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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544954

RESUMO

Alkylated DNA repair protein AlkB homolog 8 (ALKBH8) is a member of the AlkB family of dioxygenases. ALKBH8 is a methyltransferase of the highly variable wobble nucleoside position in the anticodon loop of tRNA and thus plays a critical role in tRNA modification by preserving codon recognition and preventing errors in amino acid incorporation during translation. Moreover, its activity catalyzes uridine modifications that are proposed to be critical for accurate protein translation. Previously, two distinct homozygous truncating variants in the final exon of ALKBH8 were described in two unrelated large Saudi Arabian kindreds with intellectual developmental disorder and autosomal recessive 71 (MRT71) syndrome (MIM# 618504). Here, we report a third family-of Egyptian descent-harboring a novel homozygous frame-shift variant in the last exon of ALKBH8. Two affected siblings in this family exhibit global developmental delay and intellectual disability as shared characteristic features of MRT71 syndrome, and we further characterize their observed dysmorphic features and brain MRI findings. This description of a third family with a truncating ALKBH8 variant from a distinct population broadens the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of MRT71 syndrome, affirms that perturbations in tRNA biogenesis can contribute to neurogenetic disease traits, and firmly establishes ALKBH8 as a novel neurodevelopmental disease gene.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597717

RESUMO

Mendelian and early-onset severe psychiatric phenotypes often involve genetic variants having a large effect, offering opportunities for genetic discoveries and early therapeutic interventions. Here, the index case is an 18-year-old boy, who at 14 years of age had a decline in cognitive functioning over the course of a year and subsequently presented with catatonia, auditory and visual hallucinations, paranoia, aggression, mood dysregulation, and disorganized thoughts. Exome sequencing revealed a stop-gain mutation in RCL1 (NM_005772.4:c.370 C > T, p.Gln124Ter), encoding an RNA 3'-terminal phosphate cyclase-like protein that is highly conserved across eukaryotic species. Subsequent investigations across two academic medical centers identified eleven additional cases of RCL1 copy number variations (CNVs) with varying neurodevelopmental or psychiatric phenotypes. These findings suggest that dosage variation of RCL1 contributes to a range of neurological and clinical phenotypes.

3.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 155, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536587

RESUMO

Here we report the DNA methylation profile of 84 sporadic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) with associated clinical and genomic information. We identified three subgroups of PanNETs, termed T1, T2 and T3, with distinct patterns of methylation. The T1 subgroup was enriched for functional tumors and ATRX, DAXX and MEN1 wild-type genotypes. The T2 subgroup contained tumors with mutations in ATRX, DAXX and MEN1 and recurrent patterns of chromosomal losses in half of the genome with no association between regions with recurrent loss and methylation levels. T2 tumors were larger and had lower methylation in the MGMT gene body, which showed positive correlation with gene expression. The T3 subgroup harboured mutations in MEN1 with recurrent loss of chromosome 11, was enriched for grade G1 tumors and showed histological parameters associated with better prognosis. Our results suggest a role for methylation in both driving tumorigenesis and potentially stratifying prognosis in PanNETs.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(2): 337-345, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434492

RESUMO

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is associated with congenital absence of the uterus, cervix, and the upper part of the vagina; it is a sex-limited trait. Disrupted development of the Müllerian ducts (MD)/Wölffian ducts (WD) through multifactorial mechanisms has been proposed to underlie MRKHS. In this study, exome sequencing (ES) was performed on a Chinese discovery cohort (442 affected subjects and 941 female control subjects) and a replication MRKHS cohort (150 affected subjects of mixed ethnicity from North America, South America, and Europe). Phenotypic follow-up of the female reproductive system was performed on an additional cohort of PAX8-associated congenital hypothyroidism (CH) (n = 5, Chinese). By analyzing 19 candidate genes essential for MD/WD development, we identified 12 likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants in 7 genes: PAX8 (n = 4), BMP4 (n = 2), BMP7 (n = 2), TBX6 (n = 1), HOXA10 (n = 1), EMX2 (n = 1), and WNT9B (n = 1), while LGD variants in these genes were not detected in control samples (p = 1.27E-06). Interestingly, a sex-limited penetrance with paternal inheritance was observed in multiple families. One additional PAX8 LGD variant from the replication cohort and two missense variants from both cohorts were revealed to cause loss-of-function of the protein. From the PAX8-associated CH cohort, we identified one individual presenting a syndromic condition characterized by CH and MRKHS (CH-MRKHS). Our study demonstrates the comprehensive utilization of knowledge from developmental biology toward elucidating genetic perturbations, i.e., rare pathogenic alleles involving the same loci, contributing to human birth defects.


