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Neurology ; 96(4): e600-e609, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208543


OBJECTIVE: To assess the burden of rare genetic variants and to estimate the contribution of known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) genes in an Italian population-based cohort, we performed whole genome sequencing in 959 patients with ALS and 677 matched healthy controls. METHODS: We performed genome sequencing in a population-based cohort (Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta Registry for ALS [PARALS]). A panel of 40 ALS genes was analyzed to identify potential disease-causing genetic variants and to evaluate the gene-wide burden of rare variants among our population. RESULTS: A total of 959 patients with ALS were compared with 677 healthy controls from the same geographical area. Gene-wide association tests demonstrated a strong association with SOD1, whose rare variants are the second most common cause of disease after C9orf72 expansion. A lower signal was observed for TARDBP, proving that its effect on our cohort is driven by a few known causal variants. We detected rare variants in other known ALS genes that did not surpass statistical significance in gene-wise tests, thus highlighting that their contribution to disease risk in our cohort is limited. CONCLUSIONS: We identified potential disease-causing variants in 11.9% of our patients. We identified the genes most frequently involved in our cohort and confirmed the contribution of rare variants in disease risk. Our results provide further insight into the pathologic mechanism of the disease and demonstrate the importance of genome-wide sequencing as a diagnostic tool.

Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
Mov Disord ; 36(1): 106-117, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002231


BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported various symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) associated with sex. Some were conflicting or confirmed in only one study. OBJECTIVES: We examined sex associations to PD phenotypes cross-sectionally and longitudinally in large-scale data. METHODS: We tested 40 clinical phenotypes, using longitudinal, clinic-based patient cohorts, consisting of 5946 patients, with a median follow-up of 3.1 years. For continuous outcomes, we used linear regressions at baseline to test sex-associated differences in presentation, and linear mixed-effects models to test sex-associated differences in progression. For binomial outcomes, we used logistic regression models at baseline and Cox regression models for survival analyses. We adjusted for age, disease duration, and medication use. In the secondary analyses, data from 17 719 PD patients and 7588 non-PD participants from an online-only, self-assessment PD cohort were cross-sectionally evaluated to determine whether the sex-associated differences identified in the primary analyses were consistent and unique to PD. RESULTS: Female PD patients had a higher risk of developing dyskinesia early during the follow-up period, with a slower progression in activities of daily living difficulties, and a lower risk of developing cognitive impairments compared with male patients. The findings in the longitudinal, clinic-based cohorts were mostly consistent with the results of the online-only cohort. CONCLUSIONS: We observed sex-associated contributions to PD heterogeneity. These results highlight the necessity of future research to determine the underlying mechanisms and importance of personalized clinical management. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Parkinson , Atividades Cotidianas , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia
Nature ; 505(7484): 550-554, 2014 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24336208


Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several risk variants for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). These common variants have replicable but small effects on LOAD risk and generally do not have obvious functional effects. Low-frequency coding variants, not detected by GWAS, are predicted to include functional variants with larger effects on risk. To identify low-frequency coding variants with large effects on LOAD risk, we carried out whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 14 large LOAD families and follow-up analyses of the candidate variants in several large LOAD case-control data sets. A rare variant in PLD3 (phospholipase D3; Val232Met) segregated with disease status in two independent families and doubled risk for Alzheimer's disease in seven independent case-control series with a total of more than 11,000 cases and controls of European descent. Gene-based burden analyses in 4,387 cases and controls of European descent and 302 African American cases and controls, with complete sequence data for PLD3, reveal that several variants in this gene increase risk for Alzheimer's disease in both populations. PLD3 is highly expressed in brain regions that are vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease pathology, including hippocampus and cortex, and is expressed at significantly lower levels in neurons from Alzheimer's disease brains compared to control brains. Overexpression of PLD3 leads to a significant decrease in intracellular amyloid-ß precursor protein (APP) and extracellular Aß42 and Aß40 (the 42- and 40-residue isoforms of the amyloid-ß peptide), and knockdown of PLD3 leads to a significant increase in extracellular Aß42 and Aß40. Together, our genetic and functional data indicate that carriers of PLD3 coding variants have a twofold increased risk for LOAD and that PLD3 influences APP processing. This study provides an example of how densely affected families may help to identify rare variants with large effects on risk for disease or other complex traits.

Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Fosfolipase D/genética , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fosfolipase D/deficiência , Fosfolipase D/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética , Proteólise
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 107(27): 12335-8, 2010 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20566859


It was recently reported that rs1541160 on chromosome 1q24.2 has a marked effect on survival of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients by influencing KIFAP3 expression. The cohorts used in that study were collected from ALS specialty clinics. We attempted to replicate these findings in a population-based cohort of 504 Italian ALS patients. None of 140 SNPs genotyped within the KIFAP3 locus (including rs1541160) had an effect on survival (log-rank P value for rs1541160 = 0.47) or on gene expression in that region. These data illustrate the complexities associated with analyzing ALS phenotypes for association.

Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/estatística & dados numéricos , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Itália , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa