outcomes, and subgroups. TRANSLATIONS: For the Chinese, French and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Bullying , Criança , Vítimas de Crime , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Soc Sci Med ; 265: 113538, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257178

RESUMO

Working with men to prevent their perpetration of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence is increasingly recognised as effective. However, in any given context there are a multiplicity of masculinities, each of which has a different association with violence perpetration. There remains lack of clarity about whether such interventions impact all men and masculinities equally. We undertook a post-hoc analysis of men involved in the successful Stepping Stones and Creating Futures cluster randomized control trial in Durban, South Africa, to assess: i) whether there were different groups of men, ii) the factors associated with group allocation, and iii) whether the intervention had a differential impact on these groups in terms of violence perpetration. We used Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to identify masculinity classes, based on fit statistics and theoretical plausibility, and then used descriptive statistics (numbers, percentages, means) and p-values and multinomial models (95% confidence intervals, p-values) to assess factors associated with allocation to each class. To assess intervention impact by group, we used an intention-to-treat analysis, comparing men in each masculinity class, by intervention and control arm, using generalized estimating equations reporting unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (aORs). In total 674 were recruited at baseline, and the LCA identified three classes of men: high violence (29% of men), medium violence (50% of men) and low violence (21% of men). Multinomial models showed those in more violent classes were more supportive of violence, had more adverse experiences, more depression and had worked more. By masculinity class, the impact of SS-CF showed reductions among the most violent men, with significant reductions in past year physical IPV (aOR0.59, p = 0.014), emotional IPV (aOR0.44, p = 0.044) and economic IPV (aOR0.35, p = 0.004), with non-significant reductions among other classes of men. This analysis suggests intensive group-based interventions can have significant impacts on the most violent men in communities.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Masculinidade , África do Sul , Violência/prevenção & controle
8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(12)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277296

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women with disabilities experience higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) than women without disabilities. There remains limited evidence about whether IPV prevention interventions for the general population have benefits for women with disabilities that compare to those for women without disabilities. Using data from IPV prevention randomised controlled trials in diverse locations (Rwanda, South Africa and Afghanistan), we assess whether outcomes differed by disability status. METHODS: We assessed disability at baseline in three IPV prevention trials. We performed post-hoc analysis of intervention impacts at endline (22 or 24 months post-baseline) stratified by disability status at study baseline and tested an interaction term for disability at baseline by intervention arm for three sets of outcomes: (1) past year experiences of physical, sexual and severe IPV; (2) economic and livelihood outcomes; and (3) health, mental health and substance use outcomes. RESULTS: At baseline between 17.7% and 26.2% of women reported being disabled. For IPV prevention, in seven out of eight tests across three studies, women with and without disabilities had similar outcomes. For economic, health and substance use outcomes, there was more variation, with women with disabilities reporting both better and worse outcomes than women without disabilities; however there was no clear pattern in these differential results. CONCLUSION: IPV prevention programmes targeting general populations can prevent IPV among women with disabilities participants with benefits that mirror those for women without disabilities. Benefits for participants with and without disabilities on secondary programme outcomes related to economic empowerment and health may be more varied and should be explicitly monitored.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Afeganistão , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Ruanda , África do Sul
9.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; : 1524838020979676, 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353490

RESUMO

Gender inequity, including low sexual relationship power (SRP), is an important determinant of intimate partner violence (IPV) and negative sexual, reproductive, and mental health. Different versions of the Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) are commonly used within youth studies to examine how gender inequities, including controlling behaviors, in heterosexual relationships impact the lives of young people in sub-Saharan Africa. This review aims to (1) describe definitions and measures of SRP within sub-Saharan African youth studies and (2) review and summarize associations between SRP equity, IPV, and sexual, reproductive, and mental health. After searching Pubmed, Ovid Med, Psych info, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and relevant research forums, 304 papers were identified, of which 29 papers based on 15 distinct studies (published 2004-2019) met our criteria for being youth-specific, conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, and including a quantitative measure of SRP. Details of each SRPS are described, including any adaptations and psychometric properties, as well as associations with IPV, sexual, reproductive, and mental health behaviors and outcomes. Results indicate that there are variations to the SRPS, and a paucity of evidence has detailed the psychometric properties of such measures within sub-Saharan African youth studies. Measures of SRP equity are associated with experiences (among women) and perpetration of (among men) IPV as numerous pathways to HIV risk; however, the evidence remains mixed. In order to address overlapping epidemics of violence against women and HIV, efforts are needed to ensure that measures, including the SRPS, are valid and reliable among highly affected populations.