Assuntos
Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/anormalidades , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Ductos Mesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Proteínas Homeobox A10/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Herança Paterna , Penetrância , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Ductos Mesonéfricos/anormalidades
5.
PLoS Biol ; 18(12): e3000954, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270638

RESUMO

Our understanding of the evolutionary history of primates is undergoing continual revision due to ongoing genome sequencing efforts. Bolstered by growing fossil evidence, these data have led to increased acceptance of once controversial hypotheses regarding phylogenetic relationships, hybridization and introgression, and the biogeographical history of primate groups. Among these findings is a pattern of recent introgression between species within all major primate groups examined to date, though little is known about introgression deeper in time. To address this and other phylogenetic questions, here, we present new reference genome assemblies for 3 Old World monkey (OWM) species: Colobus angolensis ssp. palliatus (the black and white colobus), Macaca nemestrina (southern pig-tailed macaque), and Mandrillus leucophaeus (the drill). We combine these data with 23 additional primate genomes to estimate both the species tree and individual gene trees using thousands of loci. While our species tree is largely consistent with previous phylogenetic hypotheses, the gene trees reveal high levels of genealogical discordance associated with multiple primate radiations. We use strongly asymmetric patterns of gene tree discordance around specific branches to identify multiple instances of introgression between ancestral primate lineages. In addition, we exploit recent fossil evidence to perform fossil-calibrated molecular dating analyses across the tree. Taken together, our genome-wide data help to resolve multiple contentious sets of relationships among primates, while also providing insight into the biological processes and technical artifacts that led to the disagreements in the first place.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several cancer-susceptibility syndromes are reported to underlie pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS); however, there have been no systematic efforts to characterize the heterogeneous genetic etiologies of this often-fatal malignancy. METHODS: We performed exome-sequencing on germline DNA from 615 patients with newly diagnosed RMS consented through the Children's Oncology Group. We compared the prevalence of cancer-predisposition variants in 63 autosomal dominant cancer-predisposition genes in these patients with population controls (n = 9,963). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified germline cancer-predisposition variants in 45 RMS patients (7.3%; all FOXO1 fusion-negative) across 15 autosomal dominant genes, which was statistically significantly enriched compared with controls (1.4%; p = 1.3 × 10-22). Specifically, 73.3% of the predisposition variants were found in predisposition syndrome genes previously associated with pediatric RMS risk, such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome (TP53) and neurofibromatosis type I (NF1). Notably, five patients had well-described oncogenic missense variants in HRAS (p.G12V and p. G12S) associated with Costello syndrome. Also, genetic etiology differed with histology, as germline variants were more frequent in embryonal versus alveolar RMS patients (10.0% vs. 3.0%, p = .02). While patients with a cancer-predisposition variant tended to be younger at diagnosis (p = 9.9 × 10-4), 40.0% of germline variants were identified in those >3 years of age, which is in contrast to current genetic testing recommendations based on early age at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that genetic risk of RMS results from germline predisposition variants associated with a wide spectrum of cancer-susceptibility syndromes. Germline genetic testing for children with RMS should be informed by RMS subtypes and not be limited to only young patients.

7.
Gigascience ; 9(12)2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Structural variants (SVs) are critical contributors to genetic diversity and genomic disease. To predict the phenotypic impact of SVs, there is a need for better estimates of both the occurrence and frequency of SVs, preferably from large, ethnically diverse cohorts. Thus, the current standard approach requires the use of short paired-end reads, which remain challenging to detect, especially at the scale of hundreds to thousands of samples. FINDINGS: We present Parliament2, a consensus SV framework that leverages multiple best-in-class methods to identify high-quality SVs from short-read DNA sequence data at scale. Parliament2 incorporates pre-installed SV callers that are optimized for efficient execution in parallel to reduce the overall runtime and costs. We demonstrate the accuracy of Parliament2 when applied to data from NovaSeq and HiSeq X platforms with the Genome in a Bottle (GIAB) SV call set across all size classes. The reported quality score per SV is calibrated across different SV types and size classes. Parliament2 has the highest F1 score (74.27%) measured across the independent gold standard from GIAB. We illustrate the compute performance by processing all 1000 Genomes samples (2,691 samples) in <1 day on GRCH38. Parliament2 improves the runtime performance of individual methods and is open source (https://github.com/slzarate/parliament2), and a Docker image, as well as a WDL implementation, is available. CONCLUSION: Parliament2 provides both a highly accurate single-sample SV call set from short-read DNA sequence data and enables cost-efficient application over cloud or cluster environments, processing thousands of samples.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5903, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214552

