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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35552711

RESUMO

Plasma levels of fibrinogen, coagulation factors VII and VIII, and von Willebrand factor (vWF) are four intermediate phenotypes that are heritable and have been associated with the risk of clinical thrombotic events. To identify rare and low-frequency variants associated with these hemostatic factors, we conducted whole exome sequencing in 10 860 individuals of European ancestry (EA) and 3529 African Americans (AAs) from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Exome Sequencing Project (ESP). Gene-based tests demonstrated significant associations with rare variation (minor allele frequency < 5%) in FGG (with fibrinogen, p = 9.1x10-13), F7 (with factor VII, p = 1.3x10-72; seven novel variants), and VWF (with factor VIII and vWF; p = 3.2x10-14; one novel variant). These eight novel rare variant associations were independent of the known common variants at these loci and tended to have much larger effect sizes. In addition, one of the rare novel variants in F7 was significantly associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in AAs (Ile200Ser; rs141219108; p = 4.2x10-5). After restricting gene-based analyses to only loss-of-function variants, a novel significant association was detected and replicated between factor VIII levels and a stop-gain mutation exclusive to African Americans (rs3211938) in CD36. This variant has previously been linked to dyslipidemia but not with levels of a hemostatic factor. These efforts represent the largest integration of whole exome sequence data from two national projects to identify genetic variation associated with plasma hemostatic factors.

2.
JAMA Oncol ; 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446370

RESUMO

Importance: Knowledge about the spectrum of diseases associated with hereditary cancer syndromes may improve disease diagnosis and management for patients and help to identify high-risk individuals. Objective: To identify phenotypes associated with hereditary cancer genes through a phenome-wide association study. Design, Setting, and Participants: This phenome-wide association study used health data from participants in 3 cohorts. The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics Sequencing (eMERGEseq) data set recruited predominantly healthy individuals from 10 US medical centers from July 16, 2016, through February 18, 2018, with a mean follow-up through electronic health records (EHRs) of 12.7 (7.4) years. The UK Biobank (UKB) cohort recruited participants from March 15, 2006, through August 1, 2010, with a mean (SD) follow-up of 12.4 (1.0) years. The Hereditary Cancer Registry (HCR) recruited patients undergoing clinical genetic testing at Vanderbilt University Medical Center from May 1, 2012, through December 31, 2019, with a mean (SD) follow-up through EHRs of 8.8 (6.5) years. Exposures: Germline variants in 23 hereditary cancer genes. Pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants for each gene were aggregated for association analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Phenotypes in the eMERGEseq and HCR cohorts were derived from the linked EHRs. Phenotypes in UKB were from multiple sources of health-related data. Results: A total of 214 020 participants were identified, including 23 544 in eMERGEseq cohort (mean [SD] age, 47.8 [23.7] years; 12 611 women [53.6%]), 187 234 in the UKB cohort (mean [SD] age, 56.7 [8.1] years; 104 055 [55.6%] women), and 3242 in the HCR cohort (mean [SD] age, 52.5 [15.5] years; 2851 [87.9%] women). All 38 established gene-cancer associations were replicated, and 19 new associations were identified. These included the following 7 associations with neoplasms: CHEK2 with leukemia (odds ratio [OR], 3.81 [95% CI, 2.64-5.48]) and plasma cell neoplasms (OR, 3.12 [95% CI, 1.84-5.28]), ATM with gastric cancer (OR, 4.27 [95% CI, 2.35-7.44]) and pancreatic cancer (OR, 4.44 [95% CI, 2.66-7.40]), MUTYH (biallelic) with kidney cancer (OR, 32.28 [95% CI, 6.40-162.73]), MSH6 with bladder cancer (OR, 5.63 [95% CI, 2.75-11.49]), and APC with benign liver/intrahepatic bile duct tumors (OR, 52.01 [95% CI, 14.29-189.29]). The remaining 12 associations with nonneoplastic diseases included BRCA1/2 with ovarian cysts (OR, 3.15 [95% CI, 2.22-4.46] and 3.12 [95% CI, 2.36-4.12], respectively), MEN1 with acute pancreatitis (OR, 33.45 [95% CI, 9.25-121.02]), APC with gastritis and duodenitis (OR, 4.66 [95% CI, 2.61-8.33]), and PTEN with chronic gastritis (OR, 15.68 [95% CI, 6.01-40.92]). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this genetic association study analyzing the EHRs of 3 large cohorts suggest that these new phenotypes associated with hereditary cancer genes may facilitate early detection and better management of cancers. This study highlights the potential benefits of using EHR data in genomic medicine.