10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 1081, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Providing viral load (VL) results to people living with HIV (PLHIV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a challenge in low and middle-income countries. Point-of-care (POC) VL testing could improve ART monitoring and the quality and efficiency of differentiated models of HIV care. We assessed the acceptability of POC VL testing within a differentiated care model that involved task-shifting from professional nurses to less highly-trained enrolled nurses, and an option of collecting treatment from a community-based ART delivery programme. METHODS: We undertook a qualitative sub-study amongst clients on ART and nurses within the STREAM study, a randomized controlled trial of POC VL testing and task-shifting in Durban, South Africa. Between March and August 2018, we conducted 33 semi-structured interviews with clients, professional and enrolled nurses and 4 focus group discussions with clients. Interviews and focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. RESULTS: Amongst 55 clients on ART (median age 31, 56% women) and 8 nurses (median age 39, 75% women), POC VL testing and task-shifting to enrolled nurses was acceptable. Both clients and providers reported that POC VL testing yielded practical benefits for PLHIV by reducing the number of clinic visits, saving time, travel costs and days off work. Receiving same-day POC VL results encouraged adherence amongst clients, by enabling them to see immediately if they were 'good' or 'bad' adherers and enabled quick referrals to a community-based ART delivery programme for those with viral suppression. However, there was some concern regarding the impact of POC VL testing on clinic flows when implemented in busy public-sector clinics. Regarding task-shifting, nurses felt that, with extra training, enrolled nurses could help decongest healthcare facilities by quickly issuing ART to stable clients. Clients could not easily distinguish enrolled nurses from professional nurses, instead they highlighted the importance of friendliness, respect and good communication between clients and nurses. CONCLUSIONS: POC VL testing combined with task-shifting was acceptable to clients and healthcare providers. Implementation of POC VL testing and task shifting within differentiated care models may help achieve international treatment targets. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03066128 , registered 22/02/2017.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Imediatos , África do Sul , Carga Viral
11.
Glob Public Health ; : 1-14, 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222619

RESUMO

War and conflict impact on women's mental health and experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV), including in the occupied Palestinian Territories (oPT). Drawing on a cross-sectional population representative sample (n=534) collected in February 2017 in the oPT, we sought to (i) characterise the patterning of occupation-related events among women (18+) living in the oPT, (ii) to descriptively assess factors associated with this patterning, (iii) to assess the health impacts of occupation-related events by this patterning, specifically experience of IPV and poor mental health, and (iv) to assess the pathways through which occupation-related events are associated with IPV experience. Using Latent Class Analysis we identified three 'classes' of exposure to occupation-related events: 1 in 20 experienced multiple forms directed at themselves, their families and homes, 42.3% reported experiences against family members and their homes, and half reported relatively few direct experiences of occupation-related violence. Group membership was associated with increased past year IPV experience, and depressive symptoms. Using structural equation modelling we demonstrate that experiences of occupation-related events increased IPV experience via two mediated pathways; increased gender inequitable attitudes, and increased depressive symptoms and quarrelling with their husband. Preventing IPV requires addressing occupation-related events as well as transforming gender norms.

12.
Soc Sci Med ; 265: 113302, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890814

RESUMO

This paper investigates the impact of the Stepping Stones Creating Futures (SSCF) intervention on young women in informal settlements in eThekwini, South Africa. Specifically, whether following participation in the intervention the young women experienced a reduction in intimate partner violence, strengthened agency and shifted gender relations. Where changes occurred, it examines how they occurred, and barriers and enablers to change. SSCF is a gender transformative and livelihoods strengthening intervention using participatory, reflective small groups. Qualitative research was undertaken with fifteen women participating in the SSCF randomised control trial between 2015 and 2018. The women were followed over 18 months, participating in in-depth interviews at baseline, 12- and 18-months post intervention. To supplement these, eight women were involved in Photovoice work at baseline and 18 months and seven were included in ongoing participant observation. Data were analysed inductively. Data revealed many women changed their behaviours following SSCF, including: having more power within relationships, improved communication and relationship skills, increased resistance to controlling partners, shifting relationship expectations, emergence of new femininities and improved livelihoods. Despite these important shifts many women did not report a reduction in IPV. Nonetheless we argue most of the women, following the intervention, became more agentic. Drawing on the notion of 'distributed agency' as developed by Campbell and Mannell (2016), we show that SSCF bolstered the women's distributed agency. Distributed agency recognizes small agentic acts that women take, acts which to them are significant, it further notes that agency is temporal, fluid, dynamic and context specific. Women do not 'either have agency or not', rather being agentic depends on time, context and the particular incident. These findings provide an important contribution to the limited application of distributed agency and femininities work in informal settlements and are critical for policy and intervention science to reduce IPV and support women's agency.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Relações Interpessoais , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Feminino , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Autoeficácia , África do Sul
13.
Cult Health Sex ; : 1-17, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896204