RESUMO

The neuronal primary cilium and centriolar satellites have functions in neurogenesis, but little is known about their roles in the postnatal brain. We show that ablation of pericentriolar material 1 in the mouse leads to progressive ciliary, anatomical, psychomotor, and cognitive abnormalities. RNAseq reveals changes in amine- and G-protein coupled receptor pathways. The physiological relevance of this phenotype is supported by decreased available dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) levels and the failure of antipsychotic drugs to rescue adult behavioral defects. Immunoprecipitations show an association with Pcm1 and D2Rs. Finally, we sequence PCM1 in two human cohorts with severe schizophrenia. Systematic modeling of all discovered rare alleles by zebrafish in vivo complementation reveals an enrichment for pathogenic alleles. Our data emphasize a role for the pericentriolar material in the postnatal brain, with progressive degenerative ciliary and behavioral phenotypes; and they support a contributory role for PCM1 in some individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia.

9.
Genome Res ; 30(12): 1716-1726, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208454

RESUMO

Studies of Y Chromosome evolution have focused primarily on gene decay, a consequence of suppression of crossing-over with the X Chromosome. Here, we provide evidence that suppression of X-Y crossing-over unleashed a second dynamic: selfish X-Y arms races that reshaped the sex chromosomes in mammals as different as cattle, mice, and men. Using super-resolution sequencing, we explore the Y Chromosome of Bos taurus (bull) and find it to be dominated by massive, lineage-specific amplification of testis-expressed gene families, making it the most gene-dense Y Chromosome sequenced to date. As in mice, an X-linked homolog of a bull Y-amplified gene has become testis-specific and amplified. This evolutionary convergence implies that lineage-specific X-Y coevolution through gene amplification, and the selfish forces underlying this phenomenon, were dominatingly powerful among diverse mammalian lineages. Together with Y gene decay, X-Y arms races molded mammalian sex chromosomes and influenced the course of mammalian evolution.

10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105479

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, and variable brain anomalies (NMIHBA) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by global developmental delay and severe intellectual disability. Microcephaly, progressive cortical atrophy, cerebellar hypoplasia and delayed myelination are neurological hallmarks in affected individuals. NMIHBA is caused by biallelic variants in PRUNE1 encoding prune exopolyphosphatase 1. We provide in-depth clinical description of two affected siblings harboring compound heterozygous variant alleles, c.383G > A (p.Arg128Gln), c.520G > T (p.Gly174*) in PRUNE1. To gain insights into disease biology, we biochemically characterized missense variants within the conserved N-terminal aspartic acid-histidine-histidine (DHH) motif and provide evidence that they result in the destabilization of protein structure and/or loss of exopolyphosphatase activity. Genetic ablation of Prune1 results in midgestational lethality in mice, associated with perturbations to embryonic growth and vascular development. Our findings suggest that NMIHBA results from hypomorphic variant alleles in humans and underscore the potential key role of PRUNE1 exopolyphoshatase activity in neurodevelopment.

11.
Life Sci ; 262: 118548, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038372

RESUMO

AIMS: The present report aimed to investigate the underlying genes and pathways of high glucose driving cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) aggressiveness. MAIN METHODS: We screened and compared the gene expression profiles obtained by RNA sequencing, of CCA cells cultured in high and normal glucose. Results from the transcriptomic analysis were confirmed in additional cell lines using in vitro migration-invasion assay, Western blotting and immunocytofluorescence. KEY FINDINGS: Data indicated that high glucose increased the expression of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), an upstream regulator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, through the nuclear localization of NF-κB. High glucose-induced NF-κB increased the migration and invasion of CCA cells and the expression of downstream NF-κB targeted genes associated with aggressiveness, including interleukin-6, a potent triggering signal of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. Such effects were reversed by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation which additionally reduced the phosphorylation of STAT3 at Y705. SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that NF-κB is activated by high glucose and they suggest that NF-κB interaction with STAT3 enhances CCA aggressiveness. Therefore, targeting multiple pathways such as STAT3 and NF-κB might improve CCA treatment outcome especially in condition such as hyperglycemia.