3.
NPJ Genom Med ; 7(1): 27, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395838

RESUMO

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) shows promise as a first-tier diagnostic test for patients with rare genetic disorders. However, standards addressing the definition and deployment practice of a best-in-class test are lacking. To address these gaps, the Medical Genome Initiative, a consortium of leading health care and research organizations in the US and Canada, was formed to expand access to high quality clinical WGS by convening experts and publishing best practices. Here, we present best practice recommendations for the interpretation and reporting of clinical diagnostic WGS, including discussion of challenges and emerging approaches that will be critical to harness the full potential of this comprehensive test.

4.
J Virol ; 96(7): e0190421, 2022 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285685

RESUMO

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of pediatric acute respiratory infection worldwide. There are currently no approved vaccines or antivirals to combat RSV disease. A few transformed cell lines and two historic strains have been extensively used to study RSV. Here, we reported a thorough molecular and cell biological characterization of HEp-2 and A549 cells infected with one of four strains of RSV representing both major subgroups as well as historic and more contemporary genotypes (RSV/A/Tracy [GA1], RSV/A/Ontario [ON], RSV/B/18537 [GB1], and RSV/B/Buenos Aires [BA]) via measurements of viral replication kinetics and viral gene expression, immunofluorescence-based imaging of gross cellular morphology and cell-associated RSV, and measurements of host response, including transcriptional changes and levels of secreted cytokines and growth factors. IMPORTANCE Infection with the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) early in life is essentially guaranteed and can lead to severe disease. Most RSV studies have involved either of two historic RSV/A strains infecting one of two cell lines, HEp-2 or A549 cells. However, RSV contains ample variation within two evolving subgroups (A and B), and HEp-2 and A549 cell lines are genetically distinct. Here, we measured viral action and host response in both HEp-2 and A549 cells infected with four RSV strains from both subgroups and representing both historic and more contemporary strains. We discovered a subgroup-dependent difference in viral gene expression and found A549 cells were more potently antiviral and more sensitive, albeit subtly, to viral variation. Our findings revealed important differences between RSV subgroups and two widely used cell lines and provided baseline data for experiments with model systems better representative of natural RSV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Células A549 , Antivirais/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/classificação , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Especificidade da Espécie , Replicação Viral
5.
Hum Mutat ; 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344616

RESUMO

Robinow syndrome is characterized by a triad of craniofacial dysmorphisms, disproportionate-limb short stature, and genital hypoplasia. A significant degree of phenotypic variability seems to correlate with different genes/loci. Disturbances of the noncanonical WNT-pathway have been identified as the main cause of the syndrome. Biallelic variants in ROR2 cause an autosomal recessive form of the syndrome with distinctive skeletal findings. Twenty-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome were screened for variants in ROR2 using multiple molecular approaches. We identified 25 putatively pathogenic ROR2 variants, 16 novel, including single nucleotide variants and exonic deletions. Detailed phenotypic analyses revealed that all subjects presented with a prominent forehead, hypertelorism, short nose, abnormality of the nasal tip, brachydactyly, mesomelic limb shortening, short stature, and genital hypoplasia in male patients. A total of 19 clinical features were present in more than 75% of the subjects, thus pointing to an overall uniformity of the phenotype. Disease-causing variants in ROR2, contribute to a clinically recognizable autosomal recessive​​​​​ trait phenotype with multiple skeletal defects. A comprehensive quantitative clinical evaluation of this cohort delineated the phenotypic spectrum of ROR2-related Robinow syndrome. The identification of exonic deletion variant alleles further supports the contention of a loss-of-function mechanism in the etiology of the syndrome.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332675

