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J Am Chem Soc ; 137(50): 15640-3, 2015 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26654320


Synthesis of an electrochemically addressable [2]catenane has been achieved following formation by templation of a [2]pseudorotaxane employing radically enhanced molecular recognition between the bisradical dication obtained on reduction of the tetracationic cyclophane, cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene), and the radical cation generated on reduction of a viologen disubstituted with p-xylylene units, both carrying tetraethylene glycol chains terminated by allyl groups. This inclusion complex was subjected to olefin ring-closing metathesis, which was observed to proceed under reduced conditions, to mechanically interlock the two components. Upon oxidation, Coulombic repulsion between the positively charged and mechanically interlocked components results in the adoption of a co-conformation where the newly formed alkene resides inside the cavity of the tetracationic cyclophane. (1)H NMR spectroscopic analysis of this hexacationic [2]catenane shows a dramatic upfield shift of the resonances associated with the olefinic and allylic protons as a result of them residing inside the tetracationic component. Further analysis shows high diastereoselectivity during catenation, as only a single (Z)-isomer is formed.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(36): 11161-8, 2015 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26283386


The organization of trisradical rotaxanes within the channels of a Zr6-based metal-organic framework (NU-1000) has been achieved postsynthetically by solvent-assisted ligand incorporation. Robust Zr(IV)-carboxylate bonds are forged between the Zr clusters of NU-1000 and carboxylic acid groups of rotaxane precursors (semirotaxanes) as part of this building block replacement strategy. Ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies all confirm the capture of redox-active rotaxanes within the mesoscale hexagonal channels of NU-1000. Cyclic voltammetry measurements performed on electroactive thin films of the resulting material indicate that redox-active viologen subunits located on the rotaxane components can be accessed electrochemically in the solid state. In contradistinction to previous methods, this strategy for the incorporation of mechanically interlocked molecules within porous materials circumvents the need for de novo synthesis of a metal-organic framework, making it a particularly convenient approach for the design and creation of solid-state molecular switches and machines. The results presented here provide proof-of-concept for the application of postsynthetic transformations in the integration of dynamic molecular machines with robust porous frameworks.

J Am Chem Soc ; 137(6): 2392-9, 2015 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25581321


Although pristine C60 prefers to adopt a face-centered cubic packing arrangement in the solid state, it has been demonstrated that noncovalent-bonding interactions with a variety of molecular receptors lead to the complexation of C60 molecules, albeit usually with little or no control over their long-range order. Herein, an extended viologen-based cyclophane­ExBox2(4+)­has been employed as a molecular receptor which, not only binds C60 one-on-one, but also results in the columnar self-assembly of the 1:1 inclusion complexes under ambient conditions. These one-dimensional arrays of fullerenes stack along the long axis of needle-like single crystals as a consequence of multiple noncovalent-bonding interactions between each of the inclusion complexes. The electrical conductivity of these crystals is on the order of 10(-7) S cm(-1), even without any evacuation of oxygen, and matches the conductivity of high-quality, unfunctionalized C60-based materials that typically require stringent high-temperature vaporization techniques, along with the careful removal of oxygen and moisture, prior to measuring their conductance.

Fulerenos/química , Semicondutores , Cristalização , Cristalografia por Raios X
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(30): 10569-72, 2014 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25010450


An octacationic homo[2]catenane comprised of two mechanically interlocked cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) rings has been obtained from the oxidation of the septacationic monoradical with nitrosonium hexafluoroantimonate. The nanoconfinement of normally repulsive bipyridinium units results in the enforced π-overlap of eight positively charged pyridinium rings in a volume of <1.25 nm(3). In the solid state, the torsional angles around the C-C bonds between the four pairs of pyridinium rings range between 16 and 30°, while the π-π stacking distances between the bipyridinium units are extended for the inside pair and contracted for the pairs on the outside--a consequence of Coulombic repulsion between the inner bipyridinium subunits. In solution, irradiation of the [2]catenane at 275 nm results in electron transfer from one of the paraphenylene rings to the inner bipyridinium dimer, leading to the generation of a temporary mixed-valence state within the rigid and robust homo[2]catenane.

Anal Bioanal Chem ; 405(13): 4639-53, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23417548


Various implementations of two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography are increasingly being developed and applied to the analysis of complex materials, including those encountered in the analysis of foods, beverages, and nutraceuticals. Previously, we introduced the concept of selective comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (sLC × LC) as a hybrid between the more conventional, but extreme opposite sampling modes of heartcutting (LC-LC) and fully comprehensive (LC × LC) 2D separation. The sLC × LC approach breaks the link between first dimension ((1)D) sampling time and second dimension ((2)D) analysis time that is faced in LC × LC and allows very rapid (as low as 1 s) sampling of highly efficient (1)D separations, while at the same time allowing efficient (2)D separations on the timescale of tens of seconds. In this paper, we improve upon our previous sLC × LC work by demonstrating the ability to perform the processes of (1)D sampling and (2)D separation in parallel. This significantly improves the flexibility of the technique and allows targeted analysis of analytes that elute close together in time in the (1)D separation. To demonstrate the value of this added capability, we have developed a sLC × LC method using multi-wavelength ultraviolet absorbance detection for the quantitative analysis of six target furanocoumarin compounds in extracts of celery, parsley, and parsnips. We show that (2)D separations of (1)D effluent containing the target compounds of interest reveal the presence of unanticipated interferent peaks that would otherwise compromise the quantitative accuracy of the method. We also demonstrate the application of the chemometric method iterative key set factor analysis with alternating least-squares to sLC × LC to mathematically resolve target compounds that are only slightly separated chromatographically but not sufficiently resolved for accurate quantitation.

Cromatografia Líquida/instrumentação , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Furocumarinas/análise , Algoritmos , Apium/química , Pastinaca/química , Petroselinum/química , Verduras/química