12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048444

RESUMO

Robinow syndrome (RS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by skeletal dysplasia and a distinctive facial appearance. Previous studies have revealed locus heterogeneity with rare variants in DVL1, DVL3, FZD2, NXN, ROR2, and WNT5A underlying the etiology of RS. The aforementioned "Robinow-associated genes" and their gene products all play a role in the WNT/planar cell polarity signaling pathway. We performed gene-targeted Sanger sequencing, exome sequencing, genome sequencing, and array comparative genomic hybridization on four subjects with a clinical diagnosis of RS who had not had prior DNA testing. Individuals in our cohort were found to carry pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in three RS related genes: DVL1, ROR2, and NXN. One subject was found to have a nonsense variant (c.817C > T [p.Gln273*]) in NXN in trans with an ~1 Mb telomeric deletion on chromosome 17p containing NXN, which supports our contention that biallelic NXN variant alleles are responsible for a novel autosomal recessive RS locus. These findings provide increased understanding of the role of WNT signaling in skeletal development and maintenance. These data further support the hypothesis that dysregulation of the noncanonical WNT pathway in humans gives rise to RS.

14.
Nature ; 586(7831): 741-748, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116287

RESUMO

The African continent is regarded as the cradle of modern humans and African genomes contain more genetic variation than those from any other continent, yet only a fraction of the genetic diversity among African individuals has been surveyed1. Here we performed whole-genome sequencing analyses of 426 individuals-comprising 50 ethnolinguistic groups, including previously unsampled populations-to explore the breadth of genomic diversity across Africa. We uncovered more than 3 million previously undescribed variants, most of which were found among individuals from newly sampled ethnolinguistic groups, as well as 62 previously unreported loci that are under strong selection, which were predominantly found in genes that are involved in viral immunity, DNA repair and metabolism. We observed complex patterns of ancestral admixture and putative-damaging and novel variation, both within and between populations, alongside evidence that Zambia was a likely intermediate site along the routes of expansion of Bantu-speaking populations. Pathogenic variants in genes that are currently characterized as medically relevant were uncommon-but in other genes, variants denoted as 'likely pathogenic' in the ClinVar database were commonly observed. Collectively, these findings refine our current understanding of continental migration, identify gene flow and the response to human disease as strong drivers of genome-level population variation, and underscore the scientific imperative for a broader characterization of the genomic diversity of African individuals to understand human ancestry and improve health.

15.
J Clin Invest ; 130(10): 5272-5286, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865517

RESUMO

Human natural killer cell deficiency (NKD) arises from inborn errors of immunity that lead to impaired NK cell development, function, or both. Through the understanding of the biological perturbations in individuals with NKD, requirements for the generation of terminally mature functional innate effector cells can be elucidated. Here, we report a cause of NKD resulting from compound heterozygous mutations in minichromosomal maintenance complex member 10 (MCM10) that impaired NK cell maturation in a child with fatal susceptibility to CMV. MCM10 has not been previously associated with monogenic disease and plays a critical role in the activation and function of the eukaryotic DNA replisome. Through evaluation of patient primary fibroblasts, modeling patient mutations in fibroblast cell lines, and MCM10 knockdown in human NK cell lines, we have shown that loss of MCM10 function leads to impaired cell cycle progression and induction of DNA damage-response pathways. By modeling MCM10 deficiency in primary NK cell precursors, including patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, we further demonstrated that MCM10 is required for NK cell terminal maturation and acquisition of immunological system function. Together, these data define MCM10 as an NKD gene and provide biological insight into the requirement for the DNA replisome in human NK cell maturation and function.