RESUMO

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 2B (HSAN2B) is a rare autosomal recessive peripheral neuropathy caused by biallelic variants in RETREG1 (formerly FAM134B). HSAN2B is characterized by sensory impairment resulting in skin ulcerations, amputations, and osteomyelitis as well as variable weakness, spasticity, and autonomic dysfunction. Here, we report four affected individuals with recurrent osteomyelitis, ulceration, and amputation of hands and feet, sensory neuropathy, hyperhidrosis, urinary incontinence, and renal failure from a family without any known shared parental ancestry. Due to the history of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis and microcytic anemia, a diagnosis of Majeed syndrome was considered; however, sequencing of LPIN2 was negative. Family-based exome sequencing (ES) revealed a novel homozygous ultrarare RETREG1 variant NM_001034850.2:c.321G>A;p.Trp107Ter. Electrophysiological studies of the proband demonstrated axonal sensorimotor neuropathy predominantly in the lower extremities. Consistent with the lack of shared ancestry, the coefficient of inbreeding calculated from ES data was low (F = 0.002), but absence of heterozygosity (AOH) analysis demonstrated a 7.2 Mb AOH block surrounding the variant consistent with a founder allele. Two of the four affected individuals had unexplained renal failure which has not been reported in HSAN2B cases to date. Therefore, this report describes a novel RETREG1 founder allele and suggests renal failure may be an unrecognized feature of the RETREG1-disease spectrum.

7.
Genet Med ; 24(4): 784-797, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35148959

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mendelian disease genomic research has undergone a massive transformation over the past decade. With increasing availability of exome and genome sequencing, the role of Mendelian research has expanded beyond data collection, sequencing, and analysis to worldwide data sharing and collaboration. METHODS: Over the past 10 years, the National Institutes of Health-supported Centers for Mendelian Genomics (CMGs) have played a major role in this research and clinical evolution. RESULTS: We highlight the cumulative gene discoveries facilitated by the program, biomedical research leveraged by the approach, and the larger impact on the research community. Beyond generating a list of gene-phenotype relationships and participating in widespread data sharing, the CMGs have created resources, tools, and training for the larger community to foster understanding of genes and genome variation. The CMGs have participated in a wide range of data sharing activities, including deposition of all eligible CMG data into the Analysis, Visualization, and Informatics Lab-space (AnVIL), sharing candidate genes through the Matchmaker Exchange and the CMG website, and sharing variants in Genotypes to Mendelian Phenotypes (Geno2MP) and VariantMatcher. CONCLUSION: The work is far from complete; strengthening communication between research and clinical realms, continued development and sharing of knowledge and tools, and improving access to richly characterized data sets are all required to diagnose the remaining molecularly undiagnosed patients.


Assuntos
Exoma , Genômica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
10.
HGG Adv ; 3(1): 100074, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35047859

RESUMO

Robinow syndrome (RS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with six genes that converge on the WNT/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway implicated (DVL1, DVL3, FZD2, NXN, ROR2, and WNT5A). RS is characterized by skeletal dysplasia and distinctive facial and physical characteristics. To further explore the genetic heterogeneity, paralog contribution, and phenotypic variability of RS, we investigated a cohort of 22 individuals clinically diagnosed with RS from 18 unrelated families. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in genes associated with RS or RS phenocopies were identified in all 22 individuals, including the first variant to be reported in DVL2. We retrospectively collected medical records of 16 individuals from this cohort and extracted clinical descriptions from 52 previously published cases. We performed Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) based quantitative phenotypic analyses to dissect allele-specific phenotypic differences. Individuals with FZD2 variants clustered into two groups with demonstrable phenotypic differences between those with missense and truncating alleles. Probands with biallelic NXN variants clustered together with the majority of probands carrying DVL1, DVL2, and DVL3 variants, demonstrating no phenotypic distinction between the NXN-autosomal recessive and dominant forms of RS. While phenotypically similar diseases on the RS differential matched through HPO analysis, clustering using phenotype similarity score placed RS-associated phenotypes in a unique cluster containing WNT5A, FZD2, and ROR2 apart from non-RS-associated paralogs. Through human phenotype analyses of this RS cohort and OMIM clinical synopses of Mendelian disease, this study begins to tease apart specific biologic roles for non-canonical WNT-pathway proteins.