RESUMO

A critical component of evaluations of the effectiveness of intimate partner violence prevention programmes involves understanding pathways of change among individuals who participate in such programmes, and the intervention or contextual elements that support or hinder these. This paper draws on qualitative evaluations of four intimate partner violence prevention programmes in Ghana, Rwanda, South Africa and Tajikistan conducted as part of the What Works to Prevent Violence against Women and Girls Programme. Using a comparative case study approach, a secondary analysis was applied to thematically analysed data to explore how and why men and women change in response to different types of programmes across diverse contexts. Similar pathways of change were identified including the value of learning and applying relationship skills to support equitable, non-violent relationships; the importance of participatory approaches to challenge harmful gender norms and allow for group rapport; and the integration of economic empowerment activities to reduce drivers of intimate partner violence and conflict, and promote participants' self-confidence and status. These findings provide insights regarding intervention design and implementation factors pertinent to bring about changes in intimate partner violence.

14.
SSM Popul Health ; 11: 100635, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802931

RESUMO

Currently, most efforts to evaluate programmes designed to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV) assume that they affect all people similarly. Understanding whether interventions are more or less effective for different subgroups of individuals, however, can yield important insights for programming. In this study, we conducted subgroup analyses to assess whether treatment effects vary by baseline reporting of IPV experience among women or perpetration among men. Results indicated that for both men and women, the Indashyikirwa intervention in Rwanda was more successful at reducing or stopping ongoing IPV than it was at preventing its onset. The SS-CF intervention in South Africa, by contrast, was more successful at preventing men from starting to perpetrate IPV than it was in reducing the intensity of men's perpetration or stopping it entirely. These results indicate that the prevention field needs to better understand the extent to which IPV interventions may have differential impacts on primary versus secondary prevention. It also emphasizes the importance of distinguishing between intervention strategies that prevent the onset of IPV versus those that reduce or stop ongoing IPV.

16.
AIDS ; 34(10): 1549-1558, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the independent association between intimate partner violence (IPV) severity and all-cause mortality among women living with HIV (WLHIV). DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire linked to longitudinal vital statistics data. METHODS: We examined the lifetime prevalence of IPV and age-standardized all-cause mortality rates by IPV severity reported by WLHIV. Lifetime IPV (emotional/verbal, physical, or sexual) severity was assessed as a categorical variable: no history of any IPV (none); experienced one or two forms of IPV (moderate); or experienced all three forms of IPV (severe IPV). Two separate logistic regression models examined associations between any IPV (vs. none) as well as IPV severity (none vs. moderate, severe) and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: At the time of interview (2007-2010), 260 participants self-identified as women with a median (Q1-Q3) age of 41 years (35-46). Of these women, the majority were unemployed (85%), 59% reported any IPV and 24% reported severe IPV. Of the 252 women followed until 31 December 2017, 25% (n = 63) died. Age-standardized all-cause mortality rates for WLHIV who experienced severe IPV were two-times higher than women with no history of IPV (44.7 per 1000 woman-years vs. 20.9 per 1000 woman-years). After adjustment for confounding, experiences of severe IPV (vs. none) were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (aOR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.03-5.70). CONCLUSION: Although we found that any lifetime experience of IPV was not associated with all-cause mortality, women ever experiencing severe IPV were significantly more likely to die during the study period. This may suggest a need for increased trauma- and violence-aware approaches.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Mortalidade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais
18.
Glob Public Health ; 15(9): 1322-1336, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493132