16.
Hum Mutat ; 41(12): 2094-2104, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935419

RESUMO

KIF1A is a molecular motor for membrane-bound cargo important to the development and survival of sensory neurons. KIF1A dysfunction has been associated with several Mendelian disorders with a spectrum of overlapping phenotypes, ranging from spastic paraplegia to intellectual disability. We present a novel pathogenic in-frame deletion in the KIF1A molecular motor domain inherited by two affected siblings from an unaffected mother with apparent germline mosaicism. We identified eight additional cases with heterozygous, pathogenic KIF1A variants ascertained from a local data lake. Our data provide evidence for the expansion of KIF1A-associated phenotypes to include hip subluxation and dystonia as well as phenotypes observed in only a single case: gelastic cataplexy, coxa valga, and double collecting system. We review the literature and suggest that KIF1A dysfunction is better understood as a single neuromuscular disorder with variable involvement of other organ systems than a set of discrete disorders converging at a single locus.

17.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766579

RESUMO

The newly emerged and rapidly spreading SARS-CoV-2 causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To facilitate a deeper understanding of the viral biology we developed a capture sequencing methodology to generate SARS-CoV-2 genomic and transcriptome sequences from infected patients. We utilized an oligonucleotide probe-set representing the full-length genome to obtain both genomic and transcriptome (subgenomic open reading frames [ORFs]) sequences from 45 SARS-CoV-2 clinical samples with varying viral titers. For samples with higher viral loads (cycle threshold value under 33, based on the CDC qPCR assay) complete genomes were generated. Analysis of junction reads revealed regions of differential transcriptional activity and provided evidence of expression of ORF10. Heterogeneous allelic frequencies along the 20kb ORF1ab gene suggested the presence of a defective interfering viral RNA species subpopulation in one sample. The associated workflow is straightforward, and hybridization-based capture offers an effective and scalable approach for sequencing SARS-CoV-2 from patient samples.

18.
Nat Rev Genet ; 21(10): 575-576, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770171
19.
Science ; 369(6500): 202-207, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647003

RESUMO

Immunodeficiency often coincides with hyperactive immune disorders such as autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, or atopy, but this coincidence is rarely understood on a molecular level. We describe five patients from four families with immunodeficiency coupled with atopy, lymphoproliferation, and cytokine overproduction harboring mutations in NCKAP1L, which encodes the hematopoietic-specific HEM1 protein. These mutations cause the loss of the HEM1 protein and the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) or disrupt binding to the WRC regulator, Arf1, thereby impairing actin polymerization, synapse formation, and immune cell migration. Diminished cortical actin networks caused by WRC loss led to uncontrolled cytokine release and immune hyperresponsiveness. HEM1 loss also blocked mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2)-dependent AKT phosphorylation, T cell proliferation, and selected effector functions, leading to immunodeficiency. Thus, the evolutionarily conserved HEM1 protein simultaneously regulates filamentous actin (F-actin) and mTORC2 signaling to achieve equipoise in immune responses.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/biossíntese , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Fator 1 de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Linhagem , Fosforilação , Família de Proteínas da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/química , Família de Proteínas da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/metabolismo
20.
J Clin Invest ; 130(8): 4411-4422, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484799

RESUMO

Patients with common variable immunodeficiency associated with autoimmune cytopenia (CVID+AIC) generate few isotype-switched B cells with severely decreased frequencies of somatic hypermutations (SHMs), but their underlying molecular defects remain poorly characterized. We identified a CVID+AIC patient who displays a rare homozygous missense M466V mutation in ß-catenin-like protein 1 (CTNNBL1). Because CTNNBL1 binds activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) that catalyzes SHM, we tested AID interactions with the CTNNBL1 M466V variant. We found that the M466V mutation interfered with the association of CTNNBL1 with AID, resulting in decreased AID in the nuclei of patient EBV-transformed B cell lines and of CTNNBL1 466V/V Ramos B cells engineered to express only CTNNBL1 M466V using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. As a consequence, the scarce IgG+ memory B cells from the CTNNBL1 466V/V patient showed a low SHM frequency that averaged 6.7 mutations compared with about 18 mutations per clone in healthy-donor counterparts. In addition, CTNNBL1 466V/V Ramos B cells displayed a decreased incidence of SHM that was reduced by half compared with parental WT Ramos B cells, demonstrating that the CTNNBL1 M466V mutation is responsible for defective SHM induction. We conclude that CTNNBL1 plays an important role in regulating AID-dependent antibody diversification in humans.

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