11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 188(2): 648-657, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761517

RESUMO

SMG8 (MIM *617315) is a regulatory subunit involved in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), a cellular protective pathway that regulates mRNA transcription, transcript stability, and degrades transcripts containing premature stop codons. SMG8 binds SMG9 and SMG1 to form the SMG1C complex and inhibit the kinase activity of SMG1. Biallelic deleterious variants in SMG9 are known to cause a heart and brain malformation syndrome (HBMS; MIM #616920), whereas biallelic deleterious variants in SMG8 were recently described to cause a novel neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) with dysmorphic facies and cataracts, now defined as Alzahrani-Kuwahara syndrome (ALKUS: MIM #619268). Only eight subjects from four families with ALKUS have been described to date. Through research reanalysis of a nondiagnostic clinical exome, we identified a subject from a fifth unrelated family with a homozygous deleterious variant in SMG8 and features consistent with ALKUS. Interestingly, the subject also had unilateral microphthalmia, a clinical feature that has been described in SMG9-related disorder. Our study expands the phenotypic spectrum of SMG8-related disorder, demonstrates an overlapping phenotype between SMG8- and SMG9-related rare disease traits, provides further evidence for the SMG8 and SMG9 protein interactions, and highlights the importance of revisiting nondiagnostic exome data to identify and affirm emerging novel genes for rare disease traits.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido , Alelos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Fenótipo , Fosforilação
12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 188(3): 735-750, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816580

RESUMO

Genomic sequencing and clinical genomics have demonstrated that substantial subsets of atypical and/or severe disease presentations result from multilocus pathogenic variation (MPV) causing blended phenotypes. In an infant with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, four distinct molecular diagnoses were found by exome sequencing (ES). The blended phenotype that includes brain malformation, dysmorphism, and hypotonia was dissected using the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). ES revealed variants in CAPN3 (c.259C > G:p.L87V), MUSK (c.1781C > T:p.A594V), NAV2 (c.1996G > A:p.G666R), and ZC4H2 (c.595A > C:p.N199H). CAPN3, MUSK, and ZC4H2 are established disease genes linked to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (OMIM# 253600), congenital myasthenia (OMIM# 616325), and Wieacker-Wolff syndrome (WWS; OMIM# 314580), respectively. NAV2 is a retinoic-acid responsive novel disease gene candidate with biological roles in neurite outgrowth and cerebellar dysgenesis in mouse models. Using semantic similarity, we show that no gene identified by ES individually explains the proband phenotype, but rather the totality of the clinically observed disease is explained by the combination of disease-contributing effects of the identified genes. These data reveal that multilocus pathogenic variation can result in a blended phenotype with each gene affecting a different part of the nervous system and nervous system-muscle connection. We provide evidence from this n = 1 study that in patients with MPV and complex blended phenotypes resulting from multiple molecular diagnoses, quantitative HPO analysis can allow for dissection of phenotypic contribution of both established disease genes and novel disease gene candidates not yet proven to cause human disease.


Assuntos
Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Animais , Calpaína/genética , Egito , Humanos , Lactente , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/genética , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
13.
Brain ; 145(3): 909-924, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605855