RESUMO

Alcohol and drug misuse (ADM) pose a significant disease burden globally. Yet, there remains a gap in understanding risk factors associated with women's ADM, particularly those in marginalised settings. We investigated risk factors associated with ADM amongst young women in urban informal settlements in South Africa. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted on a sample of 680 young women assessing associations between sociodemographic factors, mental health, relationship factors and past year ADM. Alcohol misuse was assessed using the 10 item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scale, with scores ≥8 defining misuse, a single item assessed past year illegal drug use. Alcohol and drug misuse were reported by 23.1% and 31.8% of the women respectively. In multivariable regression, alcohol misuse was associated with experiencing past year non-partner sexual violence, transactional sex with a main partner, past year drug use, and past week depressive symptoms, while drug misuse was associated with alcohol misuse, transactional sex with a casual partner, past year experience of physical and/or sexual IPV and having a functional limitation (disability). Results indicate ADM in informal settlements are shaped by violence and poor mental health. Interventions geared towards strengthening women's economic position and mental healthcare are recommended.

19.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e035412, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414827

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) for millions of people living with HIV requires efficient, client-centred models of differentiated ART delivery. In South Africa, the Centralised Chronic Medication Dispensing and Distribution (CCMDD) programme allows over 1 million people to collect chronic medication, including ART, from community pick-up points. We aimed to explore how CCMDD influences engagement in HIV care. METHODS: We performed in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with clients receiving ART and healthcare workers in Durban, South Africa. We analysed transcripts using deductive thematic analysis, with a framework informed by 'theories of practice', which highlights the materialities, competencies, meanings and other life practices that underpin clients' engagement in HIV care. RESULTS: Between March 2018 to August 2018 we undertook 25 interviews and four focus groups with a total of 55 clients, and interviewed eight healthcare workers. The material challenges of standard clinic-based ART provision included long waiting times, poor confidentiality and restricted opening hours, which discouraged clients from engagement. In contrast, CCMDD allowed quicker and more convenient ART collection in the community. This required the development of new competencies around accessing care, and helped change the meanings associated with HIV, by normalising treatment collection. CCMDD was seen as a reward by clients for taking ART well, and helped reduce disruption to other life practices such as employment. At private pharmacies, some clients reported receiving inferior care compared with paying customers, and some worried about inadvertently revealing their HIV status. Clients and healthcare workers had to negotiate problems with CCMDD implementation, including some pharmacies reaching capacity or only allowing ART collection at restricted times. CONCLUSIONS: In South Africa, CCMDD overcame material barriers to attending clinics, changed the meanings associated with collecting ART and was less disruptive to other social practices in clients' lives. Expansion of community-based ART delivery programmes may help to facilitate engagement in HIV care. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: STREAM study clinical trial registration: NCT03066128, registered February 2017.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , África do Sul
20.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424011

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emerging evidence suggests working with men to prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration can be effective. However, it is unknown whether all men benefit equally, or whether different groups of men respond differentially to interventions. METHODS: We conducted trajectory modelling using longitudinal data from men enrolled in intervention arms of three IPV trials in South Africa and Rwanda to identify trajectories of IPV perpetration. We then use multinomial regression to describe baseline characteristics associated with group allocation. RESULTS: In South Africa, the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures (SS-CF) trial had 289 men and the CHANGE trial had 803 men, and in Rwanda, Indashyikirwa had 821 men. We identified three trajectories of IPV perpetration: a low-flat (60%-67% of men), high with large reduction (19%-24%) and high with slight increase (10%-21%). Baseline factors associated men in high-start IPV trajectories, compared with low-flat trajectory, varied by study, but included higher poverty, poorer mental health, greater substance use, younger age and more childhood traumas. Attitudes supportive of IPV were consistently associated with high-start trajectories. In separate models comparing high-reducing to high-increasing trajectories, baseline factors associated with reduced IPV perpetration were depressive symptoms (relative risk ratio, RRR=3.06, p=0.01 SS-CF); living separately from their partner (RRR=2.14, p=0.01 CHANGE); recent employment (RRR=1.85, p=0.04 CHANGE) and lower acceptability of IPV (RRR=0.60, p=0.08 Indashyikirwa). Older aged men had a trend towards reducing IPV perpetration in CHANGE (p=0.06) and younger men in Indashyikirwa (p=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Three distinct groups of men differed in their response to IPV prevention interventions. Baseline characteristics of past traumas and current poverty, mental health and gender beliefs predicted trajectory group allocation. The analysis may inform targeting of interventions towards those who have propensity to change or guide how contextual factors may alter intervention effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: NCT03022370; NCT02823288; NCT03477877.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Idoso , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Ruanda/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
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