RESUMO

The solute carrier (SLC) superfamily encompasses >400 transmembrane transporters involved in the exchange of amino acids, nutrients, ions, metals, neurotransmitters and metabolites across biological membranes. SLCs are highly expressed in the mammalian brain; defects in nearly 100 unique SLC-encoding genes (OMIM: https://www.omim.org) are associated with rare Mendelian disorders including developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Exome sequencing and family-based rare variant analyses on a cohort with neurodevelopmental disorders identified two siblings with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and a shared deleterious homozygous splicing variant in SLC38A3. The gene encodes SNAT3, a sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter and a principal transporter of the amino acids asparagine, histidine, and glutamine, the latter being the precursor for the neurotransmitters GABA and glutamate. Additional subjects with a similar developmental and epileptic encephalopathy phenotype and biallelic predicted-damaging SLC38A3 variants were ascertained through GeneMatcher and collaborations with research and clinical molecular diagnostic laboratories. Untargeted metabolomic analysis was performed to identify novel metabolic biomarkers. Ten individuals from seven unrelated families from six different countries with deleterious biallelic variants in SLC38A3 were identified. Global developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, and absent speech were common features while microcephaly, epilepsy, and visual impairment were present in the majority. Epilepsy was drug-resistant in half. Metabolomic analysis revealed perturbations of glutamate, histidine, and nitrogen metabolism in plasma, urine, and CSF of selected subjects, potentially representing biomarkers of disease. Our data support the contention that SLC38A3 is a novel disease gene for developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and illuminate the likely pathophysiology of the disease as perturbations in glutamine homeostasis.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Generalizada , Epilepsia , Aminoácidos , Animais , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/genética , Ácido Glutâmico , Glutamina/genética , Histidina , Humanos , Mamíferos
14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(2): 758-766, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric nonmalignant lymphoproliferative disorders (PLPDs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Long-standing immune dysregulation and lymphoproliferation in children may be life-threatening, and a paucity of data exists to guide evaluation and treatment of children with PLPD. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to ascertain the spectrum of genomic immunologic defects in PLPD. Secondary objectives included characterization of clinical outcomes and associations between genetic diagnoses and those outcomes. METHODS: PLPD was defined by persistent lymphadenopathy, lymph organ involvement, or lymphocytic infiltration for more than 3 months, with or without chronic or significant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Fifty-one subjects from 47 different families with PLPD were analyzed using whole exome sequencing. RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing identified likely genetic errors of immunity in 51% to 62% of families (53% to 65% of affected children). Presence of a genetic etiology was associated with younger age and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Ten-year survival for the cohort was 72.4%, and patients with viable genetic diagnoses had a higher survival rate (82%) compared to children without a genetic explanation (48%, P = .03). Survival outcomes for individuals with EBV-associated disease and no genetic explanation were particularly worse than outcomes for subjects with EBV-associated disease and a genetic explanation (17% vs 90%; P = .002). Ascertainment of a molecular diagnosis provided targetable treatment options for up to 18 individuals and led to active management changes for 12 patients. CONCLUSIONS: PLPD defines children at high risk for mortality, and whole exome sequencing informs clinical risks and therapeutic opportunities for this diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Adolescente , Autoimunidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos , Herpesvirus Humano 4/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Imunidade/genética , Lactente , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/etiologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/imunologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/mortalidade , Masculino , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
15.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 34, 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The All of Us Research Program (AoURP, "the program") is an initiative, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), that aims to enroll one million people (or more) across the USA. Through repeated engagement of participants, a research resource is being created to enable a variety of future observational and interventional studies. The program has also committed to genomic data generation and returning important health-related information to participants. METHODS: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS), variant calling processes, data interpretation, and return-of-results procedures had to be created and receive an Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The performance of the entire workflow was assessed through the largest known cross-center, WGS-based, validation activity that was refined iteratively through interactions with the FDA over many months. RESULTS: The accuracy and precision of the WGS process as a device for the return of certain health-related genomic results was determined to be sufficient, and an IDE was granted. CONCLUSIONS: We present here both the process of navigating the IDE application process with the FDA and the results of the validation study as a guide to future projects which may need to follow a similar path. Changes to the program in the future will be covered in supplementary submissions to the IDE and will support additional variant classes, sample types, and any expansion to the reportable regions.


Assuntos
Farmacogenética , Saúde da População , Genômica , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
16.
Gigascience ; 112022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35166336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium parvum is an apicomplexan parasite commonly found across many host species with a global infection prevalence in human populations of 7.6%. Understanding its diversity and genomic makeup can help in fighting established infections and prohibiting further transmission. The basis of every genomic study is a high-quality reference genome that has continuity and completeness, thus enabling comprehensive comparative studies. FINDINGS: Here, we provide a highly accurate and complete reference genome of Cryptosporidium parvum. The assembly is based on Oxford Nanopore reads and was improved using Illumina reads for error correction. We also outline how to evaluate and choose from different assembly methods based on 2 main approaches that can be applied to other Cryptosporidium species. The assembly encompasses 8 chromosomes and includes 13 telomeres that were resolved. Overall, the assembly shows a high completion rate with 98.4% single-copy BUSCO genes. CONCLUSIONS: This high-quality reference genome of a zoonotic IIaA17G2R1 C. parvum subtype isolate provides the basis for subsequent comparative genomic studies across the Cryptosporidium clade. This will enable improved understanding of diversity, functional, and association studies.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium parvum , Cryptosporidium , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/genética , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Genoma , Genômica/métodos , Humanos
17.
Hum Mutat ; 2021 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923710

RESUMO

The All of Us Research Program (AoURP) is a historic effort to accelerate research and improve healthcare by generating and collating data from one million people in the United States. Participants will have the option to receive results from their genome analysis, including actionable findings in 59 gene-disorder pairs for which disorder-associated variants are recommended for return by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. To ensure consistent reporting across the AoURP, in a prelaunch study the four participating clinical laboratories shared all variant classifications in the 59 genes of interest from their internal databases. Of the 11,813 unique variants classified by at least two of the four laboratories, classifications were concordant with regard to reportability for 99.1% (11,711), with only 0.9% (102) having reportability differences. Through variant reassessment, data sharing, and discussion of rationale, participating laboratories resolved all 102 reportable differences. These approaches will be maintained during routine AoU reporting to ensure continuous classification harmonization and consistent reporting within AoURP.

18.
HGG Adv ; 2(4)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950897

RESUMO

Xia-Gibbs syndrome (XGS; MIM: 615829) is a phenotypically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) caused by newly arising mutations in the AT-Hook DNA-Binding Motif-Containing 1 (AHDC1) gene that are predicted to lead to truncated AHDC1 protein synthesis. More than 270 individuals have been diagnosed with XGS worldwide. Despite the absence of an independent assay for AHDC1 protein function to corroborate potential functional consequences of rare variant genetic findings, there are also reports of individuals with XGS-like trait manifestations who have de novo missense AHDC1 mutations and who have been provided a molecular diagnosis of the disorder. To investigate a potential contribution of missense mutations to XGS, we mapped the missense mutations from 10 such individuals to the AHDC1 conserved protein domain structure and detailed the observed phenotypes. Five newly identified individuals were ascertained from a local XGS Registry, and an additional five were taken from external reports or databases, including one publication. Where clinical data were available, individuals with missense mutations all displayed phenotypes consistent with those observed in individuals with AHDC1 truncating mutations, including delayed motor milestones, intellectual disability (ID), hypotonia, and speech delay. A subset of the 10 reported missense mutations cluster in two regions of the AHDC1 protein with known conserved domains, likely representing functional motifs. Variants outside the clustered regions score lower for computational prediction of their likely damaging effects. Overall, de novo missense variants in AHDC1 are likely diagnostic of XGS when in silico analysis of their position relative to conserved regions is considered together with disease trait manifestations.

19.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 347, 2021 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomic structural variations (SV) are important determinants of genotypic and phenotypic changes in many organisms. However, the detection of SV from next-generation sequencing data remains challenging. RESULTS: In this study, DNA from a Chinese family quartet is sequenced at three different sequencing centers in triplicate. A total of 288 derivative data sets are generated utilizing different analysis pipelines and compared to identify sources of analytical variability. Mapping methods provide the major contribution to variability, followed by sequencing centers and replicates. Interestingly, SV supported by only one center or replicate often represent true positives with 47.02% and 45.44% overlapping the long-read SV call set, respectively. This is consistent with an overall higher false negative rate for SV calling in centers and replicates compared to mappers (15.72%). Finally, we observe that the SV calling variability also persists in a genotyping approach, indicating the impact of the underlying sequencing and preparation approaches. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first detailed insights into the sources of variability in SV identification from next-generation sequencing and highlights remaining challenges in SV calling for large cohorts. We further give recommendations on how to reduce SV calling variability and the choice of alignment methodology.


Assuntos
Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Genômica/métodos , Células Germinativas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequência de Bases , Viés , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 255, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to identify the causative strain of SARS-CoV-2 in a cluster of vaccine breakthroughs. Vaccine breakthrough by a highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 strain is a risk to global public health. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs from suspected vaccine breakthrough cases were tested for SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) by qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) for Wuhan-Hu1 and alpha variant. Positive samples were then sequenced by Swift Normalase Amplicon Panels to determine the causal variant. GATK (genome analysis toolkit) variants were filtered with allele fraction ≥80 and min read depth 30x. RESULTS: Viral sequencing revealed an infection cluster of 6 vaccinated patients infected with the delta (B.1.617.2) SARS-CoV-2 variant. With no history of vaccine breakthrough, this suggests the delta variant may possess immune evasion in patients that received the Pfizer BNT162b2, Moderna mRNA-1273, and Covaxin BBV152. CONCLUSIONS: Delta variant may pose the highest risk out of any currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants, with previously described increased transmissibility over alpha variant and now, possible vaccine breakthrough. FUNDING: Parts of this work was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (1U19AI144297) and Baylor College of Medicine internal funding.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